Abstract

The first use of cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) to measure differential (angular) sputter yield profiles of sputtered particles is reported. Owing to the path-integrated nature of CRDS, inversion techniques are required. Our approach is to scan the optical axis relative to the source of sputtered particles and to measure the spatial profile of the CRDS signals. Modeling is then used to determine the differential sputter yield profile from the measured CRDS spatial profile. Demonstrative measurements are made with a Nd:YAG pumped optical parametric oscillator laser system for 750 eV argon ions normally incident on a molybdenum target. At these conditions we find an under- cosine sputtering distribution characterized by a=0.22±0.07 in good agreement with past quartz crystal microbalance measurements (a=0.19).

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. E. Polk, "An overview of the results from an 8200 hour wear test of the NSTAR ion thruster," in Proceedings of the AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1999).
  2. R. D. Kolasinski and J. E. Polk, AIAA Paper No. 2003-5144, in Proceedings of the 39th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003).
  3. A. P. Yalin, J. D. Williams, V. Surla, J. Wolf, and K. A. Zoerb, "Azimuthal differential sputter yields of molybdenum by low energy Xe+ bombardment," in Proceedings of 42nd AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).
  4. E. Oyarzabal, J. H. Yu, J. Hanna, G. R. Tynan, R. P. Doerner, K. J. Taylor, and K. Schmid, "Molybdenum and carbon cluster angular sputtering distributions under low energy xenon ion bombardment," in Proceedings of the 41st AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).
  5. V. Shutthanandan, P. K. Ray, N. R. Shivaparan, R. J. Smith, and M. Mantenieks, "On the measurement of low-energy sputtering yield using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry," presented at The 21th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C., 1997).
  6. V. Surla, P. J. Wilbur, M. Johnson, J. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Sputter erosion measurements of titanium and molybdenum by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3025-3030 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. P. Yalin, V. Surla, M. Butweiller, and J. D. Williams, "Detection of sputtered metals using cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 6496-6505 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. P. Yalin and V. Surla, "Determination of number density and velocity of sputtered particles by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," presented at The 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C., 2005).
  9. K. W. Busch and M. A. Busch, Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy: an Ultratrace-Absorption Measurement Technique, ACS Symposium 720 (American Chemical Society, 1999).
  10. G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. P. Yalin and R. N. Zare, "Effect of laser line shape on the quantitative analysis of cavity ring-down signals," Laser Phys. 12, 1065-1072 (2002).
  13. M. J. Pellin, C. E. Young, M. H. Mendelsohn, D. M. Gruen, R. B. Wright, and A. B. Dewald, "Oxygen and titanium sputtering yields as determined by laser fluorescence and auger electron spectroscopy for monolayer oxygen coverage of polycrstalline Ti," J. Nucl. Mater. 111-112, 738-743 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. R. Hudson and B. A. Banks, AIAA Paper No. 73-1131 in Proceedings of 10th AIAA Electric Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1973).
  15. A. P. Yalin and V. Surla, "Determination of number density and velocity of sputtered particles by cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Paper No. IEPC-2005-300, in Proceedings of 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C. 2005).
  16. Z. L. Zhang and L. Zhang, "Anisotropic angular distributions of sputtered atoms," Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 159, 301-307 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Stepanova and S. K. Dew, "Anisotropic energies of sputtered atoms under oblique ion incidence," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 215, 357-365 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. E. Jones, Jr., "Theories of distribution of deposit from sputtered disk and rectangular electrodes," IBM. J. Res. Dev. 16, 27-34 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. P. Yalin and V. Surla, "Velocity measurements by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 30, 3219-3221 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. A. Zoerb, J. D. Williams, D. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Differential sputtering yields of refractory metals by xenon, krypton, and Ar ion bombardment at normal and oblique incidences," in Proceedings of the 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C. 2005).
  21. Y. Yamamura and H. Tawara, "Energy dependence of ion-induced sputtering yields from monatomic solids at normal incidence," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 62, 149-253 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

Z. L. Zhang and L. Zhang, "Anisotropic angular distributions of sputtered atoms," Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 159, 301-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stepanova and S. K. Dew, "Anisotropic energies of sputtered atoms under oblique ion incidence," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 215, 357-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Surla, P. J. Wilbur, M. Johnson, J. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Sputter erosion measurements of titanium and molybdenum by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3025-3030 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. P. Yalin and R. N. Zare, "Effect of laser line shape on the quantitative analysis of cavity ring-down signals," Laser Phys. 12, 1065-1072 (2002).

2000 (1)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Y. Yamamura and H. Tawara, "Energy dependence of ion-induced sputtering yields from monatomic solids at normal incidence," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 62, 149-253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. J. Pellin, C. E. Young, M. H. Mendelsohn, D. M. Gruen, R. B. Wright, and A. B. Dewald, "Oxygen and titanium sputtering yields as determined by laser fluorescence and auger electron spectroscopy for monolayer oxygen coverage of polycrstalline Ti," J. Nucl. Mater. 111-112, 738-743 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. E. Jones, Jr., "Theories of distribution of deposit from sputtered disk and rectangular electrodes," IBM. J. Res. Dev. 16, 27-34 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Banks, B. A.

W. R. Hudson and B. A. Banks, AIAA Paper No. 73-1131 in Proceedings of 10th AIAA Electric Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1973).

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K. W.

K. W. Busch and M. A. Busch, Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy: an Ultratrace-Absorption Measurement Technique, ACS Symposium 720 (American Chemical Society, 1999).

Busch, M. A.

K. W. Busch and M. A. Busch, Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy: an Ultratrace-Absorption Measurement Technique, ACS Symposium 720 (American Chemical Society, 1999).

Butweiller, M.

Dew, S. K.

M. Stepanova and S. K. Dew, "Anisotropic energies of sputtered atoms under oblique ion incidence," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 215, 357-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dewald, A. B.

M. J. Pellin, C. E. Young, M. H. Mendelsohn, D. M. Gruen, R. B. Wright, and A. B. Dewald, "Oxygen and titanium sputtering yields as determined by laser fluorescence and auger electron spectroscopy for monolayer oxygen coverage of polycrstalline Ti," J. Nucl. Mater. 111-112, 738-743 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Doerner, R. P.

E. Oyarzabal, J. H. Yu, J. Hanna, G. R. Tynan, R. P. Doerner, K. J. Taylor, and K. Schmid, "Molybdenum and carbon cluster angular sputtering distributions under low energy xenon ion bombardment," in Proceedings of the 41st AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

Gruen, D. M.

M. J. Pellin, C. E. Young, M. H. Mendelsohn, D. M. Gruen, R. B. Wright, and A. B. Dewald, "Oxygen and titanium sputtering yields as determined by laser fluorescence and auger electron spectroscopy for monolayer oxygen coverage of polycrstalline Ti," J. Nucl. Mater. 111-112, 738-743 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, J.

E. Oyarzabal, J. H. Yu, J. Hanna, G. R. Tynan, R. P. Doerner, K. J. Taylor, and K. Schmid, "Molybdenum and carbon cluster angular sputtering distributions under low energy xenon ion bombardment," in Proceedings of the 41st AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

Hudson, W. R.

W. R. Hudson and B. A. Banks, AIAA Paper No. 73-1131 in Proceedings of 10th AIAA Electric Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1973).

Johnson, M.

V. Surla, P. J. Wilbur, M. Johnson, J. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Sputter erosion measurements of titanium and molybdenum by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3025-3030 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. E.

R. E. Jones, Jr., "Theories of distribution of deposit from sputtered disk and rectangular electrodes," IBM. J. Res. Dev. 16, 27-34 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kolasinski, R. D.

R. D. Kolasinski and J. E. Polk, AIAA Paper No. 2003-5144, in Proceedings of the 39th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003).

Mantenieks, M.

V. Shutthanandan, P. K. Ray, N. R. Shivaparan, R. J. Smith, and M. Mantenieks, "On the measurement of low-energy sputtering yield using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry," presented at The 21th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C., 1997).

Meijer, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mendelsohn, M. H.

M. J. Pellin, C. E. Young, M. H. Mendelsohn, D. M. Gruen, R. B. Wright, and A. B. Dewald, "Oxygen and titanium sputtering yields as determined by laser fluorescence and auger electron spectroscopy for monolayer oxygen coverage of polycrstalline Ti," J. Nucl. Mater. 111-112, 738-743 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Oyarzabal, E.

E. Oyarzabal, J. H. Yu, J. Hanna, G. R. Tynan, R. P. Doerner, K. J. Taylor, and K. Schmid, "Molybdenum and carbon cluster angular sputtering distributions under low energy xenon ion bombardment," in Proceedings of the 41st AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

Peeters, R.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pellin, M. J.

M. J. Pellin, C. E. Young, M. H. Mendelsohn, D. M. Gruen, R. B. Wright, and A. B. Dewald, "Oxygen and titanium sputtering yields as determined by laser fluorescence and auger electron spectroscopy for monolayer oxygen coverage of polycrstalline Ti," J. Nucl. Mater. 111-112, 738-743 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Polk, J. E.

R. D. Kolasinski and J. E. Polk, AIAA Paper No. 2003-5144, in Proceedings of the 39th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003).

J. E. Polk, "An overview of the results from an 8200 hour wear test of the NSTAR ion thruster," in Proceedings of the AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1999).

Ray, P. K.

V. Shutthanandan, P. K. Ray, N. R. Shivaparan, R. J. Smith, and M. Mantenieks, "On the measurement of low-energy sputtering yield using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry," presented at The 21th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C., 1997).

Schmid, K.

E. Oyarzabal, J. H. Yu, J. Hanna, G. R. Tynan, R. P. Doerner, K. J. Taylor, and K. Schmid, "Molybdenum and carbon cluster angular sputtering distributions under low energy xenon ion bombardment," in Proceedings of the 41st AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

Shivaparan, N. R.

V. Shutthanandan, P. K. Ray, N. R. Shivaparan, R. J. Smith, and M. Mantenieks, "On the measurement of low-energy sputtering yield using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry," presented at The 21th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C., 1997).

Shutthanandan, V.

V. Shutthanandan, P. K. Ray, N. R. Shivaparan, R. J. Smith, and M. Mantenieks, "On the measurement of low-energy sputtering yield using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry," presented at The 21th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C., 1997).

Smith, R. J.

V. Shutthanandan, P. K. Ray, N. R. Shivaparan, R. J. Smith, and M. Mantenieks, "On the measurement of low-energy sputtering yield using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry," presented at The 21th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C., 1997).

Stepanova, M.

M. Stepanova and S. K. Dew, "Anisotropic energies of sputtered atoms under oblique ion incidence," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 215, 357-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Surla, V.

A. P. Yalin and V. Surla, "Velocity measurements by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 30, 3219-3221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Yalin, V. Surla, M. Butweiller, and J. D. Williams, "Detection of sputtered metals using cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 6496-6505 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Surla, P. J. Wilbur, M. Johnson, J. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Sputter erosion measurements of titanium and molybdenum by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3025-3030 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Yalin, J. D. Williams, V. Surla, J. Wolf, and K. A. Zoerb, "Azimuthal differential sputter yields of molybdenum by low energy Xe+ bombardment," in Proceedings of 42nd AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

A. P. Yalin and V. Surla, "Determination of number density and velocity of sputtered particles by cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Paper No. IEPC-2005-300, in Proceedings of 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C. 2005).

A. P. Yalin and V. Surla, "Determination of number density and velocity of sputtered particles by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," presented at The 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C., 2005).

Tawara, H.

Y. Yamamura and H. Tawara, "Energy dependence of ion-induced sputtering yields from monatomic solids at normal incidence," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 62, 149-253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, K. J.

E. Oyarzabal, J. H. Yu, J. Hanna, G. R. Tynan, R. P. Doerner, K. J. Taylor, and K. Schmid, "Molybdenum and carbon cluster angular sputtering distributions under low energy xenon ion bombardment," in Proceedings of the 41st AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

Tynan, G. R.

E. Oyarzabal, J. H. Yu, J. Hanna, G. R. Tynan, R. P. Doerner, K. J. Taylor, and K. Schmid, "Molybdenum and carbon cluster angular sputtering distributions under low energy xenon ion bombardment," in Proceedings of the 41st AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

Wilbur, P. J.

V. Surla, P. J. Wilbur, M. Johnson, J. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Sputter erosion measurements of titanium and molybdenum by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3025-3030 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. D.

K. A. Zoerb, J. D. Williams, D. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Differential sputtering yields of refractory metals by xenon, krypton, and Ar ion bombardment at normal and oblique incidences," in Proceedings of the 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C. 2005).

Williams, J. D.

A. P. Yalin, V. Surla, M. Butweiller, and J. D. Williams, "Detection of sputtered metals using cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 6496-6505 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Surla, P. J. Wilbur, M. Johnson, J. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Sputter erosion measurements of titanium and molybdenum by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3025-3030 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Yalin, J. D. Williams, V. Surla, J. Wolf, and K. A. Zoerb, "Azimuthal differential sputter yields of molybdenum by low energy Xe+ bombardment," in Proceedings of 42nd AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

K. A. Zoerb, J. D. Williams, D. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Differential sputtering yields of refractory metals by xenon, krypton, and Ar ion bombardment at normal and oblique incidences," in Proceedings of the 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C. 2005).

Wolf, J.

A. P. Yalin, J. D. Williams, V. Surla, J. Wolf, and K. A. Zoerb, "Azimuthal differential sputter yields of molybdenum by low energy Xe+ bombardment," in Proceedings of 42nd AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

Wright, R. B.

M. J. Pellin, C. E. Young, M. H. Mendelsohn, D. M. Gruen, R. B. Wright, and A. B. Dewald, "Oxygen and titanium sputtering yields as determined by laser fluorescence and auger electron spectroscopy for monolayer oxygen coverage of polycrstalline Ti," J. Nucl. Mater. 111-112, 738-743 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yalin, A. P.

A. P. Yalin and V. Surla, "Velocity measurements by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 30, 3219-3221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Yalin, V. Surla, M. Butweiller, and J. D. Williams, "Detection of sputtered metals using cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 6496-6505 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Surla, P. J. Wilbur, M. Johnson, J. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Sputter erosion measurements of titanium and molybdenum by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3025-3030 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Yalin and R. N. Zare, "Effect of laser line shape on the quantitative analysis of cavity ring-down signals," Laser Phys. 12, 1065-1072 (2002).

A. P. Yalin and V. Surla, "Determination of number density and velocity of sputtered particles by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," presented at The 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C., 2005).

A. P. Yalin, J. D. Williams, V. Surla, J. Wolf, and K. A. Zoerb, "Azimuthal differential sputter yields of molybdenum by low energy Xe+ bombardment," in Proceedings of 42nd AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

A. P. Yalin and V. Surla, "Determination of number density and velocity of sputtered particles by cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Paper No. IEPC-2005-300, in Proceedings of 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C. 2005).

K. A. Zoerb, J. D. Williams, D. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Differential sputtering yields of refractory metals by xenon, krypton, and Ar ion bombardment at normal and oblique incidences," in Proceedings of the 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C. 2005).

Yamamura, Y.

Y. Yamamura and H. Tawara, "Energy dependence of ion-induced sputtering yields from monatomic solids at normal incidence," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 62, 149-253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Young, C. E.

M. J. Pellin, C. E. Young, M. H. Mendelsohn, D. M. Gruen, R. B. Wright, and A. B. Dewald, "Oxygen and titanium sputtering yields as determined by laser fluorescence and auger electron spectroscopy for monolayer oxygen coverage of polycrstalline Ti," J. Nucl. Mater. 111-112, 738-743 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. H.

E. Oyarzabal, J. H. Yu, J. Hanna, G. R. Tynan, R. P. Doerner, K. J. Taylor, and K. Schmid, "Molybdenum and carbon cluster angular sputtering distributions under low energy xenon ion bombardment," in Proceedings of the 41st AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

Zalicki, P.

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

A. P. Yalin and R. N. Zare, "Effect of laser line shape on the quantitative analysis of cavity ring-down signals," Laser Phys. 12, 1065-1072 (2002).

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Z. L. Zhang and L. Zhang, "Anisotropic angular distributions of sputtered atoms," Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 159, 301-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. L.

Z. L. Zhang and L. Zhang, "Anisotropic angular distributions of sputtered atoms," Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 159, 301-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zoerb, K. A.

K. A. Zoerb, J. D. Williams, D. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Differential sputtering yields of refractory metals by xenon, krypton, and Ar ion bombardment at normal and oblique incidences," in Proceedings of the 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C. 2005).

A. P. Yalin, J. D. Williams, V. Surla, J. Wolf, and K. A. Zoerb, "Azimuthal differential sputter yields of molybdenum by low energy Xe+ bombardment," in Proceedings of 42nd AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

Appl. Opt. (1)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

Y. Yamamura and H. Tawara, "Energy dependence of ion-induced sputtering yields from monatomic solids at normal incidence," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 62, 149-253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IBM. J. Res. Dev. (1)

R. E. Jones, Jr., "Theories of distribution of deposit from sputtered disk and rectangular electrodes," IBM. J. Res. Dev. 16, 27-34 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Mater. (1)

M. J. Pellin, C. E. Young, M. H. Mendelsohn, D. M. Gruen, R. B. Wright, and A. B. Dewald, "Oxygen and titanium sputtering yields as determined by laser fluorescence and auger electron spectroscopy for monolayer oxygen coverage of polycrstalline Ti," J. Nucl. Mater. 111-112, 738-743 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

A. P. Yalin and R. N. Zare, "Effect of laser line shape on the quantitative analysis of cavity ring-down signals," Laser Phys. 12, 1065-1072 (2002).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

M. Stepanova and S. K. Dew, "Anisotropic energies of sputtered atoms under oblique ion incidence," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 215, 357-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids (1)

Z. L. Zhang and L. Zhang, "Anisotropic angular distributions of sputtered atoms," Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 159, 301-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

V. Surla, P. J. Wilbur, M. Johnson, J. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Sputter erosion measurements of titanium and molybdenum by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3025-3030 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

W. R. Hudson and B. A. Banks, AIAA Paper No. 73-1131 in Proceedings of 10th AIAA Electric Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1973).

A. P. Yalin and V. Surla, "Determination of number density and velocity of sputtered particles by cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Paper No. IEPC-2005-300, in Proceedings of 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C. 2005).

K. A. Zoerb, J. D. Williams, D. D. Williams, and A. P. Yalin, "Differential sputtering yields of refractory metals by xenon, krypton, and Ar ion bombardment at normal and oblique incidences," in Proceedings of the 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C. 2005).

A. P. Yalin and V. Surla, "Determination of number density and velocity of sputtered particles by cavity ringdown spectroscopy," presented at The 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C., 2005).

K. W. Busch and M. A. Busch, Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy: an Ultratrace-Absorption Measurement Technique, ACS Symposium 720 (American Chemical Society, 1999).

J. E. Polk, "An overview of the results from an 8200 hour wear test of the NSTAR ion thruster," in Proceedings of the AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1999).

R. D. Kolasinski and J. E. Polk, AIAA Paper No. 2003-5144, in Proceedings of the 39th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003).

A. P. Yalin, J. D. Williams, V. Surla, J. Wolf, and K. A. Zoerb, "Azimuthal differential sputter yields of molybdenum by low energy Xe+ bombardment," in Proceedings of 42nd AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

E. Oyarzabal, J. H. Yu, J. Hanna, G. R. Tynan, R. P. Doerner, K. J. Taylor, and K. Schmid, "Molybdenum and carbon cluster angular sputtering distributions under low energy xenon ion bombardment," in Proceedings of the 41st AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

V. Shutthanandan, P. K. Ray, N. R. Shivaparan, R. J. Smith, and M. Mantenieks, "On the measurement of low-energy sputtering yield using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry," presented at The 21th International Electric Propulsion Conference (I.E.P.C., 1997).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic diagram of the CRDS setup. Laser light is coupled into a high reflectivity cavity where it bounces back and forth many times. A detector behind the cavity measures the decay of the light intensity inside the cavity, which may be related to absorber concentration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of our experimental setup. Sputtered species are created as the ion beam bombards the target. The sputtered species are contained within the high-finesse ringdown cavity where they absorb light. An OPO laser system is used as the light source, and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) detects the light exiting the cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Definition of the coordinate system. The target is in the XY plane. The optical axis is at height Z above the target. The target can be moved in the Y direction and its position is denoted as Y b .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Inversion approach. CRDS spatial profile is obtained by measuring the CRDS signal at a series of target positions, Y b , relative to the CRDS optical axis. The differential sputter yield, y, is inferred from the CRDS spatial profile.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Differential sputter yield profiles for different values of parameter a.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CRDS spatial profiles for different values of a parameter. The spatial profiles are the dependence of the CRDS signal (path-integrated concentration) on target displacement. The profiles are normalized to give unity at Y b = 0 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) CRDS absorbance spectrum (symbols) of sputtered molybdenum at Y b = 0 , and Z = 2 . Curve shows modeled line shape for best-fit value of V b = 3700 m / s .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) CRDS spatial profile of Mo. Symbols represent the experimentally measured points; the solid curve represents the best-fit curve obtained from the model, and the dashed curve represents the curve obtained from the model using QCM measurement.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Comparison of differential yield profiles obtained by CRDS and from past QCM measurements. A diffuse (cosine) profile is also shown for reference.

Equations (9)

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S ( t , ν ) = S 0   exp [ t / τ ( ν ) ] ,
1 / τ ( ν ) = c l [ k E f f ( x , ν ) d x + ( 1 R ) ] ,
k E f f ( ν ) + d ν L ( ν ν ) k ( ν ) ,
A b s E f f ( ν ) k E f f ( ν ) d X = l c [ 1 τ ( ν ) 1 τ 0 ] .
n i d X = 8 π g i g k ν k i 2 A k i c 2 ( A b s E f f ( ν ) d ν ) ,
| n d X | Y b = beam [ target n ( r , α ) ] Δ X = beam [ target y ( α ) I r 2 1 v ( α ) ] Δ X ,
n ( r , α ) = y ( α ) I r 2 1 V ( α ) ,
f ( V ) V 3 ( V 2 + V b 2 ) n + 1 ; V b = 2 E b M ,
y ( α ) = Y π   cos ( α ) [ 1 + a ( 1 2 cos 2 ( α ) ) ] .

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