Abstract

The analysis and design of a quasi-distributed multimode fiber refractometer array is presented. The main challenge in the design of a practical quasi-distributed sensor array proved to be in mitigation of otherwise pronounced cross-talk effects among the individual sensors in the network. The cross-talk effects originate from mode filtering properties and the strong mode excitation dependence on the multimode refractometer sensors that constitute the array. The introduction of mode conditioning based on fiber mode filters and mode mixers effectively reduced the cross talk to a negligible level while providing the desired sensor response at acceptable collateral losses to the network. A comprehensive experimental analysis was carried out to provide detailed insight into the multimode sensor array behavior and to obtain data necessary for an overall and effective network design.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

S. Sumida, S. Okazaki, S. Asakura, H. Nakagawa, H. Murayama, and T. Hasegawa, "Distributed hydrogen determination with fiber-optic sensor," Sens. Actuators B 108, 508-514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

L. Xu, J. C. Fanguy, K. Soni, and S. Tao, "Optical fiber humidity sensor based on evanescent-wave scattering," Opt. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ghandehari and C. S. Vimer, "In situ monitoring of pH level with fiber optic evanescent field spectroscopy," NDT & E Int. 37, 611-616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Lyons, C. Flanagan, E. Lewis, H. Ewald, and S. Lochmann, "Interrogation of multipoint optical fibre sensor signals based on artificial neural network pattern recognition techniques," Sens. Actuators A 114, 7-12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, "Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors)," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806-811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Chiadini, A. Paolillo, and A. Scaglione, "A reflectometric optical fiber temperature sensor," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 80-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Cherif, S. Hleli, A. Abdelghani, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and V. Matejec, "Chemical detection in liquid media with a refractometric sensor based on multimode optical fibre," Sensors 2, 195-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. John, A. Kishen, L. C. Sing, and A. Asundi, "Determination of bacterial activity by use of an evanescent-wave fiber-optic sensor," Appl. Opt. 41, 7334-7338 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

T. Lee S, N. A. George, P. Sureshkumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, "Chemical sensing with microbent optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1541-1543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Betta, A. Pietrosanto, and A. Scaglione, "An enhanced fiber-optic temperature sensor system for power transformer monitoring," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1138-1143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, "Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel," Sens. Actuators B 69, 127-131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Betta and A. Pietrosanto, "An intrinsic fiber optic temperature sensor," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 25-29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Philip-Chandy, P. J. Scully, P. Eldridge, H. J. Kadim, M. G. Grapin, M. G. Jonca, M. G. D"Ambrosio, and F. Colin, "An optical fiber sensor for biofilm measurement using intensity modulation and image analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 764-772 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Philip-Chandy, P. J. Scully, and D. Thomas, "A novel technique for on-line measurement of scaling using a multimode optical fibre sensor for industrial applications," Sens. Actuators B 71, 19-23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

V. Matejec, M. Chomat, I. Kasik, J. Ctyroky, D. Berkova, and M. Hayer, "Inverted-graded index fiber structures for evanescent-wave chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B 51, 340-347 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Ðonlagic and B. Culshaw, "Microbend sensor structure for use in distributed and quasi-distributed sensor systems based on selective launching and filtering of the modes in graded index multimode fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1856-1868 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Shou, J. Bures, S. Lacroix, and X. Daxhelet, "Mode separation in fused fiber coupler made of two-mode fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 92-104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. Stewart, W. Jin, and B. Culshaw, "Prospects for fiber-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near-infrared," Sens. Actuators B 38-39, 42-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

B. D. MacCraith, "Enhanced evanescent wave sensors based on sol-gel-derived porous glass coatings," Sens. Actuators B 11, 29-34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1969 (1)

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by diameter changes of a round dielectric waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3216-3233 (1969).

Abdelghani, A.

K. Cherif, S. Hleli, A. Abdelghani, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and V. Matejec, "Chemical detection in liquid media with a refractometric sensor based on multimode optical fibre," Sensors 2, 195-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F. J.

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, "Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel," Sens. Actuators B 69, 127-131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asakura, S.

S. Sumida, S. Okazaki, S. Asakura, H. Nakagawa, H. Murayama, and T. Hasegawa, "Distributed hydrogen determination with fiber-optic sensor," Sens. Actuators B 108, 508-514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asundi, A.

Auza, F.

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, "Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors)," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806-811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bariain, C.

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, "Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel," Sens. Actuators B 69, 127-131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Belanger, P.

P. Belanger and A. Roney, Optical Fiber Theory: A Supplement to Applied Electromagnetism (World Scientific, 1993).

Berkova, D.

V. Matejec, M. Chomat, I. Kasik, J. Ctyroky, D. Berkova, and M. Hayer, "Inverted-graded index fiber structures for evanescent-wave chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B 51, 340-347 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Betta, G.

G. Betta, A. Pietrosanto, and A. Scaglione, "An enhanced fiber-optic temperature sensor system for power transformer monitoring," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1138-1143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Betta and A. Pietrosanto, "An intrinsic fiber optic temperature sensor," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 25-29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bucaro, J. A.

Bures, J.

J. Shou, J. Bures, S. Lacroix, and X. Daxhelet, "Mode separation in fused fiber coupler made of two-mode fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 92-104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cherif, K.

K. Cherif, S. Hleli, A. Abdelghani, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and V. Matejec, "Chemical detection in liquid media with a refractometric sensor based on multimode optical fibre," Sensors 2, 195-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chiadini, F.

F. Chiadini, A. Paolillo, and A. Scaglione, "A reflectometric optical fiber temperature sensor," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 80-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chomat, M.

V. Matejec, M. Chomat, I. Kasik, J. Ctyroky, D. Berkova, and M. Hayer, "Inverted-graded index fiber structures for evanescent-wave chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B 51, 340-347 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cole, J. H.

Colin, F.

R. Philip-Chandy, P. J. Scully, P. Eldridge, H. J. Kadim, M. G. Grapin, M. G. Jonca, M. G. D"Ambrosio, and F. Colin, "An optical fiber sensor for biofilm measurement using intensity modulation and image analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 764-772 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ctyroky, J.

V. Matejec, M. Chomat, I. Kasik, J. Ctyroky, D. Berkova, and M. Hayer, "Inverted-graded index fiber structures for evanescent-wave chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B 51, 340-347 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

D"Ambrosio, M. G.

R. Philip-Chandy, P. J. Scully, P. Eldridge, H. J. Kadim, M. G. Grapin, M. G. Jonca, M. G. D"Ambrosio, and F. Colin, "An optical fiber sensor for biofilm measurement using intensity modulation and image analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 764-772 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Daxhelet, X.

J. Shou, J. Bures, S. Lacroix, and X. Daxhelet, "Mode separation in fused fiber coupler made of two-mode fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 92-104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ðonlagic, D.

Eldridge, P.

R. Philip-Chandy, P. J. Scully, P. Eldridge, H. J. Kadim, M. G. Grapin, M. G. Jonca, M. G. D"Ambrosio, and F. Colin, "An optical fiber sensor for biofilm measurement using intensity modulation and image analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 764-772 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ewald, H.

W. B. Lyons, C. Flanagan, E. Lewis, H. Ewald, and S. Lochmann, "Interrogation of multipoint optical fibre sensor signals based on artificial neural network pattern recognition techniques," Sens. Actuators A 114, 7-12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fanguy, J. C.

Flanagan, C.

W. B. Lyons, C. Flanagan, E. Lewis, H. Ewald, and S. Lochmann, "Interrogation of multipoint optical fibre sensor signals based on artificial neural network pattern recognition techniques," Sens. Actuators A 114, 7-12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaston, A.

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, "Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors)," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806-811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

George, N. A.

Ghandehari, M.

M. Ghandehari and C. S. Vimer, "In situ monitoring of pH level with fiber optic evanescent field spectroscopy," NDT & E Int. 37, 611-616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grapin, M. G.

R. Philip-Chandy, P. J. Scully, P. Eldridge, H. J. Kadim, M. G. Grapin, M. G. Jonca, M. G. D"Ambrosio, and F. Colin, "An optical fiber sensor for biofilm measurement using intensity modulation and image analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 764-772 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greenstein, A.

Hasegawa, T.

S. Sumida, S. Okazaki, S. Asakura, H. Nakagawa, H. Murayama, and T. Hasegawa, "Distributed hydrogen determination with fiber-optic sensor," Sens. Actuators B 108, 508-514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hayer, M.

V. Matejec, M. Chomat, I. Kasik, J. Ctyroky, D. Berkova, and M. Hayer, "Inverted-graded index fiber structures for evanescent-wave chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B 51, 340-347 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hleli, S.

K. Cherif, S. Hleli, A. Abdelghani, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and V. Matejec, "Chemical detection in liquid media with a refractometric sensor based on multimode optical fibre," Sensors 2, 195-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jaffrezic-Renault, N.

K. Cherif, S. Hleli, A. Abdelghani, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and V. Matejec, "Chemical detection in liquid media with a refractometric sensor based on multimode optical fibre," Sensors 2, 195-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

G. Stewart, W. Jin, and B. Culshaw, "Prospects for fiber-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near-infrared," Sens. Actuators B 38-39, 42-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

John, M. S.

Jonca, M. G.

R. Philip-Chandy, P. J. Scully, P. Eldridge, H. J. Kadim, M. G. Grapin, M. G. Jonca, M. G. D"Ambrosio, and F. Colin, "An optical fiber sensor for biofilm measurement using intensity modulation and image analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 764-772 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kadim, H. J.

R. Philip-Chandy, P. J. Scully, P. Eldridge, H. J. Kadim, M. G. Grapin, M. G. Jonca, M. G. D"Ambrosio, and F. Colin, "An optical fiber sensor for biofilm measurement using intensity modulation and image analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 764-772 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kasik, I.

V. Matejec, M. Chomat, I. Kasik, J. Ctyroky, D. Berkova, and M. Hayer, "Inverted-graded index fiber structures for evanescent-wave chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B 51, 340-347 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Katzir, A.

Kishen, A.

Lacroix, S.

J. Shou, J. Bures, S. Lacroix, and X. Daxhelet, "Mode separation in fused fiber coupler made of two-mode fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 92-104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lagakos, N.

Lee S, T.

Lewis, E.

W. B. Lyons, C. Flanagan, E. Lewis, H. Ewald, and S. Lochmann, "Interrogation of multipoint optical fibre sensor signals based on artificial neural network pattern recognition techniques," Sens. Actuators A 114, 7-12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lochmann, S.

W. B. Lyons, C. Flanagan, E. Lewis, H. Ewald, and S. Lochmann, "Interrogation of multipoint optical fibre sensor signals based on artificial neural network pattern recognition techniques," Sens. Actuators A 114, 7-12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Amo, M.

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, "Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel," Sens. Actuators B 69, 127-131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Lozano, I.

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, "Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors)," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806-811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, W. B.

W. B. Lyons, C. Flanagan, E. Lewis, H. Ewald, and S. Lochmann, "Interrogation of multipoint optical fibre sensor signals based on artificial neural network pattern recognition techniques," Sens. Actuators A 114, 7-12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

MacCraith, B. D.

B. D. MacCraith, "Enhanced evanescent wave sensors based on sol-gel-derived porous glass coatings," Sens. Actuators B 11, 29-34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by diameter changes of a round dielectric waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3216-3233 (1969).

Matejec, V.

K. Cherif, S. Hleli, A. Abdelghani, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and V. Matejec, "Chemical detection in liquid media with a refractometric sensor based on multimode optical fibre," Sensors 2, 195-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Matejec, M. Chomat, I. Kasik, J. Ctyroky, D. Berkova, and M. Hayer, "Inverted-graded index fiber structures for evanescent-wave chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B 51, 340-347 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matias, I. R.

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, "Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel," Sens. Actuators B 69, 127-131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Messica, A.

Murayama, H.

S. Sumida, S. Okazaki, S. Asakura, H. Nakagawa, H. Murayama, and T. Hasegawa, "Distributed hydrogen determination with fiber-optic sensor," Sens. Actuators B 108, 508-514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, H.

S. Sumida, S. Okazaki, S. Asakura, H. Nakagawa, H. Murayama, and T. Hasegawa, "Distributed hydrogen determination with fiber-optic sensor," Sens. Actuators B 108, 508-514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

Okazaki, S.

S. Sumida, S. Okazaki, S. Asakura, H. Nakagawa, H. Murayama, and T. Hasegawa, "Distributed hydrogen determination with fiber-optic sensor," Sens. Actuators B 108, 508-514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paolillo, A.

F. Chiadini, A. Paolillo, and A. Scaglione, "A reflectometric optical fiber temperature sensor," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 80-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perez, F.

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, "Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors)," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806-811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Philip-Chandy, R.

R. Philip-Chandy, P. J. Scully, P. Eldridge, H. J. Kadim, M. G. Grapin, M. G. Jonca, M. G. D"Ambrosio, and F. Colin, "An optical fiber sensor for biofilm measurement using intensity modulation and image analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 764-772 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Philip-Chandy, P. J. Scully, and D. Thomas, "A novel technique for on-line measurement of scaling using a multimode optical fibre sensor for industrial applications," Sens. Actuators B 71, 19-23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pietrosanto, A.

G. Betta, A. Pietrosanto, and A. Scaglione, "An enhanced fiber-optic temperature sensor system for power transformer monitoring," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1138-1143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Betta and A. Pietrosanto, "An intrinsic fiber optic temperature sensor," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 25-29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, P.

Roney, A.

P. Belanger and A. Roney, Optical Fiber Theory: A Supplement to Applied Electromagnetism (World Scientific, 1993).

Scaglione, A.

F. Chiadini, A. Paolillo, and A. Scaglione, "A reflectometric optical fiber temperature sensor," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 80-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Betta, A. Pietrosanto, and A. Scaglione, "An enhanced fiber-optic temperature sensor system for power transformer monitoring," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1138-1143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schiessl, U.

Scully, P. J.

R. Philip-Chandy, P. J. Scully, and D. Thomas, "A novel technique for on-line measurement of scaling using a multimode optical fibre sensor for industrial applications," Sens. Actuators B 71, 19-23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Philip-Chandy, P. J. Scully, P. Eldridge, H. J. Kadim, M. G. Grapin, M. G. Jonca, M. G. D"Ambrosio, and F. Colin, "An optical fiber sensor for biofilm measurement using intensity modulation and image analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 764-772 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sevilla, J.

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, "Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors)," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806-811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shou, J.

J. Shou, J. Bures, S. Lacroix, and X. Daxhelet, "Mode separation in fused fiber coupler made of two-mode fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 92-104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sing, L. C.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Soni, K.

Stewart, G.

G. Stewart, W. Jin, and B. Culshaw, "Prospects for fiber-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near-infrared," Sens. Actuators B 38-39, 42-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sumida, S.

S. Sumida, S. Okazaki, S. Asakura, H. Nakagawa, H. Murayama, and T. Hasegawa, "Distributed hydrogen determination with fiber-optic sensor," Sens. Actuators B 108, 508-514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sureshkumar, P.

Tacke, M.

Tai, H.

Tanaka, H.

Tao, S.

Thomas, D.

R. Philip-Chandy, P. J. Scully, and D. Thomas, "A novel technique for on-line measurement of scaling using a multimode optical fibre sensor for industrial applications," Sens. Actuators B 71, 19-23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vallabhan, C. P. G.

Vimer, C. S.

M. Ghandehari and C. S. Vimer, "In situ monitoring of pH level with fiber optic evanescent field spectroscopy," NDT & E Int. 37, 611-616 (2004).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mode attenuation in graded multimode fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of transmitted power versus RI change for three different sensor waist diameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quasi-distributed system setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single sensor composition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sensor losses for different sensor diameters.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SMD for different mode mixers and sensor waist diameters.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cross talk for different mode filters using different sensor and mode mixer combinations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

MSL in percentages compared with MSL at 0   dB mode filtering for different sensor waist diameters and MXL values.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relation between MTL and MSL for different sensor and mode filter pairs.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

OTDR trace of a five-sensor network.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Loss Distribution of a Single Sensor Segment

Metrics