Abstract

The intensity interferometer utilizes the correlations between intensity fluctuations to measure the coherence between light waves. Correlating the intensities of the waves and not their amplitudes can overcome the main disadvantage of the Michelson stellar interferometer in a space environment. It is shown that intensity interferometry should be applicable to stellar sources as weak as 8th magnitude, using techniques that are theoretically feasible today. Two approaches are proposed for a global sky observation campaign while minimizing spacecraft fuel consumption. In the second approach the computational interferometry observation method is introduced, which enables an observation of the full sky from a single orbit. Moreover, control laws were designed to relocate a spacecraft into the required baseline and to maintain it.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2006

A. Ofir and E. N. Ribak, "Off-line multi-detector intensity interferometer I: theory," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 368, 1646-1651 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. R. Ciardi, G. T. van Belle, R. L. Akeson, R. R. Thompson, E. A. Lada, and S. B. Howell, "On the near-infrared size of Vega," Astrophys. J. 559, 1147-1154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, A. V. George, D. F. Buscher, C. D. Mackay, D. Pearson, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. Wilson, and J. S. Young, "COAST: the current status," Proc. SPIE 4006, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, "The Sydney University stellar interferometer--I. The instrument," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773-782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. Simmons, "Building the 100-inch telescope," (Mount Wilson Observatory Association , 1986), http://www.mtwilson.edu/his/art/g1a4.php.

J. Davis and W. J. Tango, "New determination of the angular diameter of Sirius," Nature 323, 234-235 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978

1974

R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "The angular diameters of 32 stars," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 167, 121-136 (1974).

1971

D. Herbison-Evans, R. Hanbury Brown, F. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "A study of α Virginis with an intensity interferometer," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 151, 161-176 (1971).

1967

R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "The stellar interferometer at Narrabri observatory I: a description of the instrument and the observational procedure," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 137, 375-392 (1967).

1965

P. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, "Coherence properties of optical fields," Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 231-287 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962

H. Gamo, "Triple correlator of photoelectric fluctuations as a spectroscopic tool," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 875-876 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1960

H. Clohessy and R. S. Wiltshire, "Terminal guidance systems for satellite rendezvous," J. Aerosp. Sci. 27, 653-658 (1960).

1956

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, "A test of a new type of stellar interferometer on Sirius," Nature 178, 1046-1048 (1956).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, "The question of correlation between photons in coherent light rays," Nature 178, 1447-1448 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1954

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, "A new type of interferometer for use in radio astronomy," Philos. Mag. 45, 663-682 (1954).

1938

F. Zernike, "The concept of degree of coherence and its application to optical problems," Physica (Amsterdam) 5, 785-795 (1938).
[CrossRef]

1921

A. A. Michelson and F. G. Pease, "Measurement of the diameter of α Orionis with the interferometer," Astrophys. J. 51, 249-259 (1921).
[CrossRef]

1891

A. A. Michelson, "Measurements of Jupiter's satellites by interference," Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 3, 274-278 (1891).
[CrossRef]

1868

A. H. Fizeau, "Prix Bordin: rapport sur le concours de l'annee 1867," Compt. Rend. 66, 932-934 (1868).

Akeson, R. L.

D. R. Ciardi, G. T. van Belle, R. L. Akeson, R. R. Thompson, E. A. Lada, and S. B. Howell, "On the near-infrared size of Vega," Astrophys. J. 559, 1147-1154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L. R.

R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "The angular diameters of 32 stars," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 167, 121-136 (1974).

D. Herbison-Evans, R. Hanbury Brown, F. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "A study of α Virginis with an intensity interferometer," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 151, 161-176 (1971).

R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "The stellar interferometer at Narrabri observatory I: a description of the instrument and the observational procedure," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 137, 375-392 (1967).

Baldwin, J. E.

C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, A. V. George, D. F. Buscher, C. D. Mackay, D. Pearson, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. Wilson, and J. S. Young, "COAST: the current status," Proc. SPIE 4006, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bate, R. R.

R. R. Bate, D. D. Mueller, and J. E. White, Fundamentals of Astrodynamics (Dover, 1971).

Battin, R. H.

R. H. Battin, An Introduction to the Mathematics and Methods of Astrodynamics (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1987).

Booth, A. J.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, "The Sydney University stellar interferometer--I. The instrument," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773-782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980).

Boysen, R. C.

C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, A. V. George, D. F. Buscher, C. D. Mackay, D. Pearson, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. Wilson, and J. S. Young, "COAST: the current status," Proc. SPIE 4006, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bracewell, R.

R. Bracewell, "Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. Hanbury

R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "The angular diameters of 32 stars," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 167, 121-136 (1974).

D. Herbison-Evans, R. Hanbury Brown, F. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "A study of α Virginis with an intensity interferometer," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 151, 161-176 (1971).

R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "The stellar interferometer at Narrabri observatory I: a description of the instrument and the observational procedure," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 137, 375-392 (1967).

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, "The question of correlation between photons in coherent light rays," Nature 178, 1447-1448 (1956).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, "A test of a new type of stellar interferometer on Sirius," Nature 178, 1046-1048 (1956).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, "A new type of interferometer for use in radio astronomy," Philos. Mag. 45, 663-682 (1954).

R. Hanbury Brown, The Intensity Interferometer (Taylor and Francis, 1974).

Brummelaar, T. A. ten

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, "The Sydney University stellar interferometer--I. The instrument," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773-782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buscher, D. F.

C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, A. V. George, D. F. Buscher, C. D. Mackay, D. Pearson, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. Wilson, and J. S. Young, "COAST: the current status," Proc. SPIE 4006, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chulkova, G.

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ciardi, D. R.

D. R. Ciardi, G. T. van Belle, R. L. Akeson, R. R. Thompson, E. A. Lada, and S. B. Howell, "On the near-infrared size of Vega," Astrophys. J. 559, 1147-1154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clohessy, H.

H. Clohessy and R. S. Wiltshire, "Terminal guidance systems for satellite rendezvous," J. Aerosp. Sci. 27, 653-658 (1960).

Davis, F.

D. Herbison-Evans, R. Hanbury Brown, F. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "A study of α Virginis with an intensity interferometer," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 151, 161-176 (1971).

Davis, J.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, "The Sydney University stellar interferometer--I. The instrument," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773-782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Davis and W. J. Tango, "New determination of the angular diameter of Sirius," Nature 323, 234-235 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "The angular diameters of 32 stars," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 167, 121-136 (1974).

R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "The stellar interferometer at Narrabri observatory I: a description of the instrument and the observational procedure," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 137, 375-392 (1967).

Fizeau, A. H.

A. H. Fizeau, "Prix Bordin: rapport sur le concours de l'annee 1867," Compt. Rend. 66, 932-934 (1868).

Gamo, H.

H. Gamo, "Triple correlator of photoelectric fluctuations as a spectroscopic tool," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 875-876 (1962).
[CrossRef]

George, A. V.

C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, A. V. George, D. F. Buscher, C. D. Mackay, D. Pearson, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. Wilson, and J. S. Young, "COAST: the current status," Proc. SPIE 4006, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gol'tsman, G. N.

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, Gary D.

W. L. Morgan and Gary D. Gordon, Communications Satellite Handbook (Wiley-Interscience, 1989).

Guelman, M.

I. Klein, S. G. Lipson, and M. Guelman, "Can intensity interferometer play a useful role in space environment?" presented at the 56th International Astronautical Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, the International Academy of Astronautics, and the International Institute of Space Law, Fukuoka, Japan, 17-21 October 2005.

Haniff, C. A.

C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, A. V. George, D. F. Buscher, C. D. Mackay, D. Pearson, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. Wilson, and J. S. Young, "COAST: the current status," Proc. SPIE 4006, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herbison-Evans, D.

D. Herbison-Evans, R. Hanbury Brown, F. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "A study of α Virginis with an intensity interferometer," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 151, 161-176 (1971).

Howell, S. B.

D. R. Ciardi, G. T. van Belle, R. L. Akeson, R. R. Thompson, E. A. Lada, and S. B. Howell, "On the near-infrared size of Vega," Astrophys. J. 559, 1147-1154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, J.

Klein, I.

I. Klein, S. G. Lipson, and M. Guelman, "Can intensity interferometer play a useful role in space environment?" presented at the 56th International Astronautical Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, the International Academy of Astronautics, and the International Institute of Space Law, Fukuoka, Japan, 17-21 October 2005.

Korneev, A.

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, S. G. Lipson, and P. Nisenson, An Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Lada, E. A.

D. R. Ciardi, G. T. van Belle, R. L. Akeson, R. R. Thompson, E. A. Lada, and S. B. Howell, "On the near-infrared size of Vega," Astrophys. J. 559, 1147-1154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, S. G.

A. Labeyrie, S. G. Lipson, and P. Nisenson, An Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Lipson, Optical Physics, 3rd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).

I. Klein, S. G. Lipson, and M. Guelman, "Can intensity interferometer play a useful role in space environment?" presented at the 56th International Astronautical Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, the International Academy of Astronautics, and the International Institute of Space Law, Fukuoka, Japan, 17-21 October 2005.

Mackay, C. D.

C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, A. V. George, D. F. Buscher, C. D. Mackay, D. Pearson, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. Wilson, and J. S. Young, "COAST: the current status," Proc. SPIE 4006, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, P. L.

P. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, "Coherence properties of optical fields," Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 231-287 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Michelson, A. A.

A. A. Michelson and F. G. Pease, "Measurement of the diameter of α Orionis with the interferometer," Astrophys. J. 51, 249-259 (1921).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Michelson, "Measurements of Jupiter's satellites by interference," Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 3, 274-278 (1891).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Michelson, Studies in Optics (Reprinted by U. Chicago Press, 1962).

Milostnaya, I.

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minaeva, O.

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minard, R. A.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, "The Sydney University stellar interferometer--I. The instrument," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773-782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, W. L.

W. L. Morgan and Gary D. Gordon, Communications Satellite Handbook (Wiley-Interscience, 1989).

Mueller, D. D.

R. R. Bate, D. D. Mueller, and J. E. White, Fundamentals of Astrodynamics (Dover, 1971).

Nisenson, P.

A. Labeyrie, S. G. Lipson, and P. Nisenson, An Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Ofir, A.

A. Ofir and E. N. Ribak, "Off-line multi-detector intensity interferometer I: theory," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 368, 1646-1651 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Owens, S. M.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, "The Sydney University stellar interferometer--I. The instrument," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773-782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pearlman, A.

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, D.

C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, A. V. George, D. F. Buscher, C. D. Mackay, D. Pearson, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. Wilson, and J. S. Young, "COAST: the current status," Proc. SPIE 4006, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pease, F. G.

A. A. Michelson and F. G. Pease, "Measurement of the diameter of α Orionis with the interferometer," Astrophys. J. 51, 249-259 (1921).
[CrossRef]

Ribak, E. N.

A. Ofir and E. N. Ribak, "Off-line multi-detector intensity interferometer I: theory," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 368, 1646-1651 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J.

C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, A. V. George, D. F. Buscher, C. D. Mackay, D. Pearson, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. Wilson, and J. S. Young, "COAST: the current status," Proc. SPIE 4006, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rubtsove, I.

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

Simmons, M.

M. Simmons, "Building the 100-inch telescope," (Mount Wilson Observatory Association , 1986), http://www.mtwilson.edu/his/art/g1a4.php.

Smirnov, K.

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stysz, W.

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tango, W. J.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, "The Sydney University stellar interferometer--I. The instrument," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773-782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Davis and W. J. Tango, "New determination of the angular diameter of Sirius," Nature 323, 234-235 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. R.

D. R. Ciardi, G. T. van Belle, R. L. Akeson, R. R. Thompson, E. A. Lada, and S. B. Howell, "On the near-infrared size of Vega," Astrophys. J. 559, 1147-1154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Turyshev, S.

S. Unwin and S. Turyshev, SIM: PlanetQuest Science with the Space Interferometry Mission, JPL Publication No. 19 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2004).

Twiss, R. Q.

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, "A test of a new type of stellar interferometer on Sirius," Nature 178, 1046-1048 (1956).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, "The question of correlation between photons in coherent light rays," Nature 178, 1447-1448 (1956).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, "A new type of interferometer for use in radio astronomy," Philos. Mag. 45, 663-682 (1954).

Unwin, S.

S. Unwin and S. Turyshev, SIM: PlanetQuest Science with the Space Interferometry Mission, JPL Publication No. 19 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2004).

van Belle, G. T.

D. R. Ciardi, G. T. van Belle, R. L. Akeson, R. R. Thompson, E. A. Lada, and S. B. Howell, "On the near-infrared size of Vega," Astrophys. J. 559, 1147-1154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Verevkin, A.

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B.

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wadaka, S.

Warner, P. J.

C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, A. V. George, D. F. Buscher, C. D. Mackay, D. Pearson, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. Wilson, and J. S. Young, "COAST: the current status," Proc. SPIE 4006, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

White, J. E.

R. R. Bate, D. D. Mueller, and J. E. White, Fundamentals of Astrodynamics (Dover, 1971).

Wilson, D. M.

C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, A. V. George, D. F. Buscher, C. D. Mackay, D. Pearson, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. Wilson, and J. S. Young, "COAST: the current status," Proc. SPIE 4006, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wiltshire, R. S.

H. Clohessy and R. S. Wiltshire, "Terminal guidance systems for satellite rendezvous," J. Aerosp. Sci. 27, 653-658 (1960).

Wolf, E.

P. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, "Coherence properties of optical fields," Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 231-287 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980).

Yamamoto, J.

Young, J. S.

C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, A. V. George, D. F. Buscher, C. D. Mackay, D. Pearson, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. Wilson, and J. S. Young, "COAST: the current status," Proc. SPIE 4006, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, "The concept of degree of coherence and its application to optical problems," Physica (Amsterdam) 5, 785-795 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

D. R. Ciardi, G. T. van Belle, R. L. Akeson, R. R. Thompson, E. A. Lada, and S. B. Howell, "On the near-infrared size of Vega," Astrophys. J. 559, 1147-1154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Michelson and F. G. Pease, "Measurement of the diameter of α Orionis with the interferometer," Astrophys. J. 51, 249-259 (1921).
[CrossRef]

Compt. Rend.

A. H. Fizeau, "Prix Bordin: rapport sur le concours de l'annee 1867," Compt. Rend. 66, 932-934 (1868).

J. Aerosp. Sci.

H. Clohessy and R. S. Wiltshire, "Terminal guidance systems for satellite rendezvous," J. Aerosp. Sci. 27, 653-658 (1960).

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Gamo, "Triple correlator of photoelectric fluctuations as a spectroscopic tool," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 875-876 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

A. Ofir and E. N. Ribak, "Off-line multi-detector intensity interferometer I: theory," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 368, 1646-1651 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, "The Sydney University stellar interferometer--I. The instrument," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773-782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "The stellar interferometer at Narrabri observatory I: a description of the instrument and the observational procedure," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 137, 375-392 (1967).

D. Herbison-Evans, R. Hanbury Brown, F. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "A study of α Virginis with an intensity interferometer," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 151, 161-176 (1971).

R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis, and L. R. Allen, "The angular diameters of 32 stars," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 167, 121-136 (1974).

Mount Wilson Observatory Association

M. Simmons, "Building the 100-inch telescope," (Mount Wilson Observatory Association , 1986), http://www.mtwilson.edu/his/art/g1a4.php.

Nature

J. Davis and W. J. Tango, "New determination of the angular diameter of Sirius," Nature 323, 234-235 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, "A test of a new type of stellar interferometer on Sirius," Nature 178, 1046-1048 (1956).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, "The question of correlation between photons in coherent light rays," Nature 178, 1447-1448 (1956).
[CrossRef]

R. Bracewell, "Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag.

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, "A new type of interferometer for use in radio astronomy," Philos. Mag. 45, 663-682 (1954).

Phys. Status Solidi C

G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsove, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Stysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Physica

F. Zernike, "The concept of degree of coherence and its application to optical problems," Physica (Amsterdam) 5, 785-795 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, A. V. George, D. F. Buscher, C. D. Mackay, D. Pearson, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. Wilson, and J. S. Young, "COAST: the current status," Proc. SPIE 4006, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific

A. A. Michelson, "Measurements of Jupiter's satellites by interference," Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 3, 274-278 (1891).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

P. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, "Coherence properties of optical fields," Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 231-287 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980).

For example, Princeton Lightwave, "Single photon avalanche diode (SPAD)--discrete," AGD-40-SE-1-T8 quantum efficiency 75% for wavelength longer than 0.95 micrometers (2005).

ESA Darwin website: http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/area/index.cfm?fareaid=28.

I. Klein, S. G. Lipson, and M. Guelman, "Can intensity interferometer play a useful role in space environment?" presented at the 56th International Astronautical Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, the International Academy of Astronautics, and the International Institute of Space Law, Fukuoka, Japan, 17-21 October 2005.

R. R. Bate, D. D. Mueller, and J. E. White, Fundamentals of Astrodynamics (Dover, 1971).

R. H. Battin, An Introduction to the Mathematics and Methods of Astrodynamics (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1987).

W. L. Morgan and Gary D. Gordon, Communications Satellite Handbook (Wiley-Interscience, 1989).

R. Hanbury Brown, The Intensity Interferometer (Taylor and Francis, 1974).

NASA SIM website: http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/SIM/sim_index.cfm.

S. Unwin and S. Turyshev, SIM: PlanetQuest Science with the Space Interferometry Mission, JPL Publication No. 19 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2004).

A. Labeyrie, S. G. Lipson, and P. Nisenson, An Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Michelson, Studies in Optics (Reprinted by U. Chicago Press, 1962).

S. G. Lipson, Optical Physics, 3rd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an intensity interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Achievable magnitude as a function of observation time and aperture area.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical (u, v) diagram for a pair of satellites in two almost identical elliptical orbits with the same sense of satellite rotation (a) in the same plane, with the source in the direction normal to the plane, and (b)–(c) in mutually inclined planes avoiding collision, with sources in their mean plane in two orthogonal directions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(u, v) map for the circular forced follower case.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Systems of coordinates.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation showing the power required to maintain a 0.1 km baseline between a Keplerian and a non-Keplerian orbit for two different values of the initial power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Baseline geometry.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(u, v) map for the computational interferometry case (a) when the source is perpendicular to the orbital plane and (b) in the orbital plane.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effective baseline as a function of several parameters.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Longer period orbit illustration.

Equations (35)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( S∕N ) rms = 2.512 m λ F 0 A η | γ 12 2 ( B ) | Δ f T 0 2 ,
m λ = 2.5 log [ ( S∕N ) rms F 0 A η | γ 12 2 ( B ) | 2 T F T 0 ] .
T F = 10 8   s , T 0 = 3600   s , A = 30 m 2 , F 0 = 5 × 10 5 s 1 m 2 Hz 1 ,
η = 8 % , ( S∕N ) rms = 5.
γ 12 ( ρ , τ ) = f ( ρ , t ) f * ( ρ + r , t + τ ) r , t | f ( r , t ) | 2 r , t ,
V ( B ) = 2 A 1 A 2 A 1 2 + A 2 2 | γ 12 ( B ) | ,
γ 12 ( τ ) = e ( 2 π ν 0 τ i ) I ( u , v ) exp { i k 0 [ ( x 1 x 2 ) u + ( y 1 y 2 ) v ] } d u d v I ( u , v ) d u d v ,
L = τ c = ( c Δ λ λ 2 ) 1 , c = λ 2 Δ λ .
γ 2 ( τ ) I 1 ( t ) I 2 ( t + τ ) I 1 ( t ) I 2 ( t ) = [ 1 + | γ 12 ( τ ) | 2 ] .
L = τ c = c Δ f .
x ¨ 2 n y ˙ 3 n 2 x = u x ,
y ¨ + 2 n x ˙ = u y ,
z ¨ + n 2 z = u z ,
ρ L = [ c n t c Ω s n t s Ω c i c n t s Ω + s n t c Ω c i s n t s i s n t c Ω c n t s Ω c s n t s Ω + c n t c Ω c i c n t s i s Ω s i s i c Ω c i ] ( X R Y R Z R ) .
U = [ 2 n 2 ( X R ( c n t c Ω s n t s Ω c i ) + Y R ( c n t s Ω + s n t c Ω c i ) + Z R s n t s i ) n 2 ( X R ( s n t c Ω c n t s Ω c i ) Y R ( s n t s Ω c Ω c n t c i ) + Z R c n t s i ) n 2 ( X R s Ω s i Y R c Ω s i + Z R c i ) ] .
Q = t t f ( u x 2 + u y 2 + u z 2 ) d t .
x R 2 + y R 2 + z R 2 = B 2 ,
J = Q + λ ( x R 2 + y R 2 + z R 2 B 2 )
Q = κ 1 X R 2 + κ 2 Y R 2 + κ 3 Z R 2 + κ 4 Y R + κ 5 Z R X R ,
κ 1 = n 3 [ 3 c i 2 n T ( c Ω 2 1 ) n T ( 2 + 3 c Ω 2 ) ] ,
κ 2 = n 3 [ 3 c Ω 2 n T ( 1 c i 2 ) 5 n T ] ,
κ 3 = n 3 ( 5 n T + 3 c i 2 n T ) ,
κ 4 = [ 3 n 4 c Ω c i s i T Z R 3 n 3 ( 1 + c i 2 ) c Ω s Ω n T X R ] ,
κ 5 = 3 n 4 c i s i s Ω T ,
X R = ± B s Ω s i , Y R = B c Ω s i , Z R = ± B c i .
X R = 0 , Y R = 0 , Z R = ± B .
  r ^ = [ cos ( α s ) cos ( δ s ) sin ( α s ) cos ( δ s ) sin ( δ s ) ] T .
B = a [ cos ( n t ) cos ( n t + n τ ) sin ( n t ) sin ( n t + n τ ) 0 ] T .
B P = a [ sin ( α ) cos 2 ( δ ) σ 1 + sin 2 ( δ ) [ cos ( n t + n τ ) cos ( n t ) ] cos ( α ) cos 2 ( δ ) σ 1 + sin 2 ( δ ) × [ sin ( n t + n τ ) sin ( n t ) ] cos ( δ ) sin ( δ ) σ 2 ] ,
σ 1 = { [ cos ( n t + n τ ) cos ( n t ) ] sin ( α ) [ sin ( n t + n τ ) sin ( n t ) ] cos ( α ) } ,
σ 2 = { [ cos ( n t + n τ ) cos ( n t ) ] cos ( α ) + [ sin ( n t + n τ ) sin ( n t ) ] sin ( α ) } ,
D L = B 2 | B P | 2 .
Δ t tan 1 ( L I B ) n .
Δ V ( Δ λ / T ) = 5.7 m / s degrees / day .
Δ B = R E Δ λ .

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