Abstract

We report time-averaged and time-resolved emission spectra subsequent to laser-induced optical breakdown of aluminum in laboratory air and in hydrogen gas. The microplasma generated by nominal 10  ns IR laser radiation shows Stark-broadened and shifted atomic lines. An analysis of the Hα and Hβ Balmer series lines and selected aluminum lines allows one to determine electron number density in the range of 0.0110×1018cm3 early in the plasma decay. Atomic and molecular features are investigated for diagnostic applications in laser material processing.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, eds., Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. G. Parigger, "Laser-induced breakdown in gases: experiments and simulation," in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, A. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 2006), pp. 171-193 and references therein.
  3. C. Fleurier, S. Sahal-Bréchot, and J. Chapelle, "Stark profiles of Al I and Al II lines," J. Phys. B 10, 3435-3441 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Renner, D. Salzmann, P. Sondhauss, A. Djaoui, E. Krouský and E. Förster, "Experimental evidence of plasma shifts in Lyman series of aluminum," J. Phys. B 31, 1379-1390 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. G. Dors, C. Parigger, and J. W. L. Lewis, "Spectroscopic temperature determination of aluminum monoxide in laser ablation with 266 nm radiation," Opt. Lett. 23, 1778-1780 (1998), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Parigger, J. O. Hornkohl, A. M. Keszler, and L. Nemes, "Measurement and analysis of atomic and diatomic carbon spectra from laser ablation of graphite," Appl. Opt. 42, 6192-6198 (2003), and references therein.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. O. Hornkohl and C. G. Parigger, Boltzmann Equilibrium Spectrum Program (BESP) (The University of Tennessee Space Institute, 2002), http://view.utsi.edu/besp.
  8. J. O. Hornkohl, C. G. Parigger, and L. Nemes, "Diatomic Hönl-London factor computer program," Appl. Opt. 44, 3686-3695 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. J. Chang and B. E. Warner, "Laser-plasma interaction during visible-laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. Lett 69, 473-475 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. G. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, and E. Oks, "Balmer series Hβ measurments in a laser-induced hydrogen plasma," Appl. Opt. 42, 5992-6000 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. G. Parigger, "Measurements of laser-induced plasma and optical breakdown spectra of aluminum," in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes, E. Oks and M. Pindzola, eds. (AIP Conference Proceedings 874, 2006) pp. 101-111.

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

1998 (2)

O. Renner, D. Salzmann, P. Sondhauss, A. Djaoui, E. Krouský and E. Förster, "Experimental evidence of plasma shifts in Lyman series of aluminum," J. Phys. B 31, 1379-1390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Dors, C. Parigger, and J. W. L. Lewis, "Spectroscopic temperature determination of aluminum monoxide in laser ablation with 266 nm radiation," Opt. Lett. 23, 1778-1780 (1998), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. J. Chang and B. E. Warner, "Laser-plasma interaction during visible-laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. Lett 69, 473-475 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. Fleurier, S. Sahal-Bréchot, and J. Chapelle, "Stark profiles of Al I and Al II lines," J. Phys. B 10, 3435-3441 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. J.

J. J. Chang and B. E. Warner, "Laser-plasma interaction during visible-laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. Lett 69, 473-475 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chapelle, J.

C. Fleurier, S. Sahal-Bréchot, and J. Chapelle, "Stark profiles of Al I and Al II lines," J. Phys. B 10, 3435-3441 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cremers, D. A.

D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, eds., Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Djaoui, A.

O. Renner, D. Salzmann, P. Sondhauss, A. Djaoui, E. Krouský and E. Förster, "Experimental evidence of plasma shifts in Lyman series of aluminum," J. Phys. B 31, 1379-1390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dors, I. G.

Fleurier, C.

C. Fleurier, S. Sahal-Bréchot, and J. Chapelle, "Stark profiles of Al I and Al II lines," J. Phys. B 10, 3435-3441 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Förster, E.

O. Renner, D. Salzmann, P. Sondhauss, A. Djaoui, E. Krouský and E. Förster, "Experimental evidence of plasma shifts in Lyman series of aluminum," J. Phys. B 31, 1379-1390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hornkohl, J. O.

Keszler, A. M.

Krouský, E.

O. Renner, D. Salzmann, P. Sondhauss, A. Djaoui, E. Krouský and E. Förster, "Experimental evidence of plasma shifts in Lyman series of aluminum," J. Phys. B 31, 1379-1390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, J. W. L.

Nemes, L.

Oks, E.

Parigger, C.

Parigger, C. G.

J. O. Hornkohl, C. G. Parigger, and L. Nemes, "Diatomic Hönl-London factor computer program," Appl. Opt. 44, 3686-3695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, and E. Oks, "Balmer series Hβ measurments in a laser-induced hydrogen plasma," Appl. Opt. 42, 5992-6000 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Parigger, "Measurements of laser-induced plasma and optical breakdown spectra of aluminum," in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes, E. Oks and M. Pindzola, eds. (AIP Conference Proceedings 874, 2006) pp. 101-111.

J. O. Hornkohl and C. G. Parigger, Boltzmann Equilibrium Spectrum Program (BESP) (The University of Tennessee Space Institute, 2002), http://view.utsi.edu/besp.

C. G. Parigger, "Laser-induced breakdown in gases: experiments and simulation," in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, A. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 2006), pp. 171-193 and references therein.

Plemmons, D. H.

Radziemski, L. J.

D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, eds., Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Renner, O.

O. Renner, D. Salzmann, P. Sondhauss, A. Djaoui, E. Krouský and E. Förster, "Experimental evidence of plasma shifts in Lyman series of aluminum," J. Phys. B 31, 1379-1390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sahal-Bréchot, S.

C. Fleurier, S. Sahal-Bréchot, and J. Chapelle, "Stark profiles of Al I and Al II lines," J. Phys. B 10, 3435-3441 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Salzmann, D.

O. Renner, D. Salzmann, P. Sondhauss, A. Djaoui, E. Krouský and E. Förster, "Experimental evidence of plasma shifts in Lyman series of aluminum," J. Phys. B 31, 1379-1390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sondhauss, P.

O. Renner, D. Salzmann, P. Sondhauss, A. Djaoui, E. Krouský and E. Förster, "Experimental evidence of plasma shifts in Lyman series of aluminum," J. Phys. B 31, 1379-1390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Warner, B. E.

J. J. Chang and B. E. Warner, "Laser-plasma interaction during visible-laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. Lett 69, 473-475 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

J. J. Chang and B. E. Warner, "Laser-plasma interaction during visible-laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. Lett 69, 473-475 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (2)

C. Fleurier, S. Sahal-Bréchot, and J. Chapelle, "Stark profiles of Al I and Al II lines," J. Phys. B 10, 3435-3441 (1977).
[CrossRef]

O. Renner, D. Salzmann, P. Sondhauss, A. Djaoui, E. Krouský and E. Förster, "Experimental evidence of plasma shifts in Lyman series of aluminum," J. Phys. B 31, 1379-1390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, eds., Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parigger, "Laser-induced breakdown in gases: experiments and simulation," in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, A. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 2006), pp. 171-193 and references therein.

J. O. Hornkohl and C. G. Parigger, Boltzmann Equilibrium Spectrum Program (BESP) (The University of Tennessee Space Institute, 2002), http://view.utsi.edu/besp.

C. G. Parigger, "Measurements of laser-induced plasma and optical breakdown spectra of aluminum," in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes, E. Oks and M. Pindzola, eds. (AIP Conference Proceedings 874, 2006) pp. 101-111.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Spatially and temporally integrated emission spectrum following nanosecond Nd:YAG laser-generation-induced optical breakdown at and near the aluminum block.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Time-resolved, single-shot aluminum 394.4 and 396.2   nm atomic line emissions for selected time delays from the optical breakdown pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Measured and synthetic molecular spectra of aluminum monoxide 50 μs after nanosecond Nd:YAG laser optical breakdown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Recorded Stark widths and shifts for Al I 394.40   nm and Al I 396.15   nm lines from aluminum plasma in 100 Torr hydrogen.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Recorded Stark widths and shifts for hydrogen-alpha Balmer series line for the indicated time delays and in 100 Torr hydrogen.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Recorded Stark widths and shifts for hydrogen-beta Balmer series line for the indicated time delays and in 100 Torr hydrogen.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linewidth (FWHM) and Redshift for λ = 394.4 nm Line of Al I

Tables Icon

Table 2 Linewidth (FWHM) and Redshift for λ = 396.15 nm Line of Al I

Tables Icon

Table 3 Linewidth (FWHM) and Redshift for λ = 656.28 nm Hα Balmer Series Line

Tables Icon

Table 4 Linewidth (FWHM) and Peak Separation for λ = 486.14 nm Hβ Balmer Series Line

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