Abstract

Broadband optical monitoring for thin-film filter manufacturing is more and more developed thanks to better performances of spectrometers with array detectors. We compare this optical monitoring with turning point monitoring and quartz monitoring of different designs. The sensitivity to thickness errors and to refractive index errors is evaluated. We show that real time determination of deposited thickness is a valuable criterion. We also present our experimental setup of transmittance and reflectance broadband optical monitoring. The use of a 4001000  nm range combined with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2500 in transmittance and 1000 in reflectance permits us to expect the manufacturing of high-performance non-quarter-wave designs. A first manufacturing of an 18-layer non-quarter-wave high-pass filter is provided.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. A. Macleod, "Monitoring of optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 20, 82-89 (1981).
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  3. H. D. Polster, "Symmetrical all-dielectric interference filter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 21-24 (1952).
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  4. http://www.leyboldoptics.com/en/oms5000.html.
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Cathelinaud, F. Lemarquis, and C. Amra, "Index determination of opaque and semitransparent metallic films. Application to light absorber," Appl. Opt. 41, 2546-2554 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Ristau, T. Gross, and M. Lappschies, "Optical broadband monitoring of conventional and ion process," in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper TuE1.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Wilbrandt, R. Leitel, D. Gabler, O. Stenzel, and N. Kaiser, "In situ broadband monitoring and characterization of optical coatings," in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper TuE6.
  12. A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and T. Amotchkina, "Investigation of the effect of accumulation of thickness errors in optical coating production using broadband optical monitoring," Appl. Opt. 45, 7026-7034 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. B. Walsh, J. A. Guthrie, and J. W. Burney, "Application of commercially available, low cost, miniaturized NIR spectrometers to the assessment of the sugar content of intact fruit," Aust. J. Plant. Physiol. 27, 1175-1186 (2000).
  14. A. Zoeller, "Substantial progress in optical monitoring by intermittent measurement technique," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II,Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630D (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Lemarchand, C. Deumie, M. Zerrad, L. Abel-Tiberini, B. Bertussi, B. Lazaridès, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, "Optical characterization of an unknown single layer: Institut Fresnel contribution to OIC 2004 measurement problem," in Optical Interference Coatings (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 1312-1318, paper WE9.
  16. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Hilger, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Fused silica refractive index data: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusedlowbarquartz.

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

C. Buzeal and K. Robbie, "State of the art in thin film thickness and deposition rate monitoring sensors," Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 385-409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoeller, "Substantial progress in optical monitoring by intermittent measurement technique," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II,Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630D (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

K. B. Walsh, J. A. Guthrie, and J. W. Burney, "Application of commercially available, low cost, miniaturized NIR spectrometers to the assessment of the sugar content of intact fruit," Aust. J. Plant. Physiol. 27, 1175-1186 (2000).

1989 (1)

1981 (1)

1973 (1)

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C. O'Handley, "A modulated ellipsometer for studying thin film optical properties and surface dynamics," Surf. Sci. 37, 548-558 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

Abel-Tiberini, L.

F. Lemarchand, C. Deumie, M. Zerrad, L. Abel-Tiberini, B. Bertussi, B. Lazaridès, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, "Optical characterization of an unknown single layer: Institut Fresnel contribution to OIC 2004 measurement problem," in Optical Interference Coatings (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 1312-1318, paper WE9.

Amotchkina, T.

Amra, C.

M. Cathelinaud, F. Lemarquis, and C. Amra, "Index determination of opaque and semitransparent metallic films. Application to light absorber," Appl. Opt. 41, 2546-2554 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lemarchand, C. Deumie, M. Zerrad, L. Abel-Tiberini, B. Bertussi, B. Lazaridès, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, "Optical characterization of an unknown single layer: Institut Fresnel contribution to OIC 2004 measurement problem," in Optical Interference Coatings (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 1312-1318, paper WE9.

Bertussi, B.

F. Lemarchand, C. Deumie, M. Zerrad, L. Abel-Tiberini, B. Bertussi, B. Lazaridès, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, "Optical characterization of an unknown single layer: Institut Fresnel contribution to OIC 2004 measurement problem," in Optical Interference Coatings (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 1312-1318, paper WE9.

Burge, D. K.

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C. O'Handley, "A modulated ellipsometer for studying thin film optical properties and surface dynamics," Surf. Sci. 37, 548-558 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Burney, J. W.

K. B. Walsh, J. A. Guthrie, and J. W. Burney, "Application of commercially available, low cost, miniaturized NIR spectrometers to the assessment of the sugar content of intact fruit," Aust. J. Plant. Physiol. 27, 1175-1186 (2000).

Buzeal, C.

C. Buzeal and K. Robbie, "State of the art in thin film thickness and deposition rate monitoring sensors," Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 385-409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cathelinaud, M.

M. Cathelinaud, F. Lemarquis, and C. Amra, "Index determination of opaque and semitransparent metallic films. Application to light absorber," Appl. Opt. 41, 2546-2554 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lemarchand, C. Deumie, M. Zerrad, L. Abel-Tiberini, B. Bertussi, B. Lazaridès, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, "Optical characterization of an unknown single layer: Institut Fresnel contribution to OIC 2004 measurement problem," in Optical Interference Coatings (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 1312-1318, paper WE9.

Chen, Y. M.

Deumie, C.

F. Lemarchand, C. Deumie, M. Zerrad, L. Abel-Tiberini, B. Bertussi, B. Lazaridès, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, "Optical characterization of an unknown single layer: Institut Fresnel contribution to OIC 2004 measurement problem," in Optical Interference Coatings (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 1312-1318, paper WE9.

Ehlers, H.

Gabler, D.

S. Wilbrandt, R. Leitel, D. Gabler, O. Stenzel, and N. Kaiser, "In situ broadband monitoring and characterization of optical coatings," in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper TuE6.

Gross, T.

D. Ristau, H. Ehlers, T. Gross, and M. Lappschies, "Optical broadband monitoring of conventional and ion processes," Appl. Opt. 45, 1495-1501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ristau, T. Gross, and M. Lappschies, "Optical broadband monitoring of conventional and ion process," in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper TuE1.

Guthrie, J. A.

K. B. Walsh, J. A. Guthrie, and J. W. Burney, "Application of commercially available, low cost, miniaturized NIR spectrometers to the assessment of the sugar content of intact fruit," Aust. J. Plant. Physiol. 27, 1175-1186 (2000).

Hu, X. Q.

Jasperson, S. N.

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C. O'Handley, "A modulated ellipsometer for studying thin film optical properties and surface dynamics," Surf. Sci. 37, 548-558 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, and O. Stenzel, "In situ broadband monitoring of heterogeneous optical coatings," Thin Solid Films 502, 153-157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wilbrandt, R. Leitel, D. Gabler, O. Stenzel, and N. Kaiser, "In situ broadband monitoring and characterization of optical coatings," in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper TuE6.

Lappschies, M.

D. Ristau, H. Ehlers, T. Gross, and M. Lappschies, "Optical broadband monitoring of conventional and ion processes," Appl. Opt. 45, 1495-1501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ristau, T. Gross, and M. Lappschies, "Optical broadband monitoring of conventional and ion process," in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper TuE1.

Lazaridès, B.

F. Lemarchand, C. Deumie, M. Zerrad, L. Abel-Tiberini, B. Bertussi, B. Lazaridès, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, "Optical characterization of an unknown single layer: Institut Fresnel contribution to OIC 2004 measurement problem," in Optical Interference Coatings (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 1312-1318, paper WE9.

Leitel, R.

S. Wilbrandt, R. Leitel, D. Gabler, O. Stenzel, and N. Kaiser, "In situ broadband monitoring and characterization of optical coatings," in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper TuE6.

Lemarchand, F.

F. Lemarchand, C. Deumie, M. Zerrad, L. Abel-Tiberini, B. Bertussi, B. Lazaridès, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, "Optical characterization of an unknown single layer: Institut Fresnel contribution to OIC 2004 measurement problem," in Optical Interference Coatings (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 1312-1318, paper WE9.

Lemarquis, F.

Lequime, M.

F. Lemarchand, C. Deumie, M. Zerrad, L. Abel-Tiberini, B. Bertussi, B. Lazaridès, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, "Optical characterization of an unknown single layer: Institut Fresnel contribution to OIC 2004 measurement problem," in Optical Interference Coatings (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 1312-1318, paper WE9.

Macleod, H. A.

O'Handley, R. C.

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C. O'Handley, "A modulated ellipsometer for studying thin film optical properties and surface dynamics," Surf. Sci. 37, 548-558 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Polster, H. D.

Ristau, D.

D. Ristau, H. Ehlers, T. Gross, and M. Lappschies, "Optical broadband monitoring of conventional and ion processes," Appl. Opt. 45, 1495-1501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ristau, T. Gross, and M. Lappschies, "Optical broadband monitoring of conventional and ion process," in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper TuE1.

Robbie, K.

C. Buzeal and K. Robbie, "State of the art in thin film thickness and deposition rate monitoring sensors," Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 385-409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, O.

S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, and O. Stenzel, "In situ broadband monitoring of heterogeneous optical coatings," Thin Solid Films 502, 153-157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wilbrandt, R. Leitel, D. Gabler, O. Stenzel, and N. Kaiser, "In situ broadband monitoring and characterization of optical coatings," in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper TuE6.

Tang, J. F.

Tikhonravov, A. V.

Trubetskov, M. K.

Walsh, K. B.

K. B. Walsh, J. A. Guthrie, and J. W. Burney, "Application of commercially available, low cost, miniaturized NIR spectrometers to the assessment of the sugar content of intact fruit," Aust. J. Plant. Physiol. 27, 1175-1186 (2000).

Wilbrandt, S.

S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, and O. Stenzel, "In situ broadband monitoring of heterogeneous optical coatings," Thin Solid Films 502, 153-157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wilbrandt, R. Leitel, D. Gabler, O. Stenzel, and N. Kaiser, "In situ broadband monitoring and characterization of optical coatings," in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper TuE6.

Zerrad, M.

F. Lemarchand, C. Deumie, M. Zerrad, L. Abel-Tiberini, B. Bertussi, B. Lazaridès, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, "Optical characterization of an unknown single layer: Institut Fresnel contribution to OIC 2004 measurement problem," in Optical Interference Coatings (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 1312-1318, paper WE9.

Zoeller, A.

A. Zoeller, "Substantial progress in optical monitoring by intermittent measurement technique," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II,Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630D (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Aust. J. Plant. Physiol. (1)

K. B. Walsh, J. A. Guthrie, and J. W. Burney, "Application of commercially available, low cost, miniaturized NIR spectrometers to the assessment of the sugar content of intact fruit," Aust. J. Plant. Physiol. 27, 1175-1186 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Zoeller, "Substantial progress in optical monitoring by intermittent measurement technique," in Advances in Optical Thin Films II,Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630D (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. Buzeal and K. Robbie, "State of the art in thin film thickness and deposition rate monitoring sensors," Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 385-409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C. O'Handley, "A modulated ellipsometer for studying thin film optical properties and surface dynamics," Surf. Sci. 37, 548-558 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, and O. Stenzel, "In situ broadband monitoring of heterogeneous optical coatings," Thin Solid Films 502, 153-157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

S. Wilbrandt, R. Leitel, D. Gabler, O. Stenzel, and N. Kaiser, "In situ broadband monitoring and characterization of optical coatings," in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper TuE6.

D. Ristau, T. Gross, and M. Lappschies, "Optical broadband monitoring of conventional and ion process," in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper TuE1.

http://www.leyboldoptics.com/en/oms5000.html.

F. Lemarchand, C. Deumie, M. Zerrad, L. Abel-Tiberini, B. Bertussi, B. Lazaridès, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, "Optical characterization of an unknown single layer: Institut Fresnel contribution to OIC 2004 measurement problem," in Optical Interference Coatings (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 1312-1318, paper WE9.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Hilger, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Fused silica refractive index data: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusedlowbarquartz.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of a BOM implanted on a Balzers BAK800 deposition chamber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental values of σ α and σ β as a function of the transmittance (square symbols) and reflectance (triangle symbols) at 600   nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of σ β as a function of the wavelength (transmittance, square symbols; reflectance, triangle symbols).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical transmittance of the AR coating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical transmittance of the bandpass filter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical transmittance of the beam splitter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Calculation of 20 different trials using (a) quartz, (b) TPM, and (c) BOM.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Calculation of 20 different trials using (a) quartz, (b) TPM, and (c) BOM.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculation of 20 different trials using (a) quartz, (b) TPM, and (c) BOM.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculation of 20 different trials using (a) quartz, (b) TPM, and (c) BOM.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Manufacturing of a long-pass filter: theoretical data (full curves) and experimental data at the end of the deposition process (dashed curves).

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Variance of Transmittance and Reflectance Measurement Channels

Tables Icon

Table 2 Design of the Six-Layer AR Coating

Tables Icon

Table 3 Design of the 35-Layer Bandpass Filter

Tables Icon

Table 4 Design of a 50% Beam Splitter

Tables Icon

Table 5 Monitoring Wavelengths in Nanometers for TPM Control

Tables Icon

Table 6 Design of a Long-Pass Filter

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T meas ( λ ) = α t T th ( λ ) + β t ( λ ) ,
R meas ( λ ) = α r R th ( λ ) + β r ( λ ) ,
α ( n ) = 1 N λ λ S meas ( n ) ( λ ) 1 N λ λ S th ( λ ) ,
β ( n ) ( λ ) = S meas ( n ) ( λ ) α ( n ) S th ( λ ) ,
S th ( λ ) = 1 N n = 1 N S meas ( n ) ( λ ) ,
S / N = 1 σ α 2 + σ β 2 .
σ α t = 3.5 × 10 4 ,
σ β t = 2 × 10 4 .
n ( λ ) = a 0 + a 1 / λ 2 ,
n Ta 2 O 5 ( λ ) = 2.15 + 2.15 10 2 / λ 2 + 1.46 10 3 / λ 4 ,
k Ta 2 O 5 = 10 3 ,
n SiO 2 ( λ ) = 1.45 + 2.44 10 3 / λ 2 ,
k SiO 2 = 0 ,
RE = 1 N λ λ D ( R meas ( λ ) R th ( λ ) ) 2 ,
D = [ 570 675   nm ] U [ 710 920   nm ] .

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