Abstract

Spontaneous emission measurements are discussed for the Swings transitions of the C3 radical in laser-generated graphite plasma, and the spectroscopy of the C3 radical in carbon vapor and plasma is summarized. A review is given of some theoretical calculations and emission spectroscopic investigations are presented. Time-averaged, laser-induced optical breakdown spectra are reported from Nd:YAG laser generated graphite microplasma. In 200–300 Torr of argon and helium, and depending on the specific experimental configuration, a weak emission continuum is observed centered at 400 nm when using a laser fluence of typically 1J/cm2. Such continua were not detected in our previous experiments using focused laser radiation. The possibilities for the origin of this continuum are considered.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  53. F. Ossler, T. Metz, and M. Aldén, "Picosecond laser-induced fluorescence from gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures, I. Cell measurements," Appl. Phys. B 72, 465-478 (2001).
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2006 (1)

L. Nemes, A. M. Keszler, C. G. Parigger, J. O. Hornkohl, H. A. Michelsen, and V. Stakhursky, "The C3 Puzzle: formation of and spontaneous emission from the C3 radical in carbon plasma," Internet Electron. J. Mol. Des. 5, 150-167 (2006).

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

A. Keszler and L. Nemes, "Time averaged emission spectra of Nd:YAG laser induced carbon plasmas," J. Mol. Struct. 695-696, 211-218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2002 (5)

Z. Cao, M. Mühlhäuser, M. Hanrath, and S.D. Peyerimhoff, "Study of possible photodissociation channels in linear carbon clusters Cn (n=4-6)," Chem. Phys. Lett. 351, 327-334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Wakasaki, K. Sasaki, and K. Kadota, "Collisional quenching of C2(d3Πg) and C3(A1Πu) and its application to the estimation of absolute particle density in laser-ablation carbon plumes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5792-5796 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, T. Wakasaki, and K. Kadota, "Observation of continuum optical emission from laser-ablation carbon plumes," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 197-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, T. Wakasaki, S. Matsui, and K. Kadota, "Distributions of C2 and C3 radical densities in laser-ablation carbon plumes measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4033-4039 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Monninger, M. Förderer, P. Gürtler, S. Kalhofer, S. Petersen, L. Nemes, P. G. Szalay, and W. Krätschmer, "Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of the carbon molecule C3 in matrix isolated state: Experiment and theory," J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 5779-5788 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

F. Ossler, T. Metz, and M. Aldén, "Picosecond laser-induced fluorescence from gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures, I. Cell measurements," Appl. Phys. B 72, 465-478 (2001).

F. Ossler, T. Metz, and M. Aldén, "Picosecond laser-induced fluorescence from gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures. II. Flame-seeding measurements," Appl. Phys. B 72, 479-489 (2001).

2000 (1)

K. Takizawa, K. Sasaki, and K. Kadota, "Characteristics of C3 radicals in high-density C4F8 plasmas studied by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6201-6208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. Arepalli, P. Nikolaev, W. Holmes, and C. D. Scott, "Diagnostics of laser-produced plume under carbon nanotube growth conditions," Appl. Phys. A 69, 1-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Arepalli and C. D. Scott, "Spectral measurements in production of single-wall carbon nanotubes by laser ablation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 302, 139-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

I. Cermak, M. Förderer, S. Kalhofer, H. Stopka-Ebeler, and W. Krätschmer, "Laser-induced emission spectroscopy of matrix-isolated carbon molecules: experimental setup and new results on C3," J. Chem. Phys. 108, 10129-10142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Chase, Jr., "NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 4th ed., Part 1, Al-Co," J. Chem. Ref. Data , Monograph 9, Vol. 14 (1998).

A. Van Orden and R. J. Saykally, "Small carbon clusters: spectroscopy, structure, and energetics," Chem. Rev. 98, 2313-2356 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Luque, W. Juchmann, and J. B. Jeffries, "Spatial density distributions of C2, C3, and CH radicals by laser-induced fluorescence in a diamond depositing dc-arcjet," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2072-2081 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Raiche and J. B. Jeffries, "Observation and spatial distribution of C3 in a DC arcjet plasma during diamond deposition using laser-induced fluorescence," Appl. Phys. B 64, 593-597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

W. J. Balfour, J. Cao, C. V. V. Prasad, and C. X. W. Qian, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of the A1Πu−X1Σg+ transition in jet-cooled C3," J. Chem. Phys. 101, 10343-10349 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, J. O. Hornkohl, and J. W. L. Lewis, "Spectroscopic temperature measurements in a decaying laser-induced plasma using the C2 Swan system," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 707-711 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Martin, "C2 spectroscopy and kinetics, invited review," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 60, 263-289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

P. Monchicourt, "Onset of carbon cluster formation inferred from light emission in a laser-induced expansion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1430-1433 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O. Hornkohl, C. Parigger, and J. W. L. Lewis, "Temperature measurements from CN spectra in a laser-induced plasma," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 46, 405-411 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

E. A. Rohlfing, "Optical emission studies of atomic, molecular, and particulate carbon produced from a laser vaporization cluster source," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6103-6112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. Anselment, R. Seth Smith, E. Daykin, and L. F. Dimauro, "Optical emission studies on graphite in a laser/vaporization supersonic jet cluster source," Chem. Phys. Lett. 134, 444-449 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

W. L. Snow and W. L. Wells, "The spectral opacity of triatomic carbon measured in a graphite tube furnace over the 280 to 600 nm wavelength range," J. Chem. Phys. 73, 2547-2551 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Jungen and A. J. Merer, "Orbital angular momentum in triatomic molecules. IV. The A1Πu state of C3," Mol. Phys. 40, 95-114 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

D. M. Cooper and J. J. Jones, "An experimental determination of the cross section of the Swings band system of C3," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 22, 201-208 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

H. R. Leider, O. H. Krikorian, and D. A. Young, "Thermodynamic properties of carbon up to the critical point," Carbon 11, 555-563 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

H. Henning, "Die kontinuierliche Strahlung thermischer Kohlenstoffplasmen," Z. Astrophys. 62, 109-120 (1965).

L. Gausset, G. Herzberg, A. Lagerquist, and B. Rosen, "Analysis of the 4050 Å group of the C3 molecule," Astrophys. J. 142, 45-76 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

L. Gausset, G. Herzberg, A. Lagerquist, and B. Rosen, "Spectrum of the C3 molecule," Discuss. Faraday Soc. 35, 113-117 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

L. Brewer and J. L. Engelke, "Spectrum of C3," J. Chem. Phys. 36, 992-998 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1957 (2)

J. G. Phillips, "Relative temperature coefficients of features in the C3 spectrum," Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liege Collect. 4 , 18, 538-543 (1957).

G. V. Marr, "The luminous mantle of fuel-rich oxyacetylene flames, II. Free radical and continuum intensities and their influence on C3 emissions," Can. J. Phys. 35, 1275-1283 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

N. H. Kiess and H. P. Broida, "Spectrum of the C3 molecule between 3600 Å and 4200 Å," Can. J. Phys. 34, 1471-1479 (1956).

1955 (2)

J. G. Phillips and L. Brewer, "An ultraviolet continuum in the spectrum of carbon," Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liege Collect. 4 , 15, 341-351 (1955).

A.McKellar and E. H. Richardson, "Relative spectral gradients of several cool carbon stars in the blue and violet regions," Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liege Collect. 4 , 15, 256-275 (1955).

1954 (1)

N. H. Kiess and A. M. Bass, "The λ-4050 group of cometary spectra in the acetylene-oxygen flame," J. Chem. Phys. 22, 569-570 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

A. E. Douglas, "Laboratory studies of the λ 4050 group of cometary spectra," Astrophys. J. 114, 466-468 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1942 (1)

G. Herzberg, "Laboratory production of the λ 4050 group occurring in cometary spectra; further evidence for the presence of CH2 molecules in comets," Astrophys. J. 96, 314-315 (1942).
[CrossRef]

1937 (1)

G. Herzberg, K. F. Herzfeld, and E. Teller, "The heat of sublimation of graphite," J. Phys. Chem. 41, 325-331 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1881 (1)

W. Huggins, "Preliminary note on the photographic spectrum of Comet b 1881," Proc. R. Soc. London 33, 1-3 (1881).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

F. Ossler, T. Metz, and M. Aldén, "Picosecond laser-induced fluorescence from gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures, I. Cell measurements," Appl. Phys. B 72, 465-478 (2001).

F. Ossler, T. Metz, and M. Aldén, "Picosecond laser-induced fluorescence from gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures. II. Flame-seeding measurements," Appl. Phys. B 72, 479-489 (2001).

Anselment, M.

M. Anselment, R. Seth Smith, E. Daykin, and L. F. Dimauro, "Optical emission studies on graphite in a laser/vaporization supersonic jet cluster source," Chem. Phys. Lett. 134, 444-449 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Arepalli, S.

S. Arepalli, P. Nikolaev, W. Holmes, and C. D. Scott, "Diagnostics of laser-produced plume under carbon nanotube growth conditions," Appl. Phys. A 69, 1-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Arepalli and C. D. Scott, "Spectral measurements in production of single-wall carbon nanotubes by laser ablation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 302, 139-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balfour, W. J.

W. J. Balfour, J. Cao, C. V. V. Prasad, and C. X. W. Qian, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of the A1Πu−X1Σg+ transition in jet-cooled C3," J. Chem. Phys. 101, 10343-10349 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bass, A. M.

N. H. Kiess and A. M. Bass, "The λ-4050 group of cometary spectra in the acetylene-oxygen flame," J. Chem. Phys. 22, 569-570 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, L.

L. Brewer and J. L. Engelke, "Spectrum of C3," J. Chem. Phys. 36, 992-998 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Phillips and L. Brewer, "An ultraviolet continuum in the spectrum of carbon," Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liege Collect. 4 , 15, 341-351 (1955).

Broida, H. P.

N. H. Kiess and H. P. Broida, "Spectrum of the C3 molecule between 3600 Å and 4200 Å," Can. J. Phys. 34, 1471-1479 (1956).

Cao, J.

W. J. Balfour, J. Cao, C. V. V. Prasad, and C. X. W. Qian, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of the A1Πu−X1Σg+ transition in jet-cooled C3," J. Chem. Phys. 101, 10343-10349 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.

Z. Cao, M. Mühlhäuser, M. Hanrath, and S.D. Peyerimhoff, "Study of possible photodissociation channels in linear carbon clusters Cn (n=4-6)," Chem. Phys. Lett. 351, 327-334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cermak, I.

I. Cermak, M. Förderer, S. Kalhofer, H. Stopka-Ebeler, and W. Krätschmer, "Laser-induced emission spectroscopy of matrix-isolated carbon molecules: experimental setup and new results on C3," J. Chem. Phys. 108, 10129-10142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalhofer, I. Cermak, M. Förderer, G. Monninger, I. Cermaková, W. Krätschmer, P. Gürtler, and S. Petersen, "Emission and absorption spectroscopy of matrix isolated carbon molecules," in Proceedings of EUCMOS XXIV (Prague, 1998).

Cermaková, I.

S. Kalhofer, I. Cermak, M. Förderer, G. Monninger, I. Cermaková, W. Krätschmer, P. Gürtler, and S. Petersen, "Emission and absorption spectroscopy of matrix isolated carbon molecules," in Proceedings of EUCMOS XXIV (Prague, 1998).

Chase, W.

W. Chase, Jr., "NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 4th ed., Part 1, Al-Co," J. Chem. Ref. Data , Monograph 9, Vol. 14 (1998).

Cooper, D. M.

D. M. Cooper and J. J. Jones, "An experimental determination of the cross section of the Swings band system of C3," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 22, 201-208 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Daykin, E.

M. Anselment, R. Seth Smith, E. Daykin, and L. F. Dimauro, "Optical emission studies on graphite in a laser/vaporization supersonic jet cluster source," Chem. Phys. Lett. 134, 444-449 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dimauro, L. F.

M. Anselment, R. Seth Smith, E. Daykin, and L. F. Dimauro, "Optical emission studies on graphite in a laser/vaporization supersonic jet cluster source," Chem. Phys. Lett. 134, 444-449 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Douglas, A. E.

A. E. Douglas, "Laboratory studies of the λ 4050 group of cometary spectra," Astrophys. J. 114, 466-468 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Engelke, J. L.

L. Brewer and J. L. Engelke, "Spectrum of C3," J. Chem. Phys. 36, 992-998 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Förderer, M.

G. Monninger, M. Förderer, P. Gürtler, S. Kalhofer, S. Petersen, L. Nemes, P. G. Szalay, and W. Krätschmer, "Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of the carbon molecule C3 in matrix isolated state: Experiment and theory," J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 5779-5788 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Cermak, M. Förderer, S. Kalhofer, H. Stopka-Ebeler, and W. Krätschmer, "Laser-induced emission spectroscopy of matrix-isolated carbon molecules: experimental setup and new results on C3," J. Chem. Phys. 108, 10129-10142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalhofer, I. Cermak, M. Förderer, G. Monninger, I. Cermaková, W. Krätschmer, P. Gürtler, and S. Petersen, "Emission and absorption spectroscopy of matrix isolated carbon molecules," in Proceedings of EUCMOS XXIV (Prague, 1998).

Gausset, L.

L. Gausset, G. Herzberg, A. Lagerquist, and B. Rosen, "Analysis of the 4050 Å group of the C3 molecule," Astrophys. J. 142, 45-76 (1965).
[CrossRef]

L. Gausset, G. Herzberg, A. Lagerquist, and B. Rosen, "Spectrum of the C3 molecule," Discuss. Faraday Soc. 35, 113-117 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Gürtler, P.

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L. Nemes, A. M. Keszler, C. G. Parigger, J. O. Hornkohl, H. A. Michelsen, and V. Stakhursky, "The C3 Puzzle: formation of and spontaneous emission from the C3 radical in carbon plasma," Internet Electron. J. Mol. Des. 5, 150-167 (2006).

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L. Nemes, A. M. Keszler, C. G. Parigger, J. O. Hornkohl, H. A. Michelsen, and V. Stakhursky, "The C3 Puzzle: formation of and spontaneous emission from the C3 radical in carbon plasma," Internet Electron. J. Mol. Des. 5, 150-167 (2006).

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F. Ossler, T. Metz, and M. Aldén, "Picosecond laser-induced fluorescence from gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures. II. Flame-seeding measurements," Appl. Phys. B 72, 479-489 (2001).

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L. Nemes, A. M. Keszler, C. G. Parigger, J. O. Hornkohl, H. A. Michelsen, and V. Stakhursky, "The C3 Puzzle: formation of and spontaneous emission from the C3 radical in carbon plasma," Internet Electron. J. Mol. Des. 5, 150-167 (2006).

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G. Monninger, M. Förderer, P. Gürtler, S. Kalhofer, S. Petersen, L. Nemes, P. G. Szalay, and W. Krätschmer, "Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of the carbon molecule C3 in matrix isolated state: Experiment and theory," J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 5779-5788 (2002).
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Z. Cao, M. Mühlhäuser, M. Hanrath, and S.D. Peyerimhoff, "Study of possible photodissociation channels in linear carbon clusters Cn (n=4-6)," Chem. Phys. Lett. 351, 327-334 (2002).
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K. Sasaki, T. Wakasaki, and K. Kadota, "Observation of continuum optical emission from laser-ablation carbon plumes," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 197-201 (2002).
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L. Nemes, A. M. Keszler, C. G. Parigger, J. O. Hornkohl, H. A. Michelsen, and V. Stakhursky, "The C3 Puzzle: formation of and spontaneous emission from the C3 radical in carbon plasma," Internet Electron. J. Mol. Des. 5, 150-167 (2006).

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G. Monninger, M. Förderer, P. Gürtler, S. Kalhofer, S. Petersen, L. Nemes, P. G. Szalay, and W. Krätschmer, "Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of the carbon molecule C3 in matrix isolated state: Experiment and theory," J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 5779-5788 (2002).
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N. V. Tarasenko, "Laser-induced fluorescence and time-resolved emission spectroscopy of laser ablation plasma," in Proceedings of 25th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics (ECA, 1998) 22C, 1647-1650.

D. C. Tyte, S. H. Innanen, and R. W. Nicholls, Indentification Atlas of Molecular Spectra, Part 5. The C2A3Πg−X′3Πu Swan System (York University, 1967).

R. H. Huddlestone and S. L. Leonard, Plasma Diagnostic Techniques (Academic, 1968).

A. P. Thorne, U. Litzen, and S. Johansson, Spectrophysics: Principles and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 1999).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Simulation results of the spectroscopic signature of the C 3 Swings transitions for temperatures of T = 3000, 5000, and 7000 K.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of laser-induced carbon plasma: (a) vacuum and (b) p = 200 Torr helium background.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Recorded graphite LIB spectra in vacuum with (a) focused and (b) unfocused 1064 nm laser radiation. The spectra are scaled to highlight the low-intensity features, yet only the carbon 427   nm atomic emission shows a maximum of approximately 16 in relative units.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Graphite LIB spectra in argon: (a) 5 Torr Ar focused and (b) 200 Torr Ar unfocused 1064   nm laser radiation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Short wavelength section of the recorded LIB spectrum in 200 Torr Ar with unfocused radiation; see Fig. 4(b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) Measured and (b) thermal equilibrium spectral fit to the C 2 Swan bands in argon background gas at focused conditions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) (a) Measured and (b) thermal equilibrium spectral fit to the C 2 Swan bands in argon background gas at unfocused conditions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Graphite LIB spectra in 200 Torr helium recorded with unfocused radiation at a fluence of 1.6 J / cm 2 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Blackbody radiation and laser-induced incandescence spectral curves calculated for a particle with a diameter of 40   nm . Calculations were performed using the Planck function and several possible values for the emissivity (cases) (Ref. 51).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) The 400   nm continuum region of the LII fit of 100   nm particle emission (smooth curve) to the LIB spectrum obtained in 200 Torr argon using unfocused laser radiation at 1.1 J / cm 2 fluence. Compare Figs. 4(b) and 5.

Equations (1)

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N e 1.6 × 10 12 T × ( Δ E ) 3 cm 3 ,

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