Abstract

We present an optimized linear algorithm for the spatial nonuniformity correction of a CCD color camera's imaging system and the experimental methodology developed for its implementation. We assess the influence of the algorithm's variables on the quality of the correction, that is, the dark image, the base correction image, and the reference level, and the range of application of the correction using a uniform radiance field provided by an integrator cube. The best spatial nonuniformity correction is achieved by having a nonzero dark image, by using an image with a mean digital level placed in the linear response range of the camera as the base correction image and taking the mean digital level of the image as the reference digital level. The response of the CCD color camera's imaging system to the uniform radiance field shows a high level of spatial uniformity after the optimized algorithm has been applied, which also allows us to achieve a high-quality spatial nonuniformity correction of captured images under different exposure conditions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. C. Holst, CCD Arrays, Cameras, and Displays (SPIE Press, 1996).
  2. J. R. Janesick, Scientific Charged-Coupled Devices (SPIE Press, 2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. B. M. Ratliff, M. M. Hayat, and J. Scott Tyo, "Radiometrically accurate scene-based nonuniformity correction for array sensors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1890-1899 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Lukac, B. Smolka, K. Martin, K. N. Plataniotis, and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, "Vector filtering for color imaging," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22, 74-86 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. T. Young, J. J. Gerbrands, and L. J. v. Vliet, "Image processing fundamentals," in The Digital Signal Processing Handbook, V. K. Madisetti and D. B. Williams, eds. (CRC Press in cooperation with IEEE Press, 1998), pp. 51.1-51.81.
  15. A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and T. G. Stockham, Jr., "Non-linear filtering of multiplied and convolved signals," Proc. IEEE 56, 1264-1291 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. J. A. M. Heijmans, Morphological Image Operators (Academic, 1994).
  17. R. S. Berns, "The science of digitizing paintings for color-accurate image archives: a review," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 45, 305-325 (2001).
  18. J. A. Tyson, "Low-light-level charge-coupled device imaging in astronomy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2131-2138 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Thomson and S. Westland, "Colour-imager characterization by parametric fitting of sensor responses," Color Res. Appl. 26, 442-449 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Aikens, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, "Solid-state imagers for microscopy," Methods Cell Biol. 29, 291-313 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. Bellia, A. Cesarano, F. Minichiello, S. Sibilio, and G. Spada, "Calibration procedures of a CCD camera for photometric measurements," presented at IMTC 2003--Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Vail, Colo., 20-22 May 2003.
  22. L. J. van Vliet, F. R. Boddeke, D. Sudar, and I. T. Young, "Image detectors for digital image microscopy," in Digital Image Analysis of Microbes; Imaging, Morphometry, Fluorometry and Motility Techniques and Applications, Modern Microbiological Methods, M. H. F. Wilkinson and F. Schut, eds. (Wiley, 1998), pp. 37-64.
    [PubMed]
  23. "Image Calibration," Roper Scientific, 2004, retrieved September 2005, http://www.roperscientific.de/timagecal.html.
  24. J. M. Arneson, "CCD optimization the limits of deep-sky imaging," Macalester College, retrieved September 2005, http://www.macalester.edu/astronomy/research/phys40/jon/webpage.html.
  25. R. Lukac and K. N. Plataniotis, "Color filter arrays: design and performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 51, 1260-1267 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

P. E. Haralabidis and C. Pilinis, "Linear color camera model for a skylight colorimeter with emphasis on the imaging pipeline noise performance," J. Electron. Imaging 14, 043005 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Lukac, B. Smolka, K. Martin, K. N. Plataniotis, and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, "Vector filtering for color imaging," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22, 74-86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Lukac and K. N. Plataniotis, "Color filter arrays: design and performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 51, 1260-1267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

"CCD Image Sensor Noise Sources," Application Note, Image Sensor Solutions, Eastman Kodak Company (2001), http://www.kodak.com/go/imagers.

R. S. Berns, "The science of digitizing paintings for color-accurate image archives: a review," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 45, 305-325 (2001).

M. Thomson and S. Westland, "Colour-imager characterization by parametric fitting of sensor responses," Color Res. Appl. 26, 442-449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

G. E. Healey and R. Kondepudy, "Radiometric CCD camera calibration and noise estimation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 16, 267-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. Aikens, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, "Solid-state imagers for microscopy," Methods Cell Biol. 29, 291-313 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. A. Tyson, "Low-light-level charge-coupled device imaging in astronomy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2131-2138 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and T. G. Stockham, Jr., "Non-linear filtering of multiplied and convolved signals," Proc. IEEE 56, 1264-1291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Agard, D. A.

R. Aikens, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, "Solid-state imagers for microscopy," Methods Cell Biol. 29, 291-313 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aikens, R.

R. Aikens, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, "Solid-state imagers for microscopy," Methods Cell Biol. 29, 291-313 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, E. E.

Arneson, J. M.

J. M. Arneson, "CCD optimization the limits of deep-sky imaging," Macalester College, retrieved September 2005, http://www.macalester.edu/astronomy/research/phys40/jon/webpage.html.

Bellia, L.

L. Bellia, A. Cesarano, F. Minichiello, S. Sibilio, and G. Spada, "Calibration procedures of a CCD camera for photometric measurements," presented at IMTC 2003--Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Vail, Colo., 20-22 May 2003.

Berns, R. S.

R. S. Berns, "The science of digitizing paintings for color-accurate image archives: a review," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 45, 305-325 (2001).

Boddeke, F. R.

L. J. van Vliet, F. R. Boddeke, D. Sudar, and I. T. Young, "Image detectors for digital image microscopy," in Digital Image Analysis of Microbes; Imaging, Morphometry, Fluorometry and Motility Techniques and Applications, Modern Microbiological Methods, M. H. F. Wilkinson and F. Schut, eds. (Wiley, 1998), pp. 37-64.
[PubMed]

Cesarano, A.

L. Bellia, A. Cesarano, F. Minichiello, S. Sibilio, and G. Spada, "Calibration procedures of a CCD camera for photometric measurements," presented at IMTC 2003--Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Vail, Colo., 20-22 May 2003.

Gerbrands, J. J.

I. T. Young, J. J. Gerbrands, and L. J. v. Vliet, "Image processing fundamentals," in The Digital Signal Processing Handbook, V. K. Madisetti and D. B. Williams, eds. (CRC Press in cooperation with IEEE Press, 1998), pp. 51.1-51.81.

Haralabidis, P. E.

P. E. Haralabidis and C. Pilinis, "Linear color camera model for a skylight colorimeter with emphasis on the imaging pipeline noise performance," J. Electron. Imaging 14, 043005 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hardie, R. C.

Hayat, M. M.

Healey, G. E.

G. E. Healey and R. Kondepudy, "Radiometric CCD camera calibration and noise estimation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 16, 267-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heijmans, H. J. A. M.

H. J. A. M. Heijmans, Morphological Image Operators (Academic, 1994).

Holst, G. C.

G. C. Holst, CCD Arrays, Cameras, and Displays (SPIE Press, 1996).

Janesick, J. R.

J. R. Janesick, Scientific Charged-Coupled Devices (SPIE Press, 2001).

Kondepudy, R.

G. E. Healey and R. Kondepudy, "Radiometric CCD camera calibration and noise estimation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 16, 267-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lukac, R.

R. Lukac, B. Smolka, K. Martin, K. N. Plataniotis, and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, "Vector filtering for color imaging," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22, 74-86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Lukac and K. N. Plataniotis, "Color filter arrays: design and performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 51, 1260-1267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, K.

R. Lukac, B. Smolka, K. Martin, K. N. Plataniotis, and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, "Vector filtering for color imaging," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22, 74-86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minichiello, F.

L. Bellia, A. Cesarano, F. Minichiello, S. Sibilio, and G. Spada, "Calibration procedures of a CCD camera for photometric measurements," presented at IMTC 2003--Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Vail, Colo., 20-22 May 2003.

Oppenheim, A. V.

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and T. G. Stockham, Jr., "Non-linear filtering of multiplied and convolved signals," Proc. IEEE 56, 1264-1291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Pezoa, J. E.

Pilinis, C.

P. E. Haralabidis and C. Pilinis, "Linear color camera model for a skylight colorimeter with emphasis on the imaging pipeline noise performance," J. Electron. Imaging 14, 043005 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Plataniotis, K. N.

R. Lukac and K. N. Plataniotis, "Color filter arrays: design and performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 51, 1260-1267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Lukac, B. Smolka, K. Martin, K. N. Plataniotis, and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, "Vector filtering for color imaging," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22, 74-86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ratliff, B. M.

Schafer, R. W.

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and T. G. Stockham, Jr., "Non-linear filtering of multiplied and convolved signals," Proc. IEEE 56, 1264-1291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sedat, J. W.

R. Aikens, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, "Solid-state imagers for microscopy," Methods Cell Biol. 29, 291-313 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibilio, S.

L. Bellia, A. Cesarano, F. Minichiello, S. Sibilio, and G. Spada, "Calibration procedures of a CCD camera for photometric measurements," presented at IMTC 2003--Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Vail, Colo., 20-22 May 2003.

Smolka, B.

R. Lukac, B. Smolka, K. Martin, K. N. Plataniotis, and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, "Vector filtering for color imaging," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22, 74-86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spada, G.

L. Bellia, A. Cesarano, F. Minichiello, S. Sibilio, and G. Spada, "Calibration procedures of a CCD camera for photometric measurements," presented at IMTC 2003--Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Vail, Colo., 20-22 May 2003.

Stockham, T. G.

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and T. G. Stockham, Jr., "Non-linear filtering of multiplied and convolved signals," Proc. IEEE 56, 1264-1291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sudar, D.

L. J. van Vliet, F. R. Boddeke, D. Sudar, and I. T. Young, "Image detectors for digital image microscopy," in Digital Image Analysis of Microbes; Imaging, Morphometry, Fluorometry and Motility Techniques and Applications, Modern Microbiological Methods, M. H. F. Wilkinson and F. Schut, eds. (Wiley, 1998), pp. 37-64.
[PubMed]

Thomson, M.

M. Thomson and S. Westland, "Colour-imager characterization by parametric fitting of sensor responses," Color Res. Appl. 26, 442-449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Torres, S. N.

Tyo, J. S.

B. M. Ratliff, M. M. Hayat, and J. S. Tyo, "Radiometrically-calibrated scene-based nonuniformity correction for infrared array sensors," in Infrared Technology and Applications XXVIII, B. F. Anderson, G. F. Fulop, and M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE 4820, 359-367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tyo, J. Scott

Tyoc, J. Scott

Tyson, J. A.

J. A. Tyson, "Low-light-level charge-coupled device imaging in astronomy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2131-2138 (1986).
[CrossRef]

van Vliet, L. J.

L. J. van Vliet, F. R. Boddeke, D. Sudar, and I. T. Young, "Image detectors for digital image microscopy," in Digital Image Analysis of Microbes; Imaging, Morphometry, Fluorometry and Motility Techniques and Applications, Modern Microbiological Methods, M. H. F. Wilkinson and F. Schut, eds. (Wiley, 1998), pp. 37-64.
[PubMed]

Venetsanopoulos, A. N.

R. Lukac, B. Smolka, K. Martin, K. N. Plataniotis, and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, "Vector filtering for color imaging," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22, 74-86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vliet, L. J. v.

I. T. Young, J. J. Gerbrands, and L. J. v. Vliet, "Image processing fundamentals," in The Digital Signal Processing Handbook, V. K. Madisetti and D. B. Williams, eds. (CRC Press in cooperation with IEEE Press, 1998), pp. 51.1-51.81.

Westland, S.

M. Thomson and S. Westland, "Colour-imager characterization by parametric fitting of sensor responses," Color Res. Appl. 26, 442-449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, B.

Young, I. T.

L. J. van Vliet, F. R. Boddeke, D. Sudar, and I. T. Young, "Image detectors for digital image microscopy," in Digital Image Analysis of Microbes; Imaging, Morphometry, Fluorometry and Motility Techniques and Applications, Modern Microbiological Methods, M. H. F. Wilkinson and F. Schut, eds. (Wiley, 1998), pp. 37-64.
[PubMed]

I. T. Young, J. J. Gerbrands, and L. J. v. Vliet, "Image processing fundamentals," in The Digital Signal Processing Handbook, V. K. Madisetti and D. B. Williams, eds. (CRC Press in cooperation with IEEE Press, 1998), pp. 51.1-51.81.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Color Res. Appl. (1)

M. Thomson and S. Westland, "Colour-imager characterization by parametric fitting of sensor responses," Color Res. Appl. 26, 442-449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

R. Lukac, B. Smolka, K. Martin, K. N. Plataniotis, and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, "Vector filtering for color imaging," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22, 74-86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

R. Lukac and K. N. Plataniotis, "Color filter arrays: design and performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 51, 1260-1267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. (1)

G. E. Healey and R. Kondepudy, "Radiometric CCD camera calibration and noise estimation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 16, 267-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

P. E. Haralabidis and C. Pilinis, "Linear color camera model for a skylight colorimeter with emphasis on the imaging pipeline noise performance," J. Electron. Imaging 14, 043005 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (1)

R. S. Berns, "The science of digitizing paintings for color-accurate image archives: a review," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 45, 305-325 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Methods Cell Biol. (1)

R. Aikens, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, "Solid-state imagers for microscopy," Methods Cell Biol. 29, 291-313 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and T. G. Stockham, Jr., "Non-linear filtering of multiplied and convolved signals," Proc. IEEE 56, 1264-1291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. M. Ratliff, M. M. Hayat, and J. S. Tyo, "Radiometrically-calibrated scene-based nonuniformity correction for infrared array sensors," in Infrared Technology and Applications XXVIII, B. F. Anderson, G. F. Fulop, and M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE 4820, 359-367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

L. Bellia, A. Cesarano, F. Minichiello, S. Sibilio, and G. Spada, "Calibration procedures of a CCD camera for photometric measurements," presented at IMTC 2003--Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Vail, Colo., 20-22 May 2003.

L. J. van Vliet, F. R. Boddeke, D. Sudar, and I. T. Young, "Image detectors for digital image microscopy," in Digital Image Analysis of Microbes; Imaging, Morphometry, Fluorometry and Motility Techniques and Applications, Modern Microbiological Methods, M. H. F. Wilkinson and F. Schut, eds. (Wiley, 1998), pp. 37-64.
[PubMed]

"Image Calibration," Roper Scientific, 2004, retrieved September 2005, http://www.roperscientific.de/timagecal.html.

J. M. Arneson, "CCD optimization the limits of deep-sky imaging," Macalester College, retrieved September 2005, http://www.macalester.edu/astronomy/research/phys40/jon/webpage.html.

H. J. A. M. Heijmans, Morphological Image Operators (Academic, 1994).

I. T. Young, J. J. Gerbrands, and L. J. v. Vliet, "Image processing fundamentals," in The Digital Signal Processing Handbook, V. K. Madisetti and D. B. Williams, eds. (CRC Press in cooperation with IEEE Press, 1998), pp. 51.1-51.81.

"CCD Image Sensor Noise Sources," Application Note, Image Sensor Solutions, Eastman Kodak Company (2001), http://www.kodak.com/go/imagers.

G. C. Holst, CCD Arrays, Cameras, and Displays (SPIE Press, 1996).

J. R. Janesick, Scientific Charged-Coupled Devices (SPIE Press, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Experimental setup for the spatial characterization of a CCD camera's imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean DL of images from a uniform radiance field for the B channel versus exposure time for different gain values and offset fixed at 1400.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean SNUP and standard deviation of the mean SNUP (error bars) of each radiance level (Ranges 1 to 6), as a function of the radiance level of each of the correction gain matrices used in the optimized algorithm for the spatial nonuniformity correction applied, for (a) R, (b) G, and (c) B camera channels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radiance spectrum of the incident light in the CCD camera imaging system. Different radiance levels are achieved by varying the intensity of the current applied to the light source.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SNUP Values and SNUP Reduction Percentages for the Image Resulting from Averaging as a Function of the Number of Averaged Images for the RGB Camera Channels

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mean SNUP Values of Images in the Camera's Useful Linear Response Range for Zero Dark Image (ZDI) and Nonzero Dark Image (NZDI) Gain and Offset Settings and for the RGB Camera Channels

Tables Icon

Table 3 Exposure Time Corresponding to Each Base Correction Image and Mean SNUP Values for the RGB Camera Channels a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Mean SNUP Values for the RGB Camera Channels of the Spatially Corrected Images a

Tables Icon

Table 5 Radiance and Exposure Time Ranges a

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DL c ( i , j ) = k DL ( i , j ) DL 0 ( i , j ) DL B ( i , j ) DL 0 ( i , j ) ,
DL c ( i , j ) = O ( i , j ) + G ( i , j ) DL ( i , j ) ,
G ( i , j ) = DL B DL 0 DL B ( i , j ) DL 0 ( i , j ) ,
O ( i , j ) = DL 0 G ( i , j ) DL 0 ( i , j ) ,
SNUP = 100 σ ( Mean ) Mean ,

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