Abstract

A multipass cell for absorption measurements with an additionally applied homogeneous electric field for Stark effect measurements is described. The configuration is based on two ring mirrors, where the laser beam propagates between two nested cylindrical-wall electrodes. The total optical path length achieved is 40  m. The beam pointing stability of this setup is investigated and compared to a confocal-type Herriott cell of the same base length, employing numerical simulations. The exit beam pointing stability is found to be very good. The response measurements show fast exchange times, which agree well with theoretical values.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  20. C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, "Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2005).
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2006 (2)

S. R. Saleska, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, R. Jiménez, J. B. McManus, J. William Munger, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, "What are the instrumentation requirements for measuring the isotopic composition of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 using eddy covariance methods?" Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 115-133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

P. Werle, C. Dyroff, A. Zahn, P. Mazzinghi, and F. D'Amato, "A new concept for sensitive in situ stable isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy based on sample modulation," Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 41, 323-333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, "Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, "Simple dense-pattern optical multipass cells," Appl. Opt. 44, 6545-6556 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, "High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3325-3335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, "Tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange," Agric. Forest Meteorol. 118, 1-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. A. Silver and W. R. Wood, "Miniature gas sensor for monitoring biological space environments," in Diode Lasers and Applications in Atmospheric Sensing, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE 4817, 82-87 (2002).

G. Durry, T. Danguy, and I. Pouchet, "Open multipass absorption cell for in situ monitoring of stratospheric trace gas with telecommunication laser diodes," Appl. Opt. 41, 424-433 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

P. Werle and S. Lechner, "Stark-modulation-enhanced FM-spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Doussin, R. Dominique, and C. Patrick, "Multiple-pass cell for very-long-path infrared spectrometrty," Appl. Opt. 38, 4145-4150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

P. Werle and B. Jänker, "High-frequency-modulation spectroscopy: phase noise and refractive index fluctuations in optical multipass cells," Opt. Eng. 35, 2051-2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, "The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)," Appl. Phys. B 57, 131-139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1981 (1)

1964 (1)

1942 (1)

Altmann, J.

Barskaya, E. G.

Baumgart, R.

Bowling, D. R.

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, "Tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange," Agric. Forest Meteorol. 118, 1-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burch, J. M.

A. Gerrard and J. M. Burch, Introduction to Matrix Methods in Optics (Dover, 1994).

Chernin, S. M.

D'Amato, F.

P. Werle, C. Dyroff, A. Zahn, P. Mazzinghi, and F. D'Amato, "A new concept for sensitive in situ stable isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy based on sample modulation," Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 41, 323-333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Danguy, T.

De Rosa, M.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dominique, R.

Doussin, J.-F.

Durry, G.

Dyroff, C.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, C. Dyroff, A. Zahn, P. Mazzinghi, and F. D'Amato, "A new concept for sensitive in situ stable isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy based on sample modulation," Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 41, 323-333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Dyroff, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, M. S. Zahnizer, and J. B. McManus, "Design and performance assessment of a stable astigmatic Herriott cell for trace gas measurements on airborne platforms," in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis (Annapolis, 2004).

Ehleringer, J. R.

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, "Tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange," Agric. Forest Meteorol. 118, 1-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, "Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, "Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde," Appl. Opt. 39, 4436-4443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Dyroff, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, M. S. Zahnizer, and J. B. McManus, "Design and performance assessment of a stable astigmatic Herriott cell for trace gas measurements on airborne platforms," in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis (Annapolis, 2004).

Gerrard, A.

A. Gerrard and J. M. Burch, Introduction to Matrix Methods in Optics (Dover, 1994).

Hall, J. L.

Henry, B.

Herndon, S.

S. R. Saleska, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, R. Jiménez, J. B. McManus, J. William Munger, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, "What are the instrumentation requirements for measuring the isotopic composition of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 using eddy covariance methods?" Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 115-133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, "High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3325-3335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herriott, D.

Jänker, B.

P. Werle and B. Jänker, "High-frequency-modulation spectroscopy: phase noise and refractive index fluctuations in optical multipass cells," Opt. Eng. 35, 2051-2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez, R.

S. R. Saleska, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, R. Jiménez, J. B. McManus, J. William Munger, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, "What are the instrumentation requirements for measuring the isotopic composition of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 using eddy covariance methods?" Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 115-133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kebabian, P. L.

Kogelnik, H.

Kompfner, R.

Kuchling, H.

H. Kuchling, Taschenbuch der Physik (Verlag Harri Deutsch, 1984).

Lancaster, D. G.

Lechner, S.

P. Werle and S. Lechner, "Stark-modulation-enhanced FM-spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L. S.

Maurer, K.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mazzinghi, P.

P. Werle, C. Dyroff, A. Zahn, P. Mazzinghi, and F. D'Amato, "A new concept for sensitive in situ stable isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy based on sample modulation," Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 41, 323-333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McManus, B.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, "High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3325-3335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

S. R. Saleska, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, R. Jiménez, J. B. McManus, J. William Munger, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, "What are the instrumentation requirements for measuring the isotopic composition of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 using eddy covariance methods?" Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 115-133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and M. S. Zahniser, "Astigmatic mirror multipass absorption cells for long-path-length spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 34, 3336-3348 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dyroff, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, M. S. Zahnizer, and J. B. McManus, "Design and performance assessment of a stable astigmatic Herriott cell for trace gas measurements on airborne platforms," in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis (Annapolis, 2004).

Mücke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, "The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)," Appl. Phys. B 57, 131-139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. D.

S. R. Saleska, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, R. Jiménez, J. B. McManus, J. William Munger, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, "What are the instrumentation requirements for measuring the isotopic composition of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 using eddy covariance methods?" Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 115-133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, "High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3325-3335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, C.

Pouchet, I.

Raizer, Y. P.

Y. P. Raizer, Gas Discharge Physics (Springer Verlag, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Dyroff, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, M. S. Zahnizer, and J. B. McManus, "Design and performance assessment of a stable astigmatic Herriott cell for trace gas measurements on airborne platforms," in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis (Annapolis, 2004).

Roller, C.

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, "Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saleska, S. R.

S. R. Saleska, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, R. Jiménez, J. B. McManus, J. William Munger, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, "What are the instrumentation requirements for measuring the isotopic composition of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 using eddy covariance methods?" Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 115-133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sargent, S. D.

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, "Tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange," Agric. Forest Meteorol. 118, 1-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shorter, J. H.

S. R. Saleska, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, R. Jiménez, J. B. McManus, J. William Munger, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, "What are the instrumentation requirements for measuring the isotopic composition of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 using eddy covariance methods?" Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 115-133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silver, J. A.

J. A. Silver, "Simple dense-pattern optical multipass cells," Appl. Opt. 44, 6545-6556 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Silver and W. R. Wood, "Miniature gas sensor for monitoring biological space environments," in Diode Lasers and Applications in Atmospheric Sensing, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE 4817, 82-87 (2002).

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, "The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)," Appl. Phys. B 57, 131-139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, B. D.

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, "Tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange," Agric. Forest Meteorol. 118, 1-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, "Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Urbanski, S.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, "High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3325-3335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walega, J.

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, "Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walega, J. G.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Dyroff, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, M. S. Zahnizer, and J. B. McManus, "Design and performance assessment of a stable astigmatic Herriott cell for trace gas measurements on airborne platforms," in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis (Annapolis, 2004).

Weibring, P.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, "Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

Werle, P.

P. Werle, C. Dyroff, A. Zahn, P. Mazzinghi, and F. D'Amato, "A new concept for sensitive in situ stable isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy based on sample modulation," Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 41, 323-333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle and S. Lechner, "Stark-modulation-enhanced FM-spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle and B. Jänker, "High-frequency-modulation spectroscopy: phase noise and refractive index fluctuations in optical multipass cells," Opt. Eng. 35, 2051-2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, "The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)," Appl. Phys. B 57, 131-139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wert, B.

White, J. U.

William Munger, J.

S. R. Saleska, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, R. Jiménez, J. B. McManus, J. William Munger, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, "What are the instrumentation requirements for measuring the isotopic composition of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 using eddy covariance methods?" Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 115-133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, W. R.

J. A. Silver and W. R. Wood, "Miniature gas sensor for monitoring biological space environments," in Diode Lasers and Applications in Atmospheric Sensing, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE 4817, 82-87 (2002).

Ye, J.

Zahn, A.

P. Werle, C. Dyroff, A. Zahn, P. Mazzinghi, and F. D'Amato, "A new concept for sensitive in situ stable isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy based on sample modulation," Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 41, 323-333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

S. R. Saleska, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, R. Jiménez, J. B. McManus, J. William Munger, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, "What are the instrumentation requirements for measuring the isotopic composition of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 using eddy covariance methods?" Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 115-133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, "High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3325-3335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and M. S. Zahniser, "Astigmatic mirror multipass absorption cells for long-path-length spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 34, 3336-3348 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zahnizer, M. S.

C. Dyroff, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, M. S. Zahnizer, and J. B. McManus, "Design and performance assessment of a stable astigmatic Herriott cell for trace gas measurements on airborne platforms," in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis (Annapolis, 2004).

Agric. Forest Meteorol. (1)

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, "Tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange," Agric. Forest Meteorol. 118, 1-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. Tittel, "Advances in hardware, system diagnostics software, and acquisition procedures for high performance airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B 82, 247-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, "The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)," Appl. Phys. B 57, 131-139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. (2)

P. Werle, C. Dyroff, A. Zahn, P. Mazzinghi, and F. D'Amato, "A new concept for sensitive in situ stable isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy based on sample modulation," Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 41, 323-333 (2005).
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S. R. Saleska, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, R. Jiménez, J. B. McManus, J. William Munger, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, "What are the instrumentation requirements for measuring the isotopic composition of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 using eddy covariance methods?" Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 42, 115-133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

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D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, "High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3325-3335 (2004).
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P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
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C. Dyroff, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, M. S. Zahnizer, and J. B. McManus, "Design and performance assessment of a stable astigmatic Herriott cell for trace gas measurements on airborne platforms," in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis (Annapolis, 2004).

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Multipass cell mirrors with radius r, spaced by distance d. The coupling hole is located in the front mirror at x 0 and y 0 . The cell axis coincides with the z axis. (b) Section view of the ceramic flow-inlet part of the cell. The ceramic also provides proper electrical isolation against the inner electrode. (c) Rendered cross section of the cell showing the two nested cylindrical electrodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Ray tracing simulation of the multipass cell for the first 22 passes. The outer electrode has been removed for clarification. (b) Spot pattern on the front mirror as observed from inside the cell as a result of a complete ray tracing simulation. (c) Photograph of the cell. (d) Photograph of the front mirror with the beam of a red trace laser aligned through the cell. The outer electrode has been removed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Propagation of a ray vector between two coincident RPs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Threshold electric field E t h versus pressure-gap-product pg in air [23]. The electrode gap for the measurement was 7.75   mm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Second-derivative spectra of H 2 O at approximately 7182 .209   cm 1 for ambient H 2 O (solid curve) and residual H 2 O (dashed curve), when the cell was flushed with dry nitrogen. (b) Response of the cell to a square wave of ambient H 2 O at a pumping speed of 4 .75   L / min . (c) Gas exchange time at the falling edge is 1.5 s. A second long time constant of 11 s is attributable to water desorption off the cell and upstream tubing walls. (d) Gas exchange time at the rising edge is 1.6 s.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Beam Displacement Δ x , Δ y and Beam Pointing Angle Δα n , Δβ n Due to Changes in Mirror Separation Δ d for the Present Stark-Modulation Cell and a Confocal Herriott Cell with a Circular Spot Pattern of the Same Diameter a

Equations (14)

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cos ( θ ) = 1 d 2 f  .
x n = x 0 cos ( n θ ) + ( d 4 f d ) 1 / 2 [ x 0 + 2 f tan ( α ) ] sin ( n θ ) .
N θ = 2 π M , M = 1 , 2 , 3 , .
d = 2 f [ 1 cos ( 2 π M N ) ] .
L = 1 M ( x n x n + 2 ) 2 + ( y n y n + 2 ) 2 ,
[ x 1 tan ( α 1 ) ] = [ A B C D ] [ x 0 tan ( α 0 ) ] ,
x 1 = A x 0 + B tan ( α 0 ) + Δ x ,
tan ( α 1 ) = C x 0 + D tan ( α 0 ) + δ x ,
1 = 0 + 0 + 1 .
[ x 1 tan ( α 1 ) 1 ] = [ A B Δ x C D δ x 0 0 1 ] [ x 0 tan ( α 0 ) 1 ] .
R x = [ 1 0 Δ x 2 / r 1 δ x 0 0 1 ] ,
D x = [ 1 d + Δ d 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ] .
Z n | x = M x Z n 0 .
E t h = a g ln ( p g ) + b .

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