Abstract

We investigate the performance of a widefield imaging system employing an aplanatic solid immersion lens. Off-axis imaging quality is examined theoretically at different radii and thicknesses of the aplanatic solid immersion lens. It is found that field curvature is the major aberration affecting the imaging quality. Aberrations are measured experimentally, and the results are in very good agreement with those obtained from simulations and demonstrate the situations where high quality images can be obtained with the aplanatic solid immersion lens.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, "Imaging with solid immersion lenses, spatial resolution, and applications," Proc. IEEE 88, 1491-1498 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yoshita, T. Sasaki, M. Baba, and H. Akiyama, "Application of solid immersion lens to high-spatial resolution photoluminescence imaging of GaAs quantum wells at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 635-637 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, "Solid immersion microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Ichimura, S. Hayashi, and G. S. Kino, "High-density optical recording using a solid immersion lens," Appl. Opt. 36, 4339-4348 (1997).
  5. B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, and D. Rugar, "Near-field optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 141-143 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, D. Rugar, W. R. Studenmund, and G. S. Kino, "Near-field optical-data storage using a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 388-390 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 501-503 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "High spatial resolution subsurface microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4071-4073 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, "High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667-1669 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, "Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion lens excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5451-5453 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Zhang, M. C. Pitter, S. Liu, C. See, and M. G. Somekh, "Surface-plasmon microscopy with a two-piece solid immersion lens: bright and dark fields," Appl. Opt. 45, 7977-7986 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 2003).
  13. Winlens 4.3, Linos Photonics Gmbh & Co. KG.
  14. D. Axelrod, "Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in cell biology," Method Enzymol. 361, 1-33 (2003).
  15. M. G. Somekh, S. D. Sharples, M. Clark, and C. W. See, "Lamb wave contrast in noncontacting surface acoustic wave microscopy," Electron. Lett. 35, 1886-1887 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, 1978).
  17. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, "Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion lens excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5451-5453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Axelrod, "Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in cell biology," Method Enzymol. 361, 1-33 (2003).

2001 (1)

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "High spatial resolution subsurface microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4071-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, "Imaging with solid immersion lenses, spatial resolution, and applications," Proc. IEEE 88, 1491-1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. G. Somekh, S. D. Sharples, M. Clark, and C. W. See, "Lamb wave contrast in noncontacting surface acoustic wave microscopy," Electron. Lett. 35, 1886-1887 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, "High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667-1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 501-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Yoshita, T. Sasaki, M. Baba, and H. Akiyama, "Application of solid immersion lens to high-spatial resolution photoluminescence imaging of GaAs quantum wells at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 635-637 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, and D. Rugar, "Near-field optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 141-143 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, D. Rugar, W. R. Studenmund, and G. S. Kino, "Near-field optical-data storage using a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 388-390 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, "Solid immersion microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, H.

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, "High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667-1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Yoshita, T. Sasaki, M. Baba, and H. Akiyama, "Application of solid immersion lens to high-spatial resolution photoluminescence imaging of GaAs quantum wells at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 635-637 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Axelrod, D.

D. Axelrod, "Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in cell biology," Method Enzymol. 361, 1-33 (2003).

Baba, M.

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, "High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667-1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Yoshita, T. Sasaki, M. Baba, and H. Akiyama, "Application of solid immersion lens to high-spatial resolution photoluminescence imaging of GaAs quantum wells at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 635-637 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 2003).

Clark, M.

M. G. Somekh, S. D. Sharples, M. Clark, and C. W. See, "Lamb wave contrast in noncontacting surface acoustic wave microscopy," Electron. Lett. 35, 1886-1887 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 501-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elings, V. B.

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, "Imaging with solid immersion lenses, spatial resolution, and applications," Proc. IEEE 88, 1491-1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 501-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghislain, L. P.

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, "Imaging with solid immersion lenses, spatial resolution, and applications," Proc. IEEE 88, 1491-1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 501-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "High spatial resolution subsurface microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4071-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Hayashi, S.

Ichimura, I.

Ippolito, S. B.

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "High spatial resolution subsurface microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4071-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kingslake, R.

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, 1978).

Kino, G. S.

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 501-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Ichimura, S. Hayashi, and G. S. Kino, "High-density optical recording using a solid immersion lens," Appl. Opt. 36, 4339-4348 (1997).

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, D. Rugar, W. R. Studenmund, and G. S. Kino, "Near-field optical-data storage using a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 388-390 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, "Solid immersion microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, K.

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, "High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667-1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, S. G.

J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, "Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion lens excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5451-5453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mamin, H. J.

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, and D. Rugar, "Near-field optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 141-143 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, D. Rugar, W. R. Studenmund, and G. S. Kino, "Near-field optical-data storage using a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 388-390 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Manalis, S. R.

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 501-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mansfield, S. M.

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, "Solid immersion microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Minne, S. C.

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 501-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pitter, M. C.

J. Zhang, M. C. Pitter, S. Liu, C. See, and M. G. Somekh, "Surface-plasmon microscopy with a two-piece solid immersion lens: bright and dark fields," Appl. Opt. 45, 7977-7986 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, "Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion lens excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5451-5453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quate, C. F.

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 501-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rugar, D.

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, and D. Rugar, "Near-field optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 141-143 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, D. Rugar, W. R. Studenmund, and G. S. Kino, "Near-field optical-data storage using a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 388-390 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

M. Yoshita, T. Sasaki, M. Baba, and H. Akiyama, "Application of solid immersion lens to high-spatial resolution photoluminescence imaging of GaAs quantum wells at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 635-637 (1998).
[CrossRef]

See, C.

See, C. W.

J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, "Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion lens excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5451-5453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Somekh, S. D. Sharples, M. Clark, and C. W. See, "Lamb wave contrast in noncontacting surface acoustic wave microscopy," Electron. Lett. 35, 1886-1887 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sharples, S. D.

M. G. Somekh, S. D. Sharples, M. Clark, and C. W. See, "Lamb wave contrast in noncontacting surface acoustic wave microscopy," Electron. Lett. 35, 1886-1887 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, M. G.

J. Zhang, M. C. Pitter, S. Liu, C. See, and M. G. Somekh, "Surface-plasmon microscopy with a two-piece solid immersion lens: bright and dark fields," Appl. Opt. 45, 7977-7986 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, "Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion lens excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5451-5453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Somekh, S. D. Sharples, M. Clark, and C. W. See, "Lamb wave contrast in noncontacting surface acoustic wave microscopy," Electron. Lett. 35, 1886-1887 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Studenmund, W. R.

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, D. Rugar, W. R. Studenmund, and G. S. Kino, "Near-field optical-data storage using a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 388-390 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Suemoto, T.

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, "High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667-1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Terris, B. D.

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, and D. Rugar, "Near-field optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 141-143 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, D. Rugar, W. R. Studenmund, and G. S. Kino, "Near-field optical-data storage using a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 388-390 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Unlu, M. S.

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "High spatial resolution subsurface microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4071-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilder, K.

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 501-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 2003).

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, "Imaging with solid immersion lenses, spatial resolution, and applications," Proc. IEEE 88, 1491-1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshita, M.

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, "High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667-1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Yoshita, T. Sasaki, M. Baba, and H. Akiyama, "Application of solid immersion lens to high-spatial resolution photoluminescence imaging of GaAs quantum wells at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 635-637 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, M. C. Pitter, S. Liu, C. See, and M. G. Somekh, "Surface-plasmon microscopy with a two-piece solid immersion lens: bright and dark fields," Appl. Opt. 45, 7977-7986 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, "Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion lens excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5451-5453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

M. Yoshita, T. Sasaki, M. Baba, and H. Akiyama, "Application of solid immersion lens to high-spatial resolution photoluminescence imaging of GaAs quantum wells at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 635-637 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, "Solid immersion microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, and D. Rugar, "Near-field optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 141-143 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, D. Rugar, W. R. Studenmund, and G. S. Kino, "Near-field optical-data storage using a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 388-390 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 501-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, "High spatial resolution subsurface microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4071-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, "High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667-1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, "Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion lens excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5451-5453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. G. Somekh, S. D. Sharples, M. Clark, and C. W. See, "Lamb wave contrast in noncontacting surface acoustic wave microscopy," Electron. Lett. 35, 1886-1887 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Method Enzymol. (1)

D. Axelrod, "Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in cell biology," Method Enzymol. 361, 1-33 (2003).

Proc. IEEE (1)

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, "Imaging with solid immersion lenses, spatial resolution, and applications," Proc. IEEE 88, 1491-1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, 1978).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 2003).

Winlens 4.3, Linos Photonics Gmbh & Co. KG.

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