Abstract

Metal oxide layers produced by plasma ion-assisted deposition are extensively used for complex optical coatings due to the availability of materials, the high packing density of films, and the smooth surfaces. Stringent optical surface figure specifications necessary for both laser optics and precision optics require film stress to be well-controlled and surface deformation to be corrected or compensated. SiO2- based single-cavity UV narrow-bandpass filters were prepared by plasma ion-assisted deposition. The correlation between film stress, refractive index, deposition parameters, and postdeposition annealing was established. The film stress was calculated based on interferometric surface deformation. The refractive index and film thickness were determined by means of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The center wavelength of the filters was obtained through spectral transmission measurement. The results suggest that the wavefront distortion of the multilayer coatings is dominated by the compressive stress of the SiO2 layers and can be controlled and corrected by the amount of plasma ion momentum transfer, substrate temperature, postdeposition annealing, and stress compensation via backside SiO2 coating. Based on the understanding of the mechanical and optical properties, the wavefront correction technique enables us to satisfy stringent surface figure specifications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005 (1)

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, "Correlation between mechanical stress and optical properties of SiO2/Ta2O5 multilayer UV narrow-bandpass filters deposited by plasma ion-assisted deposition," in Proc. SPIE 5870, 587000E1-9 (2005).

2004 (3)

S. H. Kim and C. K. Hwangbo, "Derivation of the center-wavelength shift of narrow bandpass filters under temperature change," Opt. Express 12, 5636-5639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, "Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces," in Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).

J. T. Brown, "Center wavelength shift dependence on substrate coefficient of thermal expansion for optical thin-film interference filters deposited by ion-beam sputtering," Appl. Opt. 43, 4506-4511 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. M. Lee, A. Dummer, and C. Montcalm, "Annealing effects on the properties of optical filters," in Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters 45th Annual Technical Conference (2002), pp. 220-223.

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, and N. Kaiser, "Mechanical stress and thermal-elastic properties of oxide coating for use in the deep-ultraviolet spectral region," Appl. Opt. 41, 3211-3217 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

R. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, C. W. Chu, T. Chen, F. Dai, S. Yan, and A. Chang, "Thermally stable narrow-bandpass filter prepared by reactive ion-assisted sputtering," Appl. Opt. 40, 1593-1598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Hu and S. P. Tay, "Characterization of high-K dielectric ZrO2 films annealed by rapid thermal process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1706-1714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

H. Windischmann, "Intrinsic stress in sputtered thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2431-2436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Brown, J. T.

Bungay, C. L.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A.

Chang, C. S.

Chen, T.

Chu, C. W.

Cushing, D.

Dai, F.

Dummer, A.

S. M. Lee, A. Dummer, and C. Montcalm, "Annealing effects on the properties of optical filters," in Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters 45th Annual Technical Conference (2002), pp. 220-223.

Gatto, A.

Götzelmann, R.

Guenther, K. H.

Herzinger, C. M.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hilfiker, J. N.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Hu and S. P. Tay, "Characterization of high-K dielectric ZrO2 films annealed by rapid thermal process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1706-1714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hwangbo, C. K.

S. H. Kim and C. K. Hwangbo, "Derivation of the center-wavelength shift of narrow bandpass filters under temperature change," Opt. Express 12, 5636-5639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

John, B.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim and C. K. Hwangbo, "Derivation of the center-wavelength shift of narrow bandpass filters under temperature change," Opt. Express 12, 5636-5639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

S. M. Lee, A. Dummer, and C. Montcalm, "Annealing effects on the properties of optical filters," in Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters 45th Annual Technical Conference (2002), pp. 220-223.

Maier, R. L.

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, "Correlation between mechanical stress and optical properties of SiO2/Ta2O5 multilayer UV narrow-bandpass filters deposited by plasma ion-assisted deposition," in Proc. SPIE 5870, 587000E1-9 (2005).

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, "Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces," in Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).

Matl, K.

Montcalm, C.

S. M. Lee, A. Dummer, and C. Montcalm, "Annealing effects on the properties of optical filters," in Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters 45th Annual Technical Conference (2002), pp. 220-223.

Pribil, G. K.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Synowicki, R. A.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takashashi, H.

Tay, S. P.

Y. Z. Hu and S. P. Tay, "Characterization of high-K dielectric ZrO2 films annealed by rapid thermal process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1706-1714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thielsch, R.

Tiwald, T. E.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, R. Y.

Wang, J.

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, "Correlation between mechanical stress and optical properties of SiO2/Ta2O5 multilayer UV narrow-bandpass filters deposited by plasma ion-assisted deposition," in Proc. SPIE 5870, 587000E1-9 (2005).

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, "Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces," in Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).

Windischmann, H.

H. Windischmann, "Intrinsic stress in sputtered thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2431-2436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Woollam, J. A.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yan, S.

Zöller, A.

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Windischmann, "Intrinsic stress in sputtered thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2431-2436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

Y. Z. Hu and S. P. Tay, "Characterization of high-K dielectric ZrO2 films annealed by rapid thermal process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1706-1714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

S. H. Kim and C. K. Hwangbo, "Derivation of the center-wavelength shift of narrow bandpass filters under temperature change," Opt. Express 12, 5636-5639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, "Correlation between mechanical stress and optical properties of SiO2/Ta2O5 multilayer UV narrow-bandpass filters deposited by plasma ion-assisted deposition," in Proc. SPIE 5870, 587000E1-9 (2005).

Other (3)

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, "Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces," in Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).

D. L. Smith, Thin-Film Deposition Principles & Practice, (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Chap. 5, pp. 186-193.

S. M. Lee, A. Dummer, and C. Montcalm, "Annealing effects on the properties of optical filters," in Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters 45th Annual Technical Conference (2002), pp. 220-223.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrum of the UV NBF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface wavefront and CWL shift of the UV NBF as a function of postdeposition annealing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive indices of the SiO 2 layer prior to and after postdeposition annealing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Compressive stress of a 500   nm SiO 2 single layer as a function of plasma ion momentum transfer per deposited atom.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Refractive index of SiO 2 single layers for various plasma ion momentum transfers during deposition, compared to HPFS substrate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated backside SiO 2 thickness at various plasma momentum transfers.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Description of the UV NBF

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Table 2 Stress of Single Layer of SiO2 and Ta2O5

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Table 3 Deposition Temperature Effect on the Stress of NBF

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Table 4 Example of Surface Correction

Equations (3)

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σ s = 2 E s 3 ( 1 ν s ) ( d s D ) 2 λ d f Δ f ,
P = J i R κ 2 m i e V b ,
σ = 1 18 d 1 / 8 e ( P / 58 ) ,

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