Abstract

In connection with the design of a hard-x-ray telescope for the Constellation X-Ray Observatory we measured the reflectivity of an iridium-coated zerodur substrate as a function of angle at 55, 60, 70, and 80 keV at the National Synchrotron Light Source of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The optical constants were derived from the reflectivity data. The real component of the index of refraction is in excellent agreement with theoretical values at all four energies. However, the imaginary component, which is related to the mass attenuation coefficient, is 50% to 70% larger at 55, 60, and 70 keV than theoretical values.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. The Constellation X-Ray Observatory Web site, http://constellation.gsfc.nasa.gov/.
  2. H. Wolter, "Spiegelsyteme streifenden einfalls als abbildende optiken fur rontgenstrahlen," Ann. Physik 10, 94-114 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  3. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory Web site, http://chandra.harvard.edu/index.html.
  4. B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, and K. Parker, "A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy x-ray astronomy," in Proc. SPIE 1546, 160-167 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).
  7. J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).
  8. D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, and R. L. Blake, "Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors 2 to 12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 3113, 52-64 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. E. Graessle, R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, R. L. Blake, and A. J. Burek, "Iridium optical constants for the Chandra X-ray Observatory from reflectance measurements of 0.05-12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 469-481 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Elvis, D. F. Fabricant, and P. Gorenstein, "Grazing incidence imaging from 10 to 40 keV," Appl. Opt. 27, 1481-1485 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. H. Bilderback and S. Hubbard, "X-ray mirror reflectivities from 3.8 to 50 keV (3.3 to 0.25 Ang.) II. Pt, Si and other materials," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 91-95 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Zhong, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, and J. B. Hastings, "Sagittal focusing of high-energy synchrotron x-rays with asymmetric Laue crystals. II Experimental studies," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 646-653 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Windt, "IMD--Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998). IMD software for the IDL system sold by RSI can be downloaded from the Web site of the company Reflective X-ray Optics LLC, http://www.rxollc.com/idl/index.html.
  14. "X-ray interactions with matter," Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/layer2.html.
  15. "Anomalous scattering factors," Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, http://www.phys.llnl.gov/Research/scattering/asf.html.

2004 (1)

D. E. Graessle, R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, R. L. Blake, and A. J. Burek, "Iridium optical constants for the Chandra X-ray Observatory from reflectance measurements of 0.05-12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 469-481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Z. Zhong, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, and J. B. Hastings, "Sagittal focusing of high-energy synchrotron x-rays with asymmetric Laue crystals. II Experimental studies," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 646-653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, and R. L. Blake, "Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors 2 to 12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 3113, 52-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, and K. Parker, "A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy x-ray astronomy," in Proc. SPIE 1546, 160-167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1982 (1)

D. H. Bilderback and S. Hubbard, "X-ray mirror reflectivities from 3.8 to 50 keV (3.3 to 0.25 Ang.) II. Pt, Si and other materials," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 91-95 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

H. Wolter, "Spiegelsyteme streifenden einfalls als abbildende optiken fur rontgenstrahlen," Ann. Physik 10, 94-114 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, C. D.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Apple, J. A.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

D. E. Graessle, R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, R. L. Blake, and A. J. Burek, "Iridium optical constants for the Chandra X-ray Observatory from reflectance measurements of 0.05-12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 469-481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Basso, S.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Benson, C. M.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bilderback, D. H.

D. H. Bilderback and S. Hubbard, "X-ray mirror reflectivities from 3.8 to 50 keV (3.3 to 0.25 Ang.) II. Pt, Si and other materials," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 91-95 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Blake, R. L.

D. E. Graessle, R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, R. L. Blake, and A. J. Burek, "Iridium optical constants for the Chandra X-ray Observatory from reflectance measurements of 0.05-12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 469-481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, and R. L. Blake, "Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors 2 to 12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 3113, 52-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bruni, R. J.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Burek, A. J.

D. E. Graessle, R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, R. L. Blake, and A. J. Burek, "Iridium optical constants for the Chandra X-ray Observatory from reflectance measurements of 0.05-12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 469-481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, and R. L. Blake, "Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors 2 to 12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 3113, 52-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burkert, W.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Christensen, F. E.

F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, and K. Parker, "A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy x-ray astronomy," in Proc. SPIE 1546, 160-167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).

Citterio, O.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Conti, G.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Craig, W. W.

J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).

Decker, T. R.

J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).

Dietz, K. L.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, R. F.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Elvis, M.

Engelhaupt, D.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Engelhaupt, D. E.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fabricant, D. F.

Fitch, J. J.

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, and R. L. Blake, "Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors 2 to 12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 3113, 52-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Freyberg, M. J.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Ghigo, M.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Ghosh, K. K.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

M. Elvis, D. F. Fabricant, and P. Gorenstein, "Grazing incidence imaging from 10 to 40 keV," Appl. Opt. 27, 1481-1485 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Graessle, D. E.

D. E. Graessle, R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, R. L. Blake, and A. J. Burek, "Iridium optical constants for the Chandra X-ray Observatory from reflectance measurements of 0.05-12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 469-481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, and R. L. Blake, "Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors 2 to 12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 3113, 52-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gubarev, M.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Gullikson, E. M.

D. E. Graessle, R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, R. L. Blake, and A. J. Burek, "Iridium optical constants for the Chandra X-ray Observatory from reflectance measurements of 0.05-12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 469-481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hailey, C. J.

J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).

Harris, B.

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, and R. L. Blake, "Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors 2 to 12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 3113, 52-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, F. A.

J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).

Hartner, G.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Hastings, J. B.

Z. Zhong, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, and J. B. Hastings, "Sagittal focusing of high-energy synchrotron x-rays with asymmetric Laue crystals. II Experimental studies," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 646-653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hawthron, C.

J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).

Hornstrup, A.

F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, and K. Parker, "A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy x-ray astronomy," in Proc. SPIE 1546, 160-167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, S.

D. H. Bilderback and S. Hubbard, "X-ray mirror reflectivities from 3.8 to 50 keV (3.3 to 0.25 Ang.) II. Pt, Si and other materials," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 91-95 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, C. P.

J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).

Kao, C. C.

Z. Zhong, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, and J. B. Hastings, "Sagittal focusing of high-energy synchrotron x-rays with asymmetric Laue crystals. II Experimental studies," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 646-653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koglin, J. E.

J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).

Kolodziejczak, J. J.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, K. K.

J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).

Mazzoleni, F.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

O'Dell, S.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

O'Dell, S. L.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pareschi, G.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Parker, K.

F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, and K. Parker, "A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy x-ray astronomy," in Proc. SPIE 1546, 160-167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, B. D.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Romaine, S.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Schnopper, H. W.

F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, and K. Parker, "A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy x-ray astronomy," in Proc. SPIE 1546, 160-167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, D. A.

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, and R. L. Blake, "Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors 2 to 12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 3113, 52-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Siddons, D. P.

Z. Zhong, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, and J. B. Hastings, "Sagittal focusing of high-energy synchrotron x-rays with asymmetric Laue crystals. II Experimental studies," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 646-653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

D. E. Graessle, R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, R. L. Blake, and A. J. Burek, "Iridium optical constants for the Chandra X-ray Observatory from reflectance measurements of 0.05-12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 469-481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Speegle, C.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Speegle, C. O.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spiga, D.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

Stern, M.

J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).

Swartz, D. A.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tajiri, G.

J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).

Taylor, M. D.

J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).

Weisskopf, M. C.

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Westergaard, N. J.

F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, and K. Parker, "A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy x-ray astronomy," in Proc. SPIE 1546, 160-167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D.

D. Windt, "IMD--Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998). IMD software for the IDL system sold by RSI can be downloaded from the Web site of the company Reflective X-ray Optics LLC, http://www.rxollc.com/idl/index.html.

Wolter, H.

H. Wolter, "Spiegelsyteme streifenden einfalls als abbildende optiken fur rontgenstrahlen," Ann. Physik 10, 94-114 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Wood, J.

F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, and K. Parker, "A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy x-ray astronomy," in Proc. SPIE 1546, 160-167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Z.

Z. Zhong, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, and J. B. Hastings, "Sagittal focusing of high-energy synchrotron x-rays with asymmetric Laue crystals. II Experimental studies," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 646-653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Physik (1)

H. Wolter, "Spiegelsyteme streifenden einfalls als abbildende optiken fur rontgenstrahlen," Ann. Physik 10, 94-114 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

B. D. Ramsey, C. D. Alexander, J. A. Apple, C. M. Benson, K. L. Dietz, R. F. Elsner, D. E. Engelhaupt, K. K. Ghosh, J. J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O'Dell, C. O. Speegle, D. A. Swartz, and M. C. Weisskopf, "First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope," Astrophys. J. 568, 432-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

Z. Zhong, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, and J. B. Hastings, "Sagittal focusing of high-energy synchrotron x-rays with asymmetric Laue crystals. II Experimental studies," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 646-653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. (1)

D. H. Bilderback and S. Hubbard, "X-ray mirror reflectivities from 3.8 to 50 keV (3.3 to 0.25 Ang.) II. Pt, Si and other materials," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 91-95 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

F. E. Christensen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, H. W. Schnopper, J. Wood, and K. Parker, "A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high energy x-ray astronomy," in Proc. SPIE 1546, 160-167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Graessle, A. J. Burek, J. J. Fitch, B. Harris, D. A. Schwartz, and R. L. Blake, "Optical constants from synchrotron reflectance measurements of AXAF witness mirrors 2 to 12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 3113, 52-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Graessle, R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, R. L. Blake, and A. J. Burek, "Iridium optical constants for the Chandra X-ray Observatory from reflectance measurements of 0.05-12 keV," in Proc. SPIE 5165, 469-481 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

The Chandra X-Ray Observatory Web site, http://chandra.harvard.edu/index.html.

S. Romaine, S. Basso, R. J. Bruni, W. Burkert, O. Citterio, G. Conti, D. Engelhaupt, M. J. Freyberg, M. Ghigo, P. Gorenstein, M. Gubarev, G. Hartner, F. Mazzoleni, S. O'Dell, G. Pareschi, B. D. Ramsey, C. Speegle, and D. Spiga, "Development of prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope: III," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-S (2005).

J. E. Koglin, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, C. J. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, C. Hawthron, C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and M. D. Taylor, "NuStar hard x-ray optics," in Proc. SPIE 5900, 5900-X (2005).

The Constellation X-Ray Observatory Web site, http://constellation.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

D. Windt, "IMD--Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998). IMD software for the IDL system sold by RSI can be downloaded from the Web site of the company Reflective X-ray Optics LLC, http://www.rxollc.com/idl/index.html.

"X-ray interactions with matter," Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/layer2.html.

"Anomalous scattering factors," Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, http://www.phys.llnl.gov/Research/scattering/asf.html.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical 40   keV reflectivity as a function of the graze angle of iridium (solid curve) and a W∕Si multilayer (dashed curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the beamline at Brookhaven National Laboratory used for measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Crosses, measurements of the reflectivity of iridium at 55 keV (upper left), 60 keV (upper right), 70 keV (lower left), and 80 keV (lower right) as a function of graze angle. Solid curves, fits to the points using the IMD model13 and allowing the real and imaginary components of the optical constants to vary. The iridium coating is 30 nm thick and is bonded to a zerodur substrate by 12.5 nm of chromium.

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