Abstract

We present what we believe to be a novel approach to simulating the spectral fine structure (<1nm) in measurements of spectrometers such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME). GOME measures the Earth's radiance spectra and daily solar irradiance spectra from which a reflectivity spectrum is commonly extracted. The high-frequency structures contained in such a spectrum are, apart from atmospheric absorption, caused by Raman scattering and by a shift between the solar irradiance and the Earth's radiance spectrum. Normally, an a priori high-resolution solar spectrum is used to simulate these structures. We present an alternative method in which all the required information on the solar spectrum is retrieved from the GOME measurements. We investigate two approaches for the spectral range of 390400nm. First, a solar spectrum is reconstructed on a fine spectral grid from the GOME solar measurement. This approach leads to undersampling errors of up to 0.5% in the modeling of the Earth's radiance spectra. Second, a combination of the solar measurement and one of the Earth's radiance measurement is used to retrieve a solar spectrum. This approach effectively removes the undersampling error and results in residuals close to the GOME measurement noise of 0.1%.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  24. S. Slijkhuis, A. von Bargen, W. Thomas, and K. Chance, "Calculation of 'undersampling correction spectra' for DOAS spectral fitting," in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (ESAM'99) (European Space Research and Technology Centre, 1999), pp. 563-569.
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    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure from rotational Raman scattering," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1837-1841 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. Chance, and A. Goede, "SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (6)

K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, and C. E. Sioris, "Undersampling correction for array detector-based satellite spectrometers," Appl. Opt. 44, 1296-1304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Spurr, D. Loyola, W. Thomas, W. Balzer, E. Mikusch, B. Aberle, S. Slijkhuis, T. Ruppert, M. van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, and T. Soebijanta, "GOME level 1-to-2 data processor 3.0: a major upgrade of the GOME/ERS-2 total ozone retrieval algorithm," Appl. Opt. 44, 7196-7209 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Boersma, H. Eskes, E. Meijer, and H. Kelder, "Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2311-2331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. van Deelen, J. Landgraf, and I. Aben, "Multiple elastic and inelastic scattering in the Earth's atmosphere: a doubling-adding method to include rotational Raman scattering by air," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 95, 309-330 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Krijger, I. Aben, and H. Schrijver, "Distinction between clouds and ice/snow covered surfaces in the identification of cloud-free observations using SCIAMACHY PMDs," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2729-2738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

C. A. Gueymard, "The Sun's total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models," Sol. Energy 76, 423-453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Joiner, A. P. Vasilkov, D. E. Flittner, J. F. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure and oceanic chlorophyll content using Raman scattering in GOME ultraviolet spectra," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Landgraf, O. P. Hasekamp, R. van Deelen, and I. Aben, "Rotational Raman scattering of polarized light in the Earth's atmosphere: a vector radiative transfer model using the radiative transfer perturbation theory approach," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 399-433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. H. G. M. van Geffen and R. F. van Oss, "Wavelength calibration of spectra measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment by use of a high-resolution reference spectrum," Appl. Opt. 42, 2739-2753 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Beirle, U. Platt, M. Wenig, and T. Wagner, "Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 2225-2232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

D. M. Stam, I. Aben, and F. Helderman, "Skylight polarization: numerical simulation of the Ring effect," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4419, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp, J. Landgraf, and R. van Oss, "The need of polarization modeling for ozone profile retrieval from backscattered sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4692, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure from rotational Raman scattering," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1837-1841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. de Beek, M. Vountas, V. V. Rozanov, A. Richter, and J. P. Burrows, "The Ring effect in the cloudy atmosphere," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 721-724 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Ozone profile retrieval from backscattered ultraviolet radiances: the inverse problem solved by regularization," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 8077-8088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. Chance, and A. Goede, "SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. Eisinger, "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Sioris and W. F. J. Evans, "Filling in of Fraunhofer and gas-absorption lines in sky spectra as caused by rotational Raman scattering," Appl. Opt. 38, 2706-2713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. Eisinger and J. Burrows, "Tropospheric sulfur dioxide observed by the ERS-2 GOME instrument," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4177-4180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Chance, "Analysis of BrO measurements from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment," J. Geophys. Res. 25, 3335-3338 (1998).

M. Vountas, V. V. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "Ring effect: impact of rotational Raman scattering on radiative transfer in Earth's atmosphere," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 943-961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Aben, I.

R. van Deelen, J. Landgraf, and I. Aben, "Multiple elastic and inelastic scattering in the Earth's atmosphere: a doubling-adding method to include rotational Raman scattering by air," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 95, 309-330 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Krijger, I. Aben, and H. Schrijver, "Distinction between clouds and ice/snow covered surfaces in the identification of cloud-free observations using SCIAMACHY PMDs," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2729-2738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Landgraf, O. P. Hasekamp, R. van Deelen, and I. Aben, "Rotational Raman scattering of polarized light in the Earth's atmosphere: a vector radiative transfer model using the radiative transfer perturbation theory approach," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 399-433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Stam, I. Aben, and F. Helderman, "Skylight polarization: numerical simulation of the Ring effect," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4419, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aberle, B.

Balzer, W.

Bednarz, F.

F. Bednarz, ed., Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Users Manual, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC, 1995).

Beirle, S.

S. Beirle, U. Platt, M. Wenig, and T. Wagner, "Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 2225-2232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhartia, P. K.

J. Joiner, A. P. Vasilkov, D. E. Flittner, J. F. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure and oceanic chlorophyll content using Raman scattering in GOME ultraviolet spectra," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure from rotational Raman scattering," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1837-1841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boersma, K.

K. Boersma, H. Eskes, E. Meijer, and H. Kelder, "Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2311-2331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bösch, H.

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bovensmann, H.

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. Chance, and A. Goede, "SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bramstedt, K.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. Eisinger, "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buchwitz, M.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. Eisinger, "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. Chance, and A. Goede, "SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J.

H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. Chance, and A. Goede, "SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Eisinger and J. Burrows, "Tropospheric sulfur dioxide observed by the ERS-2 GOME instrument," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4177-4180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. P.

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. de Beek, M. Vountas, V. V. Rozanov, A. Richter, and J. P. Burrows, "The Ring effect in the cloudy atmosphere," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 721-724 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. Eisinger, "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Vountas, V. V. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "Ring effect: impact of rotational Raman scattering on radiative transfer in Earth's atmosphere," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 943-961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Butz, A.

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, and C. E. Sioris, "Undersampling correction for array detector-based satellite spectrometers," Appl. Opt. 44, 1296-1304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. Chance, and A. Goede, "SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Chance, "Analysis of BrO measurements from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment," J. Geophys. Res. 25, 3335-3338 (1998).

K. Chance and R. J. D. Spurr, "Ring effect studies: Rayleigh scattering, including molecular parameters for rotational Raman scattering, and the Fraunhofer spectrum," Appl. Opt. 36, 5224-5230 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Slijkhuis, A. von Bargen, W. Thomas, and K. Chance, "Calculation of 'undersampling correction spectra' for DOAS spectral fitting," in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (ESAM'99) (European Space Research and Technology Centre, 1999), pp. 563-569.

Coulson, K.

K. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988).

de Beek, R.

R. de Beek, M. Vountas, V. V. Rozanov, A. Richter, and J. P. Burrows, "The Ring effect in the cloudy atmosphere," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 721-724 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. Eisinger, "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dorf, M.

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eichmann, K.-U.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. Eisinger, "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eisinger, M.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. Eisinger, "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Eisinger and J. Burrows, "Tropospheric sulfur dioxide observed by the ERS-2 GOME instrument," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4177-4180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eskes, H.

K. Boersma, H. Eskes, E. Meijer, and H. Kelder, "Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2311-2331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. F. J.

Fletcher, P.

P. Fletcher and F. Lodge, eds., GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, ESA WPP-108 (European Space Agency--European Space Research Institute, 1996).

Flittner, D. E.

J. Joiner, A. P. Vasilkov, D. E. Flittner, J. F. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure and oceanic chlorophyll content using Raman scattering in GOME ultraviolet spectra," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frerick, J.

H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. Chance, and A. Goede, "SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gerilowski, K.

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, J.

A. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure from rotational Raman scattering," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1837-1841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, J. F.

J. Joiner, A. P. Vasilkov, D. E. Flittner, J. F. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure and oceanic chlorophyll content using Raman scattering in GOME ultraviolet spectra," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goede, A.

H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. Chance, and A. Goede, "SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gueymard, C. A.

C. A. Gueymard, "The Sun's total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models," Sol. Energy 76, 423-453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gurlit, W.

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hasekamp, O.

Hasekamp, O. P.

J. Landgraf, O. P. Hasekamp, R. van Deelen, and I. Aben, "Rotational Raman scattering of polarized light in the Earth's atmosphere: a vector radiative transfer model using the radiative transfer perturbation theory approach," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 399-433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp, J. Landgraf, and R. van Oss, "The need of polarization modeling for ozone profile retrieval from backscattered sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4692, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Ozone profile retrieval from backscattered ultraviolet radiances: the inverse problem solved by regularization," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 8077-8088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Helderman, F.

D. M. Stam, I. Aben, and F. Helderman, "Skylight polarization: numerical simulation of the Ring effect," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4419, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoogen, R.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. Eisinger, "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joiner, J.

J. Joiner, A. P. Vasilkov, D. E. Flittner, J. F. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure and oceanic chlorophyll content using Raman scattering in GOME ultraviolet spectra," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure from rotational Raman scattering," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1837-1841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kelder, H.

K. Boersma, H. Eskes, E. Meijer, and H. Kelder, "Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2311-2331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krijger, J. M.

J. M. Krijger, I. Aben, and H. Schrijver, "Distinction between clouds and ice/snow covered surfaces in the identification of cloud-free observations using SCIAMACHY PMDs," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2729-2738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurosu, T. P.

Kurucz, R. L.

R. L. Kurucz, "The solar spectrum: atlases and line identifications," in Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series81: Laboratory and Astronomical High Resolution Spectra, A. J. Sauval, R. Blomme, and N. Grevesse, eds. (1995), pp. 17-31.

Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. Eisinger, "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, J.-C.

Landgraf, J.

B. van Diedenhoven, O. Hasekamp, and J. Landgraf, "Efficient vector radiative transfer calculations in vertically inhomogeneous cloudy atmospheres," Appl. Opt. 45, pp. 5993-6006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. van Deelen, J. Landgraf, and I. Aben, "Multiple elastic and inelastic scattering in the Earth's atmosphere: a doubling-adding method to include rotational Raman scattering by air," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 95, 309-330 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Landgraf, O. P. Hasekamp, R. van Deelen, and I. Aben, "Rotational Raman scattering of polarized light in the Earth's atmosphere: a vector radiative transfer model using the radiative transfer perturbation theory approach," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 399-433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp, J. Landgraf, and R. van Oss, "The need of polarization modeling for ozone profile retrieval from backscattered sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4692, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Ozone profile retrieval from backscattered ultraviolet radiances: the inverse problem solved by regularization," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 8077-8088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, A.

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lodge, F.

P. Fletcher and F. Lodge, eds., GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, ESA WPP-108 (European Space Agency--European Space Research Institute, 1996).

Loyola, D.

Meijer, E.

K. Boersma, H. Eskes, E. Meijer, and H. Kelder, "Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2311-2331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Menke, W.

W. Menke, Geophysical Data Analysis: Discrete Inversion Theory (Academic, 1989).

Mikusch, E.

Noël, S.

H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. Chance, and A. Goede, "SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nol, S.

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pfeilsticker, K.

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Platt, U.

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Beirle, U. Platt, M. Wenig, and T. Wagner, "Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 2225-2232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richter, A.

R. de Beek, M. Vountas, V. V. Rozanov, A. Richter, and J. P. Burrows, "The Ring effect in the cloudy atmosphere," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 721-724 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. Eisinger, "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C.

C. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, 2000).

Rozanov, V.

H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. Chance, and A. Goede, "SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. Eisinger, "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rozanov, V. V.

R. de Beek, M. Vountas, V. V. Rozanov, A. Richter, and J. P. Burrows, "The Ring effect in the cloudy atmosphere," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 721-724 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Vountas, V. V. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "Ring effect: impact of rotational Raman scattering on radiative transfer in Earth's atmosphere," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 943-961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ruppert, T.

Schrijver, H.

J. M. Krijger, I. Aben, and H. Schrijver, "Distinction between clouds and ice/snow covered surfaces in the identification of cloud-free observations using SCIAMACHY PMDs," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2729-2738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sioris, C. E.

Slijkhuis, S.

R. Spurr, D. Loyola, W. Thomas, W. Balzer, E. Mikusch, B. Aberle, S. Slijkhuis, T. Ruppert, M. van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, and T. Soebijanta, "GOME level 1-to-2 data processor 3.0: a major upgrade of the GOME/ERS-2 total ozone retrieval algorithm," Appl. Opt. 44, 7196-7209 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Slijkhuis, A. von Bargen, W. Thomas, and K. Chance, "Calculation of 'undersampling correction spectra' for DOAS spectral fitting," in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (ESAM'99) (European Space Research and Technology Centre, 1999), pp. 563-569.

Soebijanta, T.

Spurr, R.

Spurr, R. J. D.

Stam, D. M.

D. M. Stam, I. Aben, and F. Helderman, "Skylight polarization: numerical simulation of the Ring effect," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4419, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, W.

R. Spurr, D. Loyola, W. Thomas, W. Balzer, E. Mikusch, B. Aberle, S. Slijkhuis, T. Ruppert, M. van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, and T. Soebijanta, "GOME level 1-to-2 data processor 3.0: a major upgrade of the GOME/ERS-2 total ozone retrieval algorithm," Appl. Opt. 44, 7196-7209 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Slijkhuis, A. von Bargen, W. Thomas, and K. Chance, "Calculation of 'undersampling correction spectra' for DOAS spectral fitting," in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (ESAM'99) (European Space Research and Technology Centre, 1999), pp. 563-569.

van Deelen, R.

R. van Deelen, J. Landgraf, and I. Aben, "Multiple elastic and inelastic scattering in the Earth's atmosphere: a doubling-adding method to include rotational Raman scattering by air," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 95, 309-330 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Landgraf, O. P. Hasekamp, R. van Deelen, and I. Aben, "Rotational Raman scattering of polarized light in the Earth's atmosphere: a vector radiative transfer model using the radiative transfer perturbation theory approach," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 399-433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Diedenhoven, B.

van Geffen, J. H. G. M.

van Oss, R.

O. P. Hasekamp, J. Landgraf, and R. van Oss, "The need of polarization modeling for ozone profile retrieval from backscattered sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4692, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Oss, R. F.

van Roozendael, M.

Vasilkov, A.

A. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure from rotational Raman scattering," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1837-1841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vasilkov, A. P.

J. Joiner, A. P. Vasilkov, D. E. Flittner, J. F. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure and oceanic chlorophyll content using Raman scattering in GOME ultraviolet spectra," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

von Bargen, A.

S. Slijkhuis, A. von Bargen, W. Thomas, and K. Chance, "Calculation of 'undersampling correction spectra' for DOAS spectral fitting," in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (ESAM'99) (European Space Research and Technology Centre, 1999), pp. 563-569.

Vountas, M.

R. de Beek, M. Vountas, V. V. Rozanov, A. Richter, and J. P. Burrows, "The Ring effect in the cloudy atmosphere," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 721-724 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Vountas, V. V. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "Ring effect: impact of rotational Raman scattering on radiative transfer in Earth's atmosphere," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 943-961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, T.

S. Beirle, U. Platt, M. Wenig, and T. Wagner, "Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 2225-2232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. Eisinger, "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Weber, "Solar activity during solar cycle 23 monitored by GOME, ESA WPP-161," in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (ESAM'99), (European Space Research and Technology Centre, 1999), pp. 611-616.

Weidner, F.

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wenig, M.

S. Beirle, U. Platt, M. Wenig, and T. Wagner, "Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 2225-2232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (4)

J. M. Krijger, I. Aben, and H. Schrijver, "Distinction between clouds and ice/snow covered surfaces in the identification of cloud-free observations using SCIAMACHY PMDs," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2729-2738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Beirle, U. Platt, M. Wenig, and T. Wagner, "Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 2225-2232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Boersma, H. Eskes, E. Meijer, and H. Kelder, "Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 2311-2331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Gurlit, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Dorf, K. Gerilowski, A. Lindner, S. Nol, U. Platt, F. Weidner, and K. Pfeilsticker, "The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: intercomparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1879-1890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

M. Eisinger and J. Burrows, "Tropospheric sulfur dioxide observed by the ERS-2 GOME instrument," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4177-4180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. de Beek, M. Vountas, V. V. Rozanov, A. Richter, and J. P. Burrows, "The Ring effect in the cloudy atmosphere," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 721-724 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure from rotational Raman scattering," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1837-1841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. Chance, and A. Goede, "SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. Eisinger, "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

O. P. Hasekamp, J. Landgraf, and R. van Oss, "The need of polarization modeling for ozone profile retrieval from backscattered sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4692, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Stam, I. Aben, and F. Helderman, "Skylight polarization: numerical simulation of the Ring effect," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4419, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Chance, "Analysis of BrO measurements from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment," J. Geophys. Res. 25, 3335-3338 (1998).

J. Joiner, A. P. Vasilkov, D. E. Flittner, J. F. Gleason, and P. K. Bhartia, "Retrieval of cloud pressure and oceanic chlorophyll content using Raman scattering in GOME ultraviolet spectra," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Ozone profile retrieval from backscattered ultraviolet radiances: the inverse problem solved by regularization," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 8077-8088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (3)

M. Vountas, V. V. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "Ring effect: impact of rotational Raman scattering on radiative transfer in Earth's atmosphere," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 943-961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Landgraf, O. P. Hasekamp, R. van Deelen, and I. Aben, "Rotational Raman scattering of polarized light in the Earth's atmosphere: a vector radiative transfer model using the radiative transfer perturbation theory approach," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 399-433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. van Deelen, J. Landgraf, and I. Aben, "Multiple elastic and inelastic scattering in the Earth's atmosphere: a doubling-adding method to include rotational Raman scattering by air," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 95, 309-330 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy (1)

C. A. Gueymard, "The Sun's total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models," Sol. Energy 76, 423-453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

W. Menke, Geophysical Data Analysis: Discrete Inversion Theory (Academic, 1989).

C. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, 2000).

K. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988).

M. Weber, "Solar activity during solar cycle 23 monitored by GOME, ESA WPP-161," in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (ESAM'99), (European Space Research and Technology Centre, 1999), pp. 611-616.

R. L. Kurucz, "The solar spectrum: atlases and line identifications," in Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series81: Laboratory and Astronomical High Resolution Spectra, A. J. Sauval, R. Blomme, and N. Grevesse, eds. (1995), pp. 17-31.

F. Bednarz, ed., Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Users Manual, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC, 1995).

P. Fletcher and F. Lodge, eds., GOME Geophysical Validation Campaign, ESA WPP-108 (European Space Agency--European Space Research Institute, 1996).

S. Slijkhuis, A. von Bargen, W. Thomas, and K. Chance, "Calculation of 'undersampling correction spectra' for DOAS spectral fitting," in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (ESAM'99) (European Space Research and Technology Centre, 1999), pp. 563-569.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Kernels k ear and k sun normalized to their maximum value [ max ( k ear ) / max ( k sun ) 0.04 ] as a function of incident wavelength. The peaks of the two kernels belong to the same detector pixel, but are slightly shifted in wavelength, i.e., λ pix = 394.9899 nm for the Earth versus λ pix = 395.0016 nm for the solar measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interpolation error due to linear interpolation of the GOME solar spectrum onto the earthshine wavelength grid for (a) 1×, (b) 2×, and (c) 3× the sampling of GOME.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Simulated reflectivity spectrum R including Raman scattering with the use of two different solar spectra: by Kurucz (Ref. 22) (solid curve) and by Chance and Spurr (Ref. 14) (dotted curve). See Ref. 19 for more details on these solar spectra. (b) Difference between the two reflectivity spectra in percentages.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Null-space contribution ( 1 A ) x true and row-space contribution A x true of the true solar spectrum x true as a function of wavelength, belonging to the inversion of a solar spectrum on a 1 cm 1 grid from the solar measurement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Undersampling error in the Earth radiance spectrum for (a) the sampling of GOME and (b) 2× the sampling of GOME.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mean residual for the earthshine measurements over land in the two selected GOME orbits [(a) 25 earthshine spectra in 80702165, (b) 121 earthshine spectra in 81003031], using the reconstructed solar spectrum on a 1 cm 1 grid from the GOME solar measurement. The light gray area corresponds to the mean residual ± 1 standard deviation. The earthshine wavelengths of earthshine measurement 967 in orbit 80702165 were assigned to the detector pixels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6 [(a) 24 earthshine spectra in 80702165, (b) 120 earthshine spectra in 81003031], but using the retrieved solar spectrum from the combination of the solar measurement and one earthshine measurement.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mean residual for 142 earthshine measurements over the ocean in orbit 80702165, using the retrieved solar spectrum from the combination of the solar measurement and one earthshine measurement over land. The light gray area corresponds to the mean residual ± 1 standard deviation.

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I pix = 0 k ear ( λ ) F 0 ( λ ) d λ ,
I ( λ ) = 0 r ( λ , λ ) F 0 ( λ ) d λ .
I det = m I ,
m = ( 1 , m 2 m 1 , m 3 m 1 , m 4 m 1 ) .
I ¯ det = 1 θ 1 θ 2 θ 1 θ 2 m I d θ .
I pix = 0 g ( λ ) 0 f ( λ , λ ) I ¯ det ( λ ) d λ d λ .
s ( λ ) = 0 g ( λ ) f ( λ , λ ) d λ ,
I pix = 0 s ( λ ) I ¯ det ( λ ) d λ .
s ( λ ) = 1 c [ a 2 ( λ pix λ ) 4 / b 4 + a 2 ] ,
F pix = 0 k sun ( λ ) F 0 ( λ ) d λ .
y ear = K ear x + e ear ,
y sun = K sun x + e sun ,
K = U Σ V T .
x est = n = 1 M ( u n T y ) σ n v n .
x est = K T ( K K T ) 1 y ,
A = i = 1 M v i v i T .
x = A x true + e x .
( y ear y sun ) = ( K ear K sun ) x + ( e ear e sun ) .

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