Abstract

Trade-off studies on spectral coverage, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and spectral resolution for a hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounder on a geostationary satellite are summarized. The data density method is applied for the vertical resolution analysis, and the rms error between true and retrieved profiles is used to represent the retrieval accuracy. The effects of spectral coverage, SNR, and spectral resolution on vertical resolution and retrieval accuracy are investigated. The advantages of IR and microwave sounder synergy are also demonstrated. When focusing on instrument performance and data processing, the results from this study show that the preferred spectral coverage combines long-wave infrared (LWIR) with the shorter middle-wave IR (SMidW). Using the appropriate spectral coverage, a hyperspectral IR sounder with appropriate SNR can achieve the required science performance (1km vertical resolution, 1 K temperature, and 10% relative humidity retrieval accuracy). The synergy of microwave and IR sounders can improve the vertical resolution and retrieval accuracy compared to either instrument alone.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Candell, M. MacDonald, G. Carlisle, M. Coakley, H. Finkle, M. Kelly, D. Ryan-Howard, D. Weidler, and D. Weitz, Advanced Baseline Sounder Design Study (Draft version) (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 1998).
  2. W. L. Smith, "Atmospheric soundings from satellites--false expectation or the key to improved weather prediction?" Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 117, 267-297 (1991).
  3. More information about HES is online at http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/HES/.
  4. T. J. Schmit, W. F. Feltz, W. P. Menzel, J. Jung, A. P. Noel, J. N. Heil, J. P. Nelson III, and G. S. Wade, "Validation and use of GOES sounder moisture information," Weather Forecast. 17, 139-154 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. P. Menzel, T. J. Schmit, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Infrared measurements from the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) on GOES-R," in 14th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2006), paper J6.4.
  6. T. J. Schmit, M. M. Gunshor, W. P. Menzel, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Introducing the next-generation advanced baseline imager (ABI) on geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES)-R," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 8, 1079-1096 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 61-63.
  8. W. Elisabeth, Temperature Profiling by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI): Advanced Retrieval Algorithm and Performance Analysis (Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics, and Meteorology, University of Graz, 2001), pp. 77-112.
    [PubMed]
  9. G. E. Backus and J. F. Gilbert, "The resolving power of gross earth data," Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 16, 169-205 (1968).
  10. B. J. Conrath, Vertical Resolution of Temperature Profiles Obtained from Remote Radiation Measurements (Backus-Gilbert Technique for Vertical Resolution of Temperature Profiles by Remote Radiation Measurements), CASI Tech. Rep. NASA-TM-X-65808 (NASA Center for Aerospace Information, 1971).
    [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Purser and H.-L. Huang, "Estimating effective data density in satellite retrieval or an objective analysis," J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1092-1107 (1993).
  12. O. E. Thompson, J. K. Eom, and J. R. Wagenhofer, "On the resolution of temperature profile finestructure by the NOAA satellite vertical temperature profile radiometer," Mon. Weather Rev. 104(2), 117-126 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. I. Newman, "The application of generalized inverse theory to the recovery of temperature profiles," J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 559-565 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Hannon, L. L. Strow, and W. W. McMillan, "Atmospheric infrared fast transmittance models: a comparison of two approaches," in Proc. SPIE 2830, 94-105 (1996).
  15. More information about HES PORD is online at http://goespoes.gsfc.nasa.gov/HEShome.htm.
  16. More information about AMSU is online at http://amsu.cira.colostate.edu/.
  17. H. H. Huang and P. Antonelli, "Application of principle component analysis to high-resolution infrared measurement compression and retrieval," J. Appl. Meteorol. 40, 365-388 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Li and H. L. Huang, "Retrieval of atmospheric profiles from satellite sounder measurements using the discrepancy principle," Appl. Opt. 38, 916-923 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Li, T. J. Schmit, F. Sun, and W. P. Menzel, "Surface and atmospheric retrievals from the future GOES Sounder-Advanced Baseline Sounder (ABS)," in the Twelfth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2003), paper 5.5.
  20. J. Li and F. Wang, "Vertical resolution study on the GOES-R Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES)," in Proc. SPIE 5658, 57-65 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. Wang, "Trade studies of the hyperspectral environmental suite (HES) on the geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES)-R," M.S. thesis (University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2005).

2005

T. J. Schmit, M. M. Gunshor, W. P. Menzel, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Introducing the next-generation advanced baseline imager (ABI) on geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES)-R," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 8, 1079-1096 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Li and F. Wang, "Vertical resolution study on the GOES-R Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES)," in Proc. SPIE 5658, 57-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. J. Schmit, W. F. Feltz, W. P. Menzel, J. Jung, A. P. Noel, J. N. Heil, J. P. Nelson III, and G. S. Wade, "Validation and use of GOES sounder moisture information," Weather Forecast. 17, 139-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. H. Huang and P. Antonelli, "Application of principle component analysis to high-resolution infrared measurement compression and retrieval," J. Appl. Meteorol. 40, 365-388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1991

W. L. Smith, "Atmospheric soundings from satellites--false expectation or the key to improved weather prediction?" Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 117, 267-297 (1991).

1979

W. I. Newman, "The application of generalized inverse theory to the recovery of temperature profiles," J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 559-565 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

O. E. Thompson, J. K. Eom, and J. R. Wagenhofer, "On the resolution of temperature profile finestructure by the NOAA satellite vertical temperature profile radiometer," Mon. Weather Rev. 104(2), 117-126 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1968

G. E. Backus and J. F. Gilbert, "The resolving power of gross earth data," Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 16, 169-205 (1968).

Antonelli, P.

H. H. Huang and P. Antonelli, "Application of principle component analysis to high-resolution infrared measurement compression and retrieval," J. Appl. Meteorol. 40, 365-388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Backus, G. E.

G. E. Backus and J. F. Gilbert, "The resolving power of gross earth data," Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 16, 169-205 (1968).

Candell, L.

L. Candell, M. MacDonald, G. Carlisle, M. Coakley, H. Finkle, M. Kelly, D. Ryan-Howard, D. Weidler, and D. Weitz, Advanced Baseline Sounder Design Study (Draft version) (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 1998).

Carlisle, G.

L. Candell, M. MacDonald, G. Carlisle, M. Coakley, H. Finkle, M. Kelly, D. Ryan-Howard, D. Weidler, and D. Weitz, Advanced Baseline Sounder Design Study (Draft version) (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 1998).

Coakley, M.

L. Candell, M. MacDonald, G. Carlisle, M. Coakley, H. Finkle, M. Kelly, D. Ryan-Howard, D. Weidler, and D. Weitz, Advanced Baseline Sounder Design Study (Draft version) (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 1998).

Conrath, B. J.

B. J. Conrath, Vertical Resolution of Temperature Profiles Obtained from Remote Radiation Measurements (Backus-Gilbert Technique for Vertical Resolution of Temperature Profiles by Remote Radiation Measurements), CASI Tech. Rep. NASA-TM-X-65808 (NASA Center for Aerospace Information, 1971).
[PubMed]

Elisabeth, W.

W. Elisabeth, Temperature Profiling by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI): Advanced Retrieval Algorithm and Performance Analysis (Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics, and Meteorology, University of Graz, 2001), pp. 77-112.
[PubMed]

Eom, J. K.

O. E. Thompson, J. K. Eom, and J. R. Wagenhofer, "On the resolution of temperature profile finestructure by the NOAA satellite vertical temperature profile radiometer," Mon. Weather Rev. 104(2), 117-126 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Feltz, W. F.

T. J. Schmit, W. F. Feltz, W. P. Menzel, J. Jung, A. P. Noel, J. N. Heil, J. P. Nelson III, and G. S. Wade, "Validation and use of GOES sounder moisture information," Weather Forecast. 17, 139-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Finkle, H.

L. Candell, M. MacDonald, G. Carlisle, M. Coakley, H. Finkle, M. Kelly, D. Ryan-Howard, D. Weidler, and D. Weitz, Advanced Baseline Sounder Design Study (Draft version) (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 1998).

Gilbert, J. F.

G. E. Backus and J. F. Gilbert, "The resolving power of gross earth data," Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 16, 169-205 (1968).

Gunshor, M. M.

T. J. Schmit, M. M. Gunshor, W. P. Menzel, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Introducing the next-generation advanced baseline imager (ABI) on geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES)-R," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 8, 1079-1096 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gurka, J. J.

T. J. Schmit, M. M. Gunshor, W. P. Menzel, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Introducing the next-generation advanced baseline imager (ABI) on geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES)-R," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 8, 1079-1096 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Menzel, T. J. Schmit, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Infrared measurements from the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) on GOES-R," in 14th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2006), paper J6.4.

Hannon, S.

S. Hannon, L. L. Strow, and W. W. McMillan, "Atmospheric infrared fast transmittance models: a comparison of two approaches," in Proc. SPIE 2830, 94-105 (1996).

Heil, J. N.

T. J. Schmit, W. F. Feltz, W. P. Menzel, J. Jung, A. P. Noel, J. N. Heil, J. P. Nelson III, and G. S. Wade, "Validation and use of GOES sounder moisture information," Weather Forecast. 17, 139-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. H.

H. H. Huang and P. Antonelli, "Application of principle component analysis to high-resolution infrared measurement compression and retrieval," J. Appl. Meteorol. 40, 365-388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. L.

Huang, H.-L.

R. J. Purser and H.-L. Huang, "Estimating effective data density in satellite retrieval or an objective analysis," J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1092-1107 (1993).

Jung, J.

T. J. Schmit, W. F. Feltz, W. P. Menzel, J. Jung, A. P. Noel, J. N. Heil, J. P. Nelson III, and G. S. Wade, "Validation and use of GOES sounder moisture information," Weather Forecast. 17, 139-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, M.

L. Candell, M. MacDonald, G. Carlisle, M. Coakley, H. Finkle, M. Kelly, D. Ryan-Howard, D. Weidler, and D. Weitz, Advanced Baseline Sounder Design Study (Draft version) (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 1998).

Li, J.

T. J. Schmit, M. M. Gunshor, W. P. Menzel, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Introducing the next-generation advanced baseline imager (ABI) on geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES)-R," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 8, 1079-1096 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Li and F. Wang, "Vertical resolution study on the GOES-R Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES)," in Proc. SPIE 5658, 57-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li and H. L. Huang, "Retrieval of atmospheric profiles from satellite sounder measurements using the discrepancy principle," Appl. Opt. 38, 916-923 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Menzel, T. J. Schmit, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Infrared measurements from the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) on GOES-R," in 14th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2006), paper J6.4.

J. Li, T. J. Schmit, F. Sun, and W. P. Menzel, "Surface and atmospheric retrievals from the future GOES Sounder-Advanced Baseline Sounder (ABS)," in the Twelfth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2003), paper 5.5.

MacDonald, M.

L. Candell, M. MacDonald, G. Carlisle, M. Coakley, H. Finkle, M. Kelly, D. Ryan-Howard, D. Weidler, and D. Weitz, Advanced Baseline Sounder Design Study (Draft version) (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 1998).

McMillan, W. W.

S. Hannon, L. L. Strow, and W. W. McMillan, "Atmospheric infrared fast transmittance models: a comparison of two approaches," in Proc. SPIE 2830, 94-105 (1996).

Menzel, W. P.

T. J. Schmit, M. M. Gunshor, W. P. Menzel, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Introducing the next-generation advanced baseline imager (ABI) on geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES)-R," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 8, 1079-1096 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Schmit, W. F. Feltz, W. P. Menzel, J. Jung, A. P. Noel, J. N. Heil, J. P. Nelson III, and G. S. Wade, "Validation and use of GOES sounder moisture information," Weather Forecast. 17, 139-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. J. Schmit, F. Sun, and W. P. Menzel, "Surface and atmospheric retrievals from the future GOES Sounder-Advanced Baseline Sounder (ABS)," in the Twelfth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2003), paper 5.5.

W. P. Menzel, T. J. Schmit, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Infrared measurements from the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) on GOES-R," in 14th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2006), paper J6.4.

Nelson, J. P.

T. J. Schmit, W. F. Feltz, W. P. Menzel, J. Jung, A. P. Noel, J. N. Heil, J. P. Nelson III, and G. S. Wade, "Validation and use of GOES sounder moisture information," Weather Forecast. 17, 139-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Newman, W. I.

W. I. Newman, "The application of generalized inverse theory to the recovery of temperature profiles," J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 559-565 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Noel, A. P.

T. J. Schmit, W. F. Feltz, W. P. Menzel, J. Jung, A. P. Noel, J. N. Heil, J. P. Nelson III, and G. S. Wade, "Validation and use of GOES sounder moisture information," Weather Forecast. 17, 139-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Purser, R. J.

R. J. Purser and H.-L. Huang, "Estimating effective data density in satellite retrieval or an objective analysis," J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1092-1107 (1993).

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 61-63.

Ryan-Howard, D.

L. Candell, M. MacDonald, G. Carlisle, M. Coakley, H. Finkle, M. Kelly, D. Ryan-Howard, D. Weidler, and D. Weitz, Advanced Baseline Sounder Design Study (Draft version) (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 1998).

Schmit, T. J.

T. J. Schmit, M. M. Gunshor, W. P. Menzel, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Introducing the next-generation advanced baseline imager (ABI) on geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES)-R," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 8, 1079-1096 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Schmit, W. F. Feltz, W. P. Menzel, J. Jung, A. P. Noel, J. N. Heil, J. P. Nelson III, and G. S. Wade, "Validation and use of GOES sounder moisture information," Weather Forecast. 17, 139-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. J. Schmit, F. Sun, and W. P. Menzel, "Surface and atmospheric retrievals from the future GOES Sounder-Advanced Baseline Sounder (ABS)," in the Twelfth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2003), paper 5.5.

W. P. Menzel, T. J. Schmit, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Infrared measurements from the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) on GOES-R," in 14th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2006), paper J6.4.

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, "Atmospheric soundings from satellites--false expectation or the key to improved weather prediction?" Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 117, 267-297 (1991).

Strow, L. L.

S. Hannon, L. L. Strow, and W. W. McMillan, "Atmospheric infrared fast transmittance models: a comparison of two approaches," in Proc. SPIE 2830, 94-105 (1996).

Sun, F.

J. Li, T. J. Schmit, F. Sun, and W. P. Menzel, "Surface and atmospheric retrievals from the future GOES Sounder-Advanced Baseline Sounder (ABS)," in the Twelfth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2003), paper 5.5.

Thompson, O. E.

O. E. Thompson, J. K. Eom, and J. R. Wagenhofer, "On the resolution of temperature profile finestructure by the NOAA satellite vertical temperature profile radiometer," Mon. Weather Rev. 104(2), 117-126 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wade, G. S.

T. J. Schmit, W. F. Feltz, W. P. Menzel, J. Jung, A. P. Noel, J. N. Heil, J. P. Nelson III, and G. S. Wade, "Validation and use of GOES sounder moisture information," Weather Forecast. 17, 139-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wagenhofer, J. R.

O. E. Thompson, J. K. Eom, and J. R. Wagenhofer, "On the resolution of temperature profile finestructure by the NOAA satellite vertical temperature profile radiometer," Mon. Weather Rev. 104(2), 117-126 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

J. Li and F. Wang, "Vertical resolution study on the GOES-R Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES)," in Proc. SPIE 5658, 57-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, "Trade studies of the hyperspectral environmental suite (HES) on the geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES)-R," M.S. thesis (University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2005).

Weidler, D.

L. Candell, M. MacDonald, G. Carlisle, M. Coakley, H. Finkle, M. Kelly, D. Ryan-Howard, D. Weidler, and D. Weitz, Advanced Baseline Sounder Design Study (Draft version) (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 1998).

Weitz, D.

L. Candell, M. MacDonald, G. Carlisle, M. Coakley, H. Finkle, M. Kelly, D. Ryan-Howard, D. Weidler, and D. Weitz, Advanced Baseline Sounder Design Study (Draft version) (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 1998).

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

T. J. Schmit, M. M. Gunshor, W. P. Menzel, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Introducing the next-generation advanced baseline imager (ABI) on geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES)-R," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 8, 1079-1096 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc.

G. E. Backus and J. F. Gilbert, "The resolving power of gross earth data," Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 16, 169-205 (1968).

J. Appl. Meteorol.

H. H. Huang and P. Antonelli, "Application of principle component analysis to high-resolution infrared measurement compression and retrieval," J. Appl. Meteorol. 40, 365-388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

W. I. Newman, "The application of generalized inverse theory to the recovery of temperature profiles," J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 559-565 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Weather Rev.

O. E. Thompson, J. K. Eom, and J. R. Wagenhofer, "On the resolution of temperature profile finestructure by the NOAA satellite vertical temperature profile radiometer," Mon. Weather Rev. 104(2), 117-126 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Li and F. Wang, "Vertical resolution study on the GOES-R Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES)," in Proc. SPIE 5658, 57-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc.

W. L. Smith, "Atmospheric soundings from satellites--false expectation or the key to improved weather prediction?" Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 117, 267-297 (1991).

Weather Forecast.

T. J. Schmit, W. F. Feltz, W. P. Menzel, J. Jung, A. P. Noel, J. N. Heil, J. P. Nelson III, and G. S. Wade, "Validation and use of GOES sounder moisture information," Weather Forecast. 17, 139-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. P. Menzel, T. J. Schmit, J. J. Gurka, and J. Li, "Infrared measurements from the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) on GOES-R," in 14th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2006), paper J6.4.

More information about HES is online at http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/HES/.

B. J. Conrath, Vertical Resolution of Temperature Profiles Obtained from Remote Radiation Measurements (Backus-Gilbert Technique for Vertical Resolution of Temperature Profiles by Remote Radiation Measurements), CASI Tech. Rep. NASA-TM-X-65808 (NASA Center for Aerospace Information, 1971).
[PubMed]

R. J. Purser and H.-L. Huang, "Estimating effective data density in satellite retrieval or an objective analysis," J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1092-1107 (1993).

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 61-63.

W. Elisabeth, Temperature Profiling by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI): Advanced Retrieval Algorithm and Performance Analysis (Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics, and Meteorology, University of Graz, 2001), pp. 77-112.
[PubMed]

L. Candell, M. MacDonald, G. Carlisle, M. Coakley, H. Finkle, M. Kelly, D. Ryan-Howard, D. Weidler, and D. Weitz, Advanced Baseline Sounder Design Study (Draft version) (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 1998).

J. Li, T. J. Schmit, F. Sun, and W. P. Menzel, "Surface and atmospheric retrievals from the future GOES Sounder-Advanced Baseline Sounder (ABS)," in the Twelfth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2003), paper 5.5.

S. Hannon, L. L. Strow, and W. W. McMillan, "Atmospheric infrared fast transmittance models: a comparison of two approaches," in Proc. SPIE 2830, 94-105 (1996).

More information about HES PORD is online at http://goespoes.gsfc.nasa.gov/HEShome.htm.

More information about AMSU is online at http://amsu.cira.colostate.edu/.

F. Wang, "Trade studies of the hyperspectral environmental suite (HES) on the geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES)-R," M.S. thesis (University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2005).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Brightness temperature spectrum (upper panel), NeDR spectrum (middle panel), and NeDT spectrum (lower panel).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

GOES averaging kernel function (left panel) and the corresponding vertical resolution (right panel) using the data density method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Influence of spectral coverage on the vertical resolution of temperature (upper panel) and water vapor (lower panel).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of the noise factor (NF) on the vertical resolution of temperature (upper panel) and water vapor (lower panel).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Influence of spectral resolution on the vertical resolution of temperature (upper panel) and water vapor (lower panel).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature (left panel) and water vapor (right panel) profiles for a medium moist inversion case.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Influence of spectral resolution on the vertical resolution for temperature (upper panel) and water vapor (lower panel) for an inversion case.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vertical resolution of the current GOES sounder alone, AMSU alone, a HES-like instrument alone, and the current GOES sounder plus AMSU.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Vertical resolution of the current GOES sounder alone, AMSU alone, a HES-like instrument alone, and HES plus AMSU.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Influence of spectral coverage on the retrieval accuracy of temperature (left panel) and relative humidity (RH) (right panel).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Influence of noise factor on the retrieval accuracy of temperature (left panel) and RH (right panel).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Influence of spectral resolution on the retrieval accuracy of temperature (left panel) and RH (right panel).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Retrieval accuracy of the current GOES sounder alone, AMSU alone, and GOES plus AMSU.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Retrieval accuracy comparisons between HES alone, AMSU alone, and HES plus AMSU for temperature (left panel) and RH (right panel) over the ocean.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 NWS Sounding Requirements for Accuracy and Resolution a

Equations (82)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 km
1 km
40 km
15 km
A = x ^ x = x ^ y × y x = G K J = ( K J T S ε 1 K J + S a p 1 ) 1 K J T S ε 1 K J ,
x ^
S ε
S a p
K J
ρ i = A i i / Δ z i ,
A i i
Δ z i
A i i
A i i / Δ z i
r i = 1 / ρ i .
0.625 cm 1
( 650 1150 cm 1 )
1.25 cm 1
( 1210 1740 cm 1 )
2.5 cm 1
( 2150 2720 cm 1 )
650 1200 cm 1
1200 1650 cm 1
1650 2250 cm 1
S a p
S a p
NeDT = NeDR R / T B ,
R / T B
T B
S ε
S ε
0.625 cm 1
1 km
SO 2
N 2 O
0.625 cm 1
3 × 3
1 / 3
1 2 km
10 km
5 10 km
10 15 km
10 km
20 cm 1
0.5 1 km
10 km
3 5 km
10 15 km
20 cm 1
0.625 cm 1
0.3125 cm 1
0.625 cm 1
0.3125 cm 1
0.3125 cm 1
0.625 cm 1
( 0.625 cm 1 )
( 20 cm 1 )
5 km
10 km
7 km
12 km
3 km
3 km
0.7 μm
15 μm
( A , B ) 13
0.625 cm 1
1 3 km
5 20 km
3 km
1 2 km
4 km
7 8 km
( 10 40 km )
3 4 km
1 2 km
4 10 km
0.625 cm 1
0.625 cm 1
20 cm 1
0.3125 cm 1
0.625 cm 1

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