Abstract

By measuring the spectral reflection from the four different road conditions dry, wet, icy, and snowy asphalt, a method of classification for the different surfaces—using two and three wavelengths—is developed. The method is tested against measurements to ascertain the probability of wrong classification between the surfaces. From the angular spectral response, the fact that asphalt and snow are diffuse reflectors and water and ice are reflective are confirmed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C.-G. Wallman and H. åström, "Friction measurement methods and the correlation between road friction and traffic safety," VTI meddelande 911A (2001).
  2. M. Yamada, T. Oshima, K. Ueda, I. Horiba, and S. Yamamoto, "A study of the road surface condition detection technique for deployment on a vehicle," JSAE Rev. 24, 183-188 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Holzwarth and U. Eichhorn, "Noncontact sensors for road conditions," Sens. Actuators 37, 121-127 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Ogura, I. Kageyama, K. Nasukawa, Y. Miyashita, H. Kitagawa, and Y. Imada, "Study on road surface sensing system for snow and ice road," ISAE Rev. 23, 333-339 (2002).
  5. E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison-Wesley Longman, 1998).
  6. M. Herold and D. Roberts, "Spectral characteristics of asphalt road aging and deterioration: implications for remote-sensing applications," Appl. Opt. 44, 4327-4334 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. W. Nolin and J. Dozier, "A hyperspectral method for remotely sensing the grain size of snow," Remote Sensing Environ. 74, 207-216 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. A. Cloutis, "Spectral reflectance properties of hydrocarbons--remote-sensing implications," Science 245, 165-168 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Yamada, T. Oshima, K. Ueda, I. Horiba, and S. Yamamoto, "A study of the road surface condition detection technique for deployment on a vehicle," JSAE Rev. 24, 183-188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Ogura, I. Kageyama, K. Nasukawa, Y. Miyashita, H. Kitagawa, and Y. Imada, "Study on road surface sensing system for snow and ice road," ISAE Rev. 23, 333-339 (2002).

2001 (1)

C.-G. Wallman and H. åström, "Friction measurement methods and the correlation between road friction and traffic safety," VTI meddelande 911A (2001).

2000 (1)

A. W. Nolin and J. Dozier, "A hyperspectral method for remotely sensing the grain size of snow," Remote Sensing Environ. 74, 207-216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

F. Holzwarth and U. Eichhorn, "Noncontact sensors for road conditions," Sens. Actuators 37, 121-127 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

E. A. Cloutis, "Spectral reflectance properties of hydrocarbons--remote-sensing implications," Science 245, 165-168 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

åström, H.

C.-G. Wallman and H. åström, "Friction measurement methods and the correlation between road friction and traffic safety," VTI meddelande 911A (2001).

Cloutis, E. A.

E. A. Cloutis, "Spectral reflectance properties of hydrocarbons--remote-sensing implications," Science 245, 165-168 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dozier, J.

A. W. Nolin and J. Dozier, "A hyperspectral method for remotely sensing the grain size of snow," Remote Sensing Environ. 74, 207-216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eichhorn, U.

F. Holzwarth and U. Eichhorn, "Noncontact sensors for road conditions," Sens. Actuators 37, 121-127 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison-Wesley Longman, 1998).

Herold, M.

Holzwarth, F.

F. Holzwarth and U. Eichhorn, "Noncontact sensors for road conditions," Sens. Actuators 37, 121-127 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Horiba, I.

M. Yamada, T. Oshima, K. Ueda, I. Horiba, and S. Yamamoto, "A study of the road surface condition detection technique for deployment on a vehicle," JSAE Rev. 24, 183-188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Imada, Y.

T. Ogura, I. Kageyama, K. Nasukawa, Y. Miyashita, H. Kitagawa, and Y. Imada, "Study on road surface sensing system for snow and ice road," ISAE Rev. 23, 333-339 (2002).

Kageyama, I.

T. Ogura, I. Kageyama, K. Nasukawa, Y. Miyashita, H. Kitagawa, and Y. Imada, "Study on road surface sensing system for snow and ice road," ISAE Rev. 23, 333-339 (2002).

Kitagawa, H.

T. Ogura, I. Kageyama, K. Nasukawa, Y. Miyashita, H. Kitagawa, and Y. Imada, "Study on road surface sensing system for snow and ice road," ISAE Rev. 23, 333-339 (2002).

Miyashita, Y.

T. Ogura, I. Kageyama, K. Nasukawa, Y. Miyashita, H. Kitagawa, and Y. Imada, "Study on road surface sensing system for snow and ice road," ISAE Rev. 23, 333-339 (2002).

Nasukawa, K.

T. Ogura, I. Kageyama, K. Nasukawa, Y. Miyashita, H. Kitagawa, and Y. Imada, "Study on road surface sensing system for snow and ice road," ISAE Rev. 23, 333-339 (2002).

Nolin, A. W.

A. W. Nolin and J. Dozier, "A hyperspectral method for remotely sensing the grain size of snow," Remote Sensing Environ. 74, 207-216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, T.

T. Ogura, I. Kageyama, K. Nasukawa, Y. Miyashita, H. Kitagawa, and Y. Imada, "Study on road surface sensing system for snow and ice road," ISAE Rev. 23, 333-339 (2002).

Oshima, T.

M. Yamada, T. Oshima, K. Ueda, I. Horiba, and S. Yamamoto, "A study of the road surface condition detection technique for deployment on a vehicle," JSAE Rev. 24, 183-188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D.

Ueda, K.

M. Yamada, T. Oshima, K. Ueda, I. Horiba, and S. Yamamoto, "A study of the road surface condition detection technique for deployment on a vehicle," JSAE Rev. 24, 183-188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wallman, C.-G.

C.-G. Wallman and H. åström, "Friction measurement methods and the correlation between road friction and traffic safety," VTI meddelande 911A (2001).

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, T. Oshima, K. Ueda, I. Horiba, and S. Yamamoto, "A study of the road surface condition detection technique for deployment on a vehicle," JSAE Rev. 24, 183-188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

M. Yamada, T. Oshima, K. Ueda, I. Horiba, and S. Yamamoto, "A study of the road surface condition detection technique for deployment on a vehicle," JSAE Rev. 24, 183-188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

ISAE Rev. (1)

T. Ogura, I. Kageyama, K. Nasukawa, Y. Miyashita, H. Kitagawa, and Y. Imada, "Study on road surface sensing system for snow and ice road," ISAE Rev. 23, 333-339 (2002).

JSAE Rev. (1)

M. Yamada, T. Oshima, K. Ueda, I. Horiba, and S. Yamamoto, "A study of the road surface condition detection technique for deployment on a vehicle," JSAE Rev. 24, 183-188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sensing Environ. (1)

A. W. Nolin and J. Dozier, "A hyperspectral method for remotely sensing the grain size of snow," Remote Sensing Environ. 74, 207-216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. A. Cloutis, "Spectral reflectance properties of hydrocarbons--remote-sensing implications," Science 245, 165-168 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators (1)

F. Holzwarth and U. Eichhorn, "Noncontact sensors for road conditions," Sens. Actuators 37, 121-127 (1993).
[CrossRef]

VTI meddelande (1)

C.-G. Wallman and H. åström, "Friction measurement methods and the correlation between road friction and traffic safety," VTI meddelande 911A (2001).

Other (1)

E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison-Wesley Longman, 1998).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Half-sphere with the light source positioned at 0°. (b) Light source with the lens mounted at the end. (c) Piece of ABT 11 asphalt. (d) Spectrometer and the modifier numbered with (1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Explanation as to how the measuring points and the directions of illumination are notated. The top point, perpendicular to the asphalt, is notated (0, 0) and the bottom (0–180, 70) because of the 70° shift. Then, the vertical angle is shifted from 0° to 180° so the point on the opposite side of the backscattered light (0, 0–70) is notated with (180, 0–70).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Characteristic spectrum for the surfaces dry, water, ice, and snow from the averaging over the 344 measurements for each layer. (b) Mean spectrum for the five different water depths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional intensity response for the wavelength 1310   nm and the light position 40° from the layers; (a) dry, (b) 3 mm water, (c) 3 mm ice, and (d) 3   mm snow. X marks the light position.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variance of the wavelength ratio for the four surfaces, with the optimal wavelengths marked with *.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Maximum points of the wavelengths ratio variance between the four surfaces (the markers) for the eight directions of illumination of the backscattered light; each curve represents a light position.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflected intensity at the light position 40° and for the two wavelengths λ 1 = 1310  nm and λ 2 = 1690   nm for the 3   mm layer of snow.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Histogram for the scattering plot for the 9520 measuring points for the four different road conditions for the ratio (ϕ).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Histogram for the scattering plot for 784 measuring points for the backscattered light for the four different road conditions the ratio (ϕ).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variance between mean ratios for the surfaces ice and snow.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Histogram for the scattering plot for 9520 measuring points for the four different road conditions. The left column: Ratio (θ). The right column: Ratio (ϕ).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Histogram for the scattering plot for 784 measuring points for the four different road conditions. The left column: Ratio (θ). The right column: Ratio (ϕ).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Probability of Wrong Classification for All Surfaces and for Each Surface

Equations (10)

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X Dry = [ λ 1100 λ 1100 λ 1100 λ 1700 λ 1700 λ 1100 λ 1700 λ 1700 ] ,   X Water = [ λ 1100 λ 1100 λ 1100 λ 1700 λ 1700 λ 1100 λ 1700 λ 1700 ] ,
X Ice = [ λ 1100 λ 1100 λ 1100 λ 1700 λ 1700 λ 1100 λ 1700 λ 1700 ] ,   X Snow = [ λ 1100 λ 1100 λ 1100 λ 1700 λ 1700 λ 1100 λ 1700 λ 1700 ] ,
x ¯ [ i , j ] = 1 4 ( X Dry [ i , j ] + X Water [ i , j ] + X Ice [ i , j ] + X Snow [ i , j ] ) ,
for  i = 1 , 2 , 3 , … ,  581   and    j = 1 , 2 , 3 , … ,  581.
V [ i , j ] = 1 3 ( ( X Dry [ i , j ] x ¯ [ i , j ] ) 2 + ( X Water [ i , j ] x ¯ [ i , j ] ) 2 + ( X Ice [ i , j ] x ¯ [ i , j ] ) 2 + ( X Snow [ i , j ] x ¯ [ i , j ] ) 2 ) ,
for   i = 1 , 2 , 3 , … ,  581  and    j = 1 , 2 , 3 , … ,  581.
f [ B ] = n = ϕ min B D A D [ n ] + n = B ϕ max D A W [ n ]
for   B = 2 , 2.001 , 2.002 , … ,  3 ,
B min = arg B min f [ B ] ,
P wrong = P ( Ice Snow ) + P ( Snow ice ) + P ( Water Ice ) + P ( Ice Water ) + P ( Water Dry ) + P ( Dry Water ) + P ( Ice Dry ) ,

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