Abstract

The simulated annealing (SA) algorithm based on entropy optimization is a technique of synthesizing distortion-invariant matched filters capable of discriminating very similar images. The synthesis of rotation-invariant filters using modified SA-based filter equations and their tolerance to distortions are studied. The filters are trained with true class images rotated in-plane at 3° intervals between 0° and 360°. A total of seven filters are required over the whole range for both CCD or thermal images. Optical correlation in a hybrid digital-optical correlator results in an unwanted zero-order dc along with two first-order (±1) correlation peaks. A chirp function multiplied with the filter separates out the three peaks to three different planes, and only one peak in focus is captured in a camera. The performance of the modified SA-based filter has been studied in comparison to the conventional SA filter as well as with other filters.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2006 (2)

J. A. Butt and T. D. Wilkinson, "Binary phase only filters for rotation and scale invariant pattern recognition with the joint transform correlator," Opt. Commun. 262, 17-26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Goyal, N. K. Nishchal, V. K. Beri, and A. K. Gupta, "Wavelet-modified maximum average correlation height filter for rotation invariance that uses chirp encoding in a hybrid digital-optical correlator," Appl. Opt. 45, 4850-4857 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

E. H. Horache and M. S. Alam, "Nonzero-order fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation using binary phase mask," Proc. SPIE 5807, 341-348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. A. Bhuiyan, M. S. Alam, and M. Alkanhal, "Automatic target recognition and tracking in FLIR imagery using extended maximum average correlation height filter and polynomial distance classifier correlation filter," Proc. SPIE 5807, 1-15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Jedynski and K. C. Macukow, "Wavelet transform for preprocessing in an optical correlator with a multilevel composite filter," Opt. Eng. 43, 1759-1766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. McDonald, M. F. Lewis, and R. A. Wilson, "A high-speed readout scheme for fast optical correlation-based pattern recognition," Proc. SPIE 5616, 85-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, M. Savvides, C. Xie, K. Venkataramani, J. Thornton, and A. Mahalanobis, "Biometric verification with correlation filters," Appl. Opt. 43, 391-402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. A. Davis, K. O. Valadez, and D. M. Cottrell, "Encoding amplitude and phase information onto a binary phase-only spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 42, 2003-2008 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Butt, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, "Optimization of a binary filter by direct binary search algorithm for rotation invariant JTC," Proc. SPIE 5202, 310-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Birch, R. Young, F. Claret-Tournier, D. Budgett, and C. Chatwin, "Computer-generated complex filter for an all-optical and a digital-optical hybrid correlator," Opt. Eng. 41, 105-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Pohit and K. Singh, "Performance of a wavelet matched filter with optimized dilation designed using simulated annealing algorithm," Opt. Commun. 187, 337-346 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. Duarte and S. Yin, "Illumination-invariant face recognition using composite filters synthesized by simulated annealing," Opt. Eng. 39, 1252-1258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, A. Mahalanobis, and A. Takessian, "Optimal tradeoff circular harmonic function correlation filter methods providing controlled in-plane rotation response," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 1025-1034 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Lowans and M. F. Lewis, "Hybrid correlator employing a chirp-encoded binary phase-only filter," Opt. Lett. 25, 1195-1197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C.-T. Li, J. Li, S. Yin, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Synthesize multi-level composite filter for synthetic-aperture radar image identification," Opt. Commun. 146, 285-301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Jutamulia and D. A. Gregory, "Soft blocking of the dc term in Fourier optical systems," Opt. Eng. 7, 49-51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Mahalanobis and B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, "Optimality of the maximum average correlation height filter for detection of targets in noise," Opt. Eng. 36, 2642-2648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Shamir, "Adaptive pattern recognition correlators," Opt. Eng. 36, 2675-2689 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

C.-T. Li, M. Lu, S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Performance of quantized composite filters in a joint transform correlator," Opt. Eng. 35, 2218-2226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. Yin, C. Chen, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Optimum synthesis of a bipolar composite reference function with a simulated annealing algorithm," Opt. Eng. 35, 2710-2720 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

T. C. Liang and Y. S. Cheng, "Rotational-invariant pattern recognition using circular harmonic and optical wavelet transform," Opt. Rev. 1, 198-201 (1994).

A. Mahalanobis, D. W. Carlson, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, and S. R. F. Sims, "Distance classifier correlation filters," Proc. SPIE 2238, 2-13 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

R. Young, C. Chatwin, and B. Scott, "High speed hybrid optical/digital correlator system," Opt. Eng. 32, 2608-2615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Q. Tang and B. Javidi, "Technique for reducing the redundant and self-correlation terms in joint transform correlators," Appl. Opt. 32, 1911-1918 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

1989 (2)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1964 (1)

A. Vander Lugt, "Signal detection by complex spatial filtering," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139-145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Alam, M. S.

S. M. A. Bhuiyan, M. S. Alam, and M. Alkanhal, "Automatic target recognition and tracking in FLIR imagery using extended maximum average correlation height filter and polynomial distance classifier correlation filter," Proc. SPIE 5807, 1-15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Horache and M. S. Alam, "Nonzero-order fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation using binary phase mask," Proc. SPIE 5807, 341-348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alkanhal, M.

S. M. A. Bhuiyan, M. S. Alam, and M. Alkanhal, "Automatic target recognition and tracking in FLIR imagery using extended maximum average correlation height filter and polynomial distance classifier correlation filter," Proc. SPIE 5807, 1-15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beri, V. K.

Bhuiyan, S. M. A.

S. M. A. Bhuiyan, M. S. Alam, and M. Alkanhal, "Automatic target recognition and tracking in FLIR imagery using extended maximum average correlation height filter and polynomial distance classifier correlation filter," Proc. SPIE 5807, 1-15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birch, P.

P. Birch, R. Young, F. Claret-Tournier, D. Budgett, and C. Chatwin, "Computer-generated complex filter for an all-optical and a digital-optical hybrid correlator," Opt. Eng. 41, 105-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Budgett, D.

P. Birch, R. Young, F. Claret-Tournier, D. Budgett, and C. Chatwin, "Computer-generated complex filter for an all-optical and a digital-optical hybrid correlator," Opt. Eng. 41, 105-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Butt, J. A.

J. A. Butt and T. D. Wilkinson, "Binary phase only filters for rotation and scale invariant pattern recognition with the joint transform correlator," Opt. Commun. 262, 17-26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Butt, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, "Optimization of a binary filter by direct binary search algorithm for rotation invariant JTC," Proc. SPIE 5202, 310-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, D. W.

A. Mahalanobis, D. W. Carlson, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, and S. R. F. Sims, "Distance classifier correlation filters," Proc. SPIE 2238, 2-13 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Casasent, D.

Chatwin, C.

P. Birch, R. Young, F. Claret-Tournier, D. Budgett, and C. Chatwin, "Computer-generated complex filter for an all-optical and a digital-optical hybrid correlator," Opt. Eng. 41, 105-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Young, C. Chatwin, and B. Scott, "High speed hybrid optical/digital correlator system," Opt. Eng. 32, 2608-2615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

M. Lu, S. Yin, C. Chen, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Optimum synthesis of a bipolar composite reference function with a simulated annealing algorithm," Opt. Eng. 35, 2710-2720 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. S.

T. C. Liang and Y. S. Cheng, "Rotational-invariant pattern recognition using circular harmonic and optical wavelet transform," Opt. Rev. 1, 198-201 (1994).

Claret-Tournier, F.

P. Birch, R. Young, F. Claret-Tournier, D. Budgett, and C. Chatwin, "Computer-generated complex filter for an all-optical and a digital-optical hybrid correlator," Opt. Eng. 41, 105-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cottrell, D. M.

Crossland, W. A.

J. A. Butt, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, "Optimization of a binary filter by direct binary search algorithm for rotation invariant JTC," Proc. SPIE 5202, 310-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

Duarte, D.

D. Duarte and S. Yin, "Illumination-invariant face recognition using composite filters synthesized by simulated annealing," Opt. Eng. 39, 1252-1258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, M. R.

Goyal, S.

Gregory, D. A.

S. Jutamulia and D. A. Gregory, "Soft blocking of the dc term in Fourier optical systems," Opt. Eng. 7, 49-51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guest, C. C.

Guest, C. G.

Gupta, A. K.

Hassebrook, L.

Horache, E. H.

E. H. Horache and M. S. Alam, "Nonzero-order fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation using binary phase mask," Proc. SPIE 5807, 341-348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Horner, J. L.

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, eds., Optical Information Processing (Academic, 1994).

Hudson, T. D.

C.-T. Li, J. Li, S. Yin, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Synthesize multi-level composite filter for synthetic-aperture radar image identification," Opt. Commun. 146, 285-301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. Yin, C. Chen, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Optimum synthesis of a bipolar composite reference function with a simulated annealing algorithm," Opt. Eng. 35, 2710-2720 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Li, M. Lu, S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Performance of quantized composite filters in a joint transform correlator," Opt. Eng. 35, 2218-2226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Jedynski, M.

M. Jedynski and K. C. Macukow, "Wavelet transform for preprocessing in an optical correlator with a multilevel composite filter," Opt. Eng. 43, 1759-1766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Juday, R. D.

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, A. Mahalanobis, and R. D. Juday, eds., Correlation Pattern Recognition (Cambridge U. Press, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Jutamulia, S.

S. Jutamulia and D. A. Gregory, "Soft blocking of the dc term in Fourier optical systems," Opt. Eng. 7, 49-51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu and S. Jutamulia, eds., Optical Pattern Recognition (Cambridge U. Press, 1998).

Kim, M. S.

Kumar, B. V. K. Vijaya

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, M. Savvides, C. Xie, K. Venkataramani, J. Thornton, and A. Mahalanobis, "Biometric verification with correlation filters," Appl. Opt. 43, 391-402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, A. Mahalanobis, and A. Takessian, "Optimal tradeoff circular harmonic function correlation filter methods providing controlled in-plane rotation response," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 1025-1034 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahalanobis and B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, "Optimality of the maximum average correlation height filter for detection of targets in noise," Opt. Eng. 36, 2642-2648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahalanobis, D. W. Carlson, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, and S. R. F. Sims, "Distance classifier correlation filters," Proc. SPIE 2238, 2-13 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar and L. Hassebrook, "Performance measures for correlation filters," Appl. Opt. 29, 2997-3006 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahalanobis, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, and D. Casasent, "Minimum average correlation energy filters," Appl. Opt. 26, 3633-3640 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, "Minimum variance synthetic discriminant functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1579-1584 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, A. Mahalanobis, and R. D. Juday, eds., Correlation Pattern Recognition (Cambridge U. Press, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. F.

G. J. McDonald, M. F. Lewis, and R. A. Wilson, "A high-speed readout scheme for fast optical correlation-based pattern recognition," Proc. SPIE 5616, 85-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Lowans and M. F. Lewis, "Hybrid correlator employing a chirp-encoded binary phase-only filter," Opt. Lett. 25, 1195-1197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.-T.

C.-T. Li, J. Li, S. Yin, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Synthesize multi-level composite filter for synthetic-aperture radar image identification," Opt. Commun. 146, 285-301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Li, M. Lu, S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Performance of quantized composite filters in a joint transform correlator," Opt. Eng. 35, 2218-2226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

C.-T. Li, J. Li, S. Yin, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Synthesize multi-level composite filter for synthetic-aperture radar image identification," Opt. Commun. 146, 285-301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T. C.

T. C. Liang and Y. S. Cheng, "Rotational-invariant pattern recognition using circular harmonic and optical wavelet transform," Opt. Rev. 1, 198-201 (1994).

Lowans, B. S.

Lu, M.

M. Lu, S. Yin, C. Chen, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Optimum synthesis of a bipolar composite reference function with a simulated annealing algorithm," Opt. Eng. 35, 2710-2720 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Li, M. Lu, S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Performance of quantized composite filters in a joint transform correlator," Opt. Eng. 35, 2218-2226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lugt, A. Vander

A. Vander Lugt, "Signal detection by complex spatial filtering," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139-145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Macukow, K. C.

M. Jedynski and K. C. Macukow, "Wavelet transform for preprocessing in an optical correlator with a multilevel composite filter," Opt. Eng. 43, 1759-1766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mahalanobis, A.

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, M. Savvides, C. Xie, K. Venkataramani, J. Thornton, and A. Mahalanobis, "Biometric verification with correlation filters," Appl. Opt. 43, 391-402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, A. Mahalanobis, and A. Takessian, "Optimal tradeoff circular harmonic function correlation filter methods providing controlled in-plane rotation response," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 1025-1034 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahalanobis and B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, "Optimality of the maximum average correlation height filter for detection of targets in noise," Opt. Eng. 36, 2642-2648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahalanobis, D. W. Carlson, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, and S. R. F. Sims, "Distance classifier correlation filters," Proc. SPIE 2238, 2-13 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahalanobis, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, and D. Casasent, "Minimum average correlation energy filters," Appl. Opt. 26, 3633-3640 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, A. Mahalanobis, and R. D. Juday, eds., Correlation Pattern Recognition (Cambridge U. Press, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Mahlab, U.

McDonald, G. J.

G. J. McDonald, M. F. Lewis, and R. A. Wilson, "A high-speed readout scheme for fast optical correlation-based pattern recognition," Proc. SPIE 5616, 85-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, D. K.

C.-T. Li, J. Li, S. Yin, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Synthesize multi-level composite filter for synthetic-aperture radar image identification," Opt. Commun. 146, 285-301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Li, M. Lu, S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Performance of quantized composite filters in a joint transform correlator," Opt. Eng. 35, 2218-2226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. Yin, C. Chen, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Optimum synthesis of a bipolar composite reference function with a simulated annealing algorithm," Opt. Eng. 35, 2710-2720 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishchal, N. K.

Pohit, M.

M. Pohit and K. Singh, "Performance of a wavelet matched filter with optimized dilation designed using simulated annealing algorithm," Opt. Commun. 187, 337-346 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Savvides, M.

Scott, B.

R. Young, C. Chatwin, and B. Scott, "High speed hybrid optical/digital correlator system," Opt. Eng. 32, 2608-2615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shamir, J.

Sims, S. R. F.

A. Mahalanobis, D. W. Carlson, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, and S. R. F. Sims, "Distance classifier correlation filters," Proc. SPIE 2238, 2-13 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Singh, K.

M. Pohit and K. Singh, "Performance of a wavelet matched filter with optimized dilation designed using simulated annealing algorithm," Opt. Commun. 187, 337-346 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takessian, A.

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, A. Mahalanobis, and A. Takessian, "Optimal tradeoff circular harmonic function correlation filter methods providing controlled in-plane rotation response," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 1025-1034 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Q.

Thornton, J.

Valadez, K. O.

Venkataramani, K.

Wilkinson, T. D.

J. A. Butt and T. D. Wilkinson, "Binary phase only filters for rotation and scale invariant pattern recognition with the joint transform correlator," Opt. Commun. 262, 17-26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Butt, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, "Optimization of a binary filter by direct binary search algorithm for rotation invariant JTC," Proc. SPIE 5202, 310-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. A.

G. J. McDonald, M. F. Lewis, and R. A. Wilson, "A high-speed readout scheme for fast optical correlation-based pattern recognition," Proc. SPIE 5616, 85-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

Yin, S.

D. Duarte and S. Yin, "Illumination-invariant face recognition using composite filters synthesized by simulated annealing," Opt. Eng. 39, 1252-1258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Li, J. Li, S. Yin, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Synthesize multi-level composite filter for synthetic-aperture radar image identification," Opt. Commun. 146, 285-301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Li, M. Lu, S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Performance of quantized composite filters in a joint transform correlator," Opt. Eng. 35, 2218-2226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. Yin, C. Chen, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Optimum synthesis of a bipolar composite reference function with a simulated annealing algorithm," Opt. Eng. 35, 2710-2720 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Young, R.

P. Birch, R. Young, F. Claret-Tournier, D. Budgett, and C. Chatwin, "Computer-generated complex filter for an all-optical and a digital-optical hybrid correlator," Opt. Eng. 41, 105-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Young, C. Chatwin, and B. Scott, "High speed hybrid optical/digital correlator system," Opt. Eng. 32, 2608-2615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. T. S.

M. Lu, S. Yin, C. Chen, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Optimum synthesis of a bipolar composite reference function with a simulated annealing algorithm," Opt. Eng. 35, 2710-2720 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Li, M. Lu, S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Performance of quantized composite filters in a joint transform correlator," Opt. Eng. 35, 2218-2226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu and S. Jutamulia, eds., Optical Pattern Recognition (Cambridge U. Press, 1998).

Appl. Opt. (7)

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, A. Mahalanobis, and A. Takessian, "Optimal tradeoff circular harmonic function correlation filter methods providing controlled in-plane rotation response," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 1025-1034 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. Vander Lugt, "Signal detection by complex spatial filtering," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139-145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. Pohit and K. Singh, "Performance of a wavelet matched filter with optimized dilation designed using simulated annealing algorithm," Opt. Commun. 187, 337-346 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Butt and T. D. Wilkinson, "Binary phase only filters for rotation and scale invariant pattern recognition with the joint transform correlator," Opt. Commun. 262, 17-26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Li, J. Li, S. Yin, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Synthesize multi-level composite filter for synthetic-aperture radar image identification," Opt. Commun. 146, 285-301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (9)

D. Duarte and S. Yin, "Illumination-invariant face recognition using composite filters synthesized by simulated annealing," Opt. Eng. 39, 1252-1258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Shamir, "Adaptive pattern recognition correlators," Opt. Eng. 36, 2675-2689 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahalanobis and B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, "Optimality of the maximum average correlation height filter for detection of targets in noise," Opt. Eng. 36, 2642-2648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Li, M. Lu, S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Performance of quantized composite filters in a joint transform correlator," Opt. Eng. 35, 2218-2226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jedynski and K. C. Macukow, "Wavelet transform for preprocessing in an optical correlator with a multilevel composite filter," Opt. Eng. 43, 1759-1766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Young, C. Chatwin, and B. Scott, "High speed hybrid optical/digital correlator system," Opt. Eng. 32, 2608-2615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Birch, R. Young, F. Claret-Tournier, D. Budgett, and C. Chatwin, "Computer-generated complex filter for an all-optical and a digital-optical hybrid correlator," Opt. Eng. 41, 105-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Jutamulia and D. A. Gregory, "Soft blocking of the dc term in Fourier optical systems," Opt. Eng. 7, 49-51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. Yin, C. Chen, F. T. S. Yu, T. D. Hudson, and D. K. McMillen, "Optimum synthesis of a bipolar composite reference function with a simulated annealing algorithm," Opt. Eng. 35, 2710-2720 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

T. C. Liang and Y. S. Cheng, "Rotational-invariant pattern recognition using circular harmonic and optical wavelet transform," Opt. Rev. 1, 198-201 (1994).

Proc. SPIE (5)

E. H. Horache and M. S. Alam, "Nonzero-order fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation using binary phase mask," Proc. SPIE 5807, 341-348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Butt, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, "Optimization of a binary filter by direct binary search algorithm for rotation invariant JTC," Proc. SPIE 5202, 310-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. J. McDonald, M. F. Lewis, and R. A. Wilson, "A high-speed readout scheme for fast optical correlation-based pattern recognition," Proc. SPIE 5616, 85-92 (2004).
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S. M. A. Bhuiyan, M. S. Alam, and M. Alkanhal, "Automatic target recognition and tracking in FLIR imagery using extended maximum average correlation height filter and polynomial distance classifier correlation filter," Proc. SPIE 5807, 1-15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

F. T. S. Yu and S. Jutamulia, eds., Optical Pattern Recognition (Cambridge U. Press, 1998).

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, A. Mahalanobis, and R. D. Juday, eds., Correlation Pattern Recognition (Cambridge U. Press, 2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, eds., Optical Information Processing (Academic, 1994).

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hybrid digital-optical correlation architecture. SF, spatial filter; CL, collimating lens; FT lens, Fourier transform lens; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PC, computer; CCD, CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thermal images used to generate filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Number of iterations in which an optimized filter for thermal image is generated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Rotated thermal input targets, (b) simulation results without chirp encoding, (c) corresponding experimental results without chirp encoding, (d) simulation results after chirp encoding, and (e) corresponding experimental results after chirp encoding.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CCD images used to generate the filter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Number of iterations in which an optimized filter for CCD images is obtained.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) CCD input targets at different orientations, (b) simulation results without chirp encoding, (c) experimental results without chirp encoding, (d) simulation results with chirp-encoded hybrid correlation, and (e) experimental results with chirp-encoded hybrid correlation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Plot of CPI versus angle of rotation for (i) thermal images and (ii) CCD images.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(i) Results using thermal images and (ii) results using CCD images. (a) Input targets with varied brightness and contrast levels, (b) simulation results with chirp encoding, and (c) experimental results with chirp encoding.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) (a) and (b) Plots of CPI with change in brightness and contrast, respectively, for thermal image; (c) and (d) plots of CPI with change in brightness and contrast, respectively, for CCD image.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Results for (i) thermal images and (ii) CCD images. (a) Input target corrupted with noise, (b) simulation results with chirp encoding, and (c) experimental results with chirp encoding.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) (a), (b), and (c) Plots for thermal images. (d), (e), and (f) Plots for CCD images. (a) and (d) Plots of CPI versus variation of Gaussian noise variance, (b) and (e) plots of CPI versus variation of speckle noise variance, and (c) and (f) plots of CPI versus variation of speckle noise variance when Gaussian noise variance is fixed at 0.01.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Results with (i) thermal images and (ii) CCD images. (a) Occluded input targets, (b) simulation results with chirp encoding, and (c) experimental results with chirp encoding.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Plots of CPI versus the percentage of occlusion of input target for (i) thermal images and (ii) CCD images.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Multiple targets in a scene, (b) simulation results with chirp encoding, and (c) experimental results with chirp encoding using thermal images.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(a) Multiple targets in a scene, (b) simulation results with chirp encoding, and (c) experimental results with chirp encoding using CCD images.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(Color online) Comparative study of filters synthesized by the modified and conventional SA equation shown by the (a) CPI plot, (b) PCE plot, and (c) PSR plot for the range of rotation from 306° to 360°.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

(Color online) Plots of PCE versus angle of rotation for (i) thermal images and (ii) CCD images.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

(Color online) Plots of PSR versus angle of rotation for (i) thermal images and (ii) CCD images.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

(Color online) Comparative plots of SNR for true class (i) thermal image and (ii) CCD image.

Equations (7)

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F ( x 2 , y 2 ) = [ 1 + B ( x 2 , y 2 ) ] exp [ j ϕ ( x 2 , y 2 ) ] ,
E = ( T A A C ) 2 + ( T c C C ) 2 ,
p ( Δ E ) = 1 1 + exp ( Δ E / K T ) ,
C ( x 2 , y 2 ) = exp { i k ( x 2 2 + y 2 2 ) 2 z } ,
PCE = | y ( 0 ) | 2 E p ,
PSR = y ( 0 ) m σ ,
SNR = | E { η / H } | 2 var { η } ,

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