Abstract

A diode-laser-based sensor has been developed to measure nitric oxide mole fractions using absorption spectroscopy. The sensor is based on sum-frequency mixing of a 395  nm external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) and a 532   nm laser in a beta-barium-borate crystal. Using a new tuning scheme, the GaN ECDL wavelength was modulated over 90   GHz without mode hops. The sensor was applied for measurements of the NO mole fraction in the exhaust of a laboratory-scale, 30  kWt coal-fired boiler burner. Absorption measurements were successfully performed despite severe attenuation by scattering from ash particles in the exhaust stream and on the exhaust-section windows. A detection limit (1σ) of 4.5ppm   m/Hz at 700 K was demonstrated in coal- combustion exhaust at a maximum detection rate of 5  Hz.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

T. N. Anderson, J. K. Magnuson, and R. P. Lucht, "Diode-laser-based sensor for ultraviolet absorption measurements of atomic mercury," Appl. Phys. B 87, 341-353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, "Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems," Appl. Phys. B 80, 617-625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, R. Barron-Jimenez, S. F. Hanna, J. A. Caton, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, J. R. Gord, I. Critchley, and L. Flamand, "Combustion exhaust measurements of nitric oxide with an ultraviolet diode-laser-based absorption sensor," Appl. Opt. 44, 1491-1502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, T. N. Anderson, J. D. Miller, V. R. Katta, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, "Measurements of OH mole fraction and temperature up to 20 kHz by using a diode-laser-based UV absorption sensor," Appl. Opt. 44, 6729-6740 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ebert, H. Teichert, P. Strauch, T. Kolb, H. Seifert, and J. Wolfrum, "Sensitive in situ detection of CO and O2 in a rotary kiln-based hazardous waste incinerator using 760 nm and new 2.3 μm diode lasers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1611-1618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (5)

P. Glarborg, A. D. Jensen, and J. E. Johnsson, "Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 29, 89-113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Teichert, T. Fernholz, and V. Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hildebrandt, R. Knispel, S. Stry, J. R. Sacher, and F. Schael, "Antireflection-coated blue GaN laser diodes in an external cavity and Doppler-free indium absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 42, 2110-2118 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. M. Marago, B. Fazio, P. G. Gucciardi, and E. Arimondo, "Atomic gallium laser spectroscopy with violet/blue diode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 77, 809-815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Annamalai, B. Thien, and J. Sweeten, "Co-firing of coal and cattle feedlot biomass (FB) fuels. Part II. Performance results from 30 kWt (100,000 BTU/h) laboratory scale boiler burner," Fuel 82, 1183-1193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

H. Scheibner, S. Franke, S. Solyman, J. F. Behnke, C. Wilke, and A. Dinklage, "Laser absorption spectroscopy with a blue diode laser in an aluminum hollow cathode discharge," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 378-382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Hanna, R. Barron-Jimenez, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, J. A. Caton, and T. Walther, "Diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption sensor for nitric oxide," Applied Phys. B 75, 113-117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Docquier and S. Candel, "Combustion control and sensors: a review," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 28, 107-150 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, "Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer," Appl. Phys. B 75, 343-350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Schlosser, T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "In situ detection of potassium atoms in high-temperature coal-combustion systems using near-infrared-diode lasers," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2347-2359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Schlosser, J. Wolfrum, L. Hildebrandt, H. Seifert, B. Oser, and V. Ebert, "Diode laser based in situ detection of alkali atoms: development of a new method for determination of residence-time distribution in combustion plants," Appl. Phys. B 75, 237-247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (5)

U. Gustafsson, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, and S. Svanberg, "Frequency-modulation spectroscopy with blue diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 39, 3774-3780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, "GaN blue diode lasers: a spectroscopist's view," Appl. Phys. B 70, 567-571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Molina, E. G. Eddings, D. W. Pershing, and A. F. Sarofim, "Char nitrogen conversion: implications to emissions from coal-fired utility boilers," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 26, 507-531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C Hill and L. D. Smoot, "Modeling of nitrogen oxides formation and destruction in combustion systems," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 26, 417-458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Beer, "Combustion technology developments in power generation in response to environmental challenges," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 26, 301-327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Snels, C. Corsi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, and G. Modugno, "Pressure broadening in the second overtone of NO, measured with a near-infrared DFB laser," Opt. Commun. 159, 80-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Frazzitta, K. Annamalai, and J. Sweeten, "Performance of a burner with coal and coal-bio-solid fuel blends," J. Propul. Power 15, 181-186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, "Development of a narrowband, tunable, frequency-quadrupled diode laser for UV absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 37, 3954-3960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, and J. L. Jimenez, "A tunable diode laser system for the remote sensing of on-road vehicle emissions," Appl. Phys. B 67, 433-441 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Smoot, S. C. Hill, and H. Xu, "NOx control through reburning," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 24, 385-408 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "A diode-laser absorption sensor system for combustion emission measurements," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 327-338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, and P. L. Varghese, "Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel," AIAA J. 34, 494-499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

P. K. Falcone, R. K. Hanson, and C. H. Kruger, "Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of nitric oxide in combustion gases," Combust. Sci. Technol. 35, 81-99 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M.

S. Wehe, M. Allen, L. Xiang, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, "NO and CO absorption measurements with a mid-IR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications," paper AIAA 03-0588, presented at the Forty-first AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 6-9 January 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 2003).

Allen, M. G.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. T. Rawlins, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, "Application of balanced detection to absorption measurements of trace gases with room-temperature, quasi-cw quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Opt. 40, 812-820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Sonnenfroh and M. G. Allen, "Absorption measurements of the second overtone band of NO in ambient and combustion gases with a 1.8 μm room-temperature diode laser," Appl. Opt. 36, 7970-7977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Allen, B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. J. Kessler, and P. A. Mulhall, "Overview of diode laser measurements in large-scale test facilities," AIAA Paper 2000-2452 presented at the Twenty-first AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Denver, Colo., 19-22 June 2000.

W. J. Kessler, D. M. Sonnenfroh, B. L. Upschulte, and M. G. Allen, "Near-IR diode lasers for in situ measurements of combustor and aeroengine emissions," AIAA paper 97-2706, presented at the Thirty-third AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Seattle, Wash., 6-9 July 1997 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1997).

Alnis, J.

Anderson, T. N.

T. N. Anderson, J. K. Magnuson, and R. P. Lucht, "Diode-laser-based sensor for ultraviolet absorption measurements of atomic mercury," Appl. Phys. B 87, 341-353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, T. N. Anderson, J. D. Miller, V. R. Katta, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, "Measurements of OH mole fraction and temperature up to 20 kHz by using a diode-laser-based UV absorption sensor," Appl. Opt. 44, 6729-6740 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, R. Barron-Jimenez, S. F. Hanna, J. A. Caton, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, J. R. Gord, I. Critchley, and L. Flamand, "Combustion exhaust measurements of nitric oxide with an ultraviolet diode-laser-based absorption sensor," Appl. Opt. 44, 1491-1502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Hanna, R. Barron-Jimenez, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, J. A. Caton, and T. Walther, "Diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption sensor for nitric oxide," Applied Phys. B 75, 113-117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lucht, T. N. Anderson, S. Priyadarsan, S. Arumugam, R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, and K. Annamalai, "Diode-laser-based sensor measurements of nitric oxide in particulate-laden combustion exhaust streams," in Proceeding of the Twentieth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference (Pittsburgh, 2003), Paper 14-2.

Annamalai, K.

K. Annamalai, B. Thien, and J. Sweeten, "Co-firing of coal and cattle feedlot biomass (FB) fuels. Part II. Performance results from 30 kWt (100,000 BTU/h) laboratory scale boiler burner," Fuel 82, 1183-1193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Frazzitta, K. Annamalai, and J. Sweeten, "Performance of a burner with coal and coal-bio-solid fuel blends," J. Propul. Power 15, 181-186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Annamalai and J. M. Sweeten, "Reburn system with feedlot biomass for maximum NOx reduction in power plants," U. S. patent 6 ,973,883 (13 December 2005).

R. P. Lucht, T. N. Anderson, S. Priyadarsan, S. Arumugam, R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, and K. Annamalai, "Diode-laser-based sensor measurements of nitric oxide in particulate-laden combustion exhaust streams," in Proceeding of the Twentieth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference (Pittsburgh, 2003), Paper 14-2.

Arimondo, E.

O. M. Marago, B. Fazio, P. G. Gucciardi, and E. Arimondo, "Atomic gallium laser spectroscopy with violet/blue diode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 77, 809-815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arumugam, S.

R. P. Lucht, T. N. Anderson, S. Priyadarsan, S. Arumugam, R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, and K. Annamalai, "Diode-laser-based sensor measurements of nitric oxide in particulate-laden combustion exhaust streams," in Proceeding of the Twentieth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference (Pittsburgh, 2003), Paper 14-2.

S. Arumugam, "Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants," M. S. thesis, (Texas A&M University, 2004).

Baer, D. S.

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "A diode-laser absorption sensor system for combustion emission measurements," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 327-338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Barron-Jimenez, R.

T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, R. Barron-Jimenez, S. F. Hanna, J. A. Caton, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, J. R. Gord, I. Critchley, and L. Flamand, "Combustion exhaust measurements of nitric oxide with an ultraviolet diode-laser-based absorption sensor," Appl. Opt. 44, 1491-1502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Hanna, R. Barron-Jimenez, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, J. A. Caton, and T. Walther, "Diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption sensor for nitric oxide," Applied Phys. B 75, 113-117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lucht, T. N. Anderson, S. Priyadarsan, S. Arumugam, R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, and K. Annamalai, "Diode-laser-based sensor measurements of nitric oxide in particulate-laden combustion exhaust streams," in Proceeding of the Twentieth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference (Pittsburgh, 2003), Paper 14-2.

Beer, J. M.

J. M. Beer, "Combustion technology developments in power generation in response to environmental challenges," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 26, 301-327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Behnke, J. F.

H. Scheibner, S. Franke, S. Solyman, J. F. Behnke, C. Wilke, and A. Dinklage, "Laser absorption spectroscopy with a blue diode laser in an aluminum hollow cathode discharge," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 378-382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Brown, M. S.

Burns, I. S.

J. Hult, I. S. Burns, and C. F. Kaminski, "Wide-bandwidth mode-hop-free tuning of extended-cavity GaN diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 44, 3675-3685 (2005).

Candel, S.

N. Docquier and S. Candel, "Combustion control and sensors: a review," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 28, 107-150 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Caton, J. A.

T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, R. Barron-Jimenez, S. F. Hanna, J. A. Caton, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, J. R. Gord, I. Critchley, and L. Flamand, "Combustion exhaust measurements of nitric oxide with an ultraviolet diode-laser-based absorption sensor," Appl. Opt. 44, 1491-1502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Hanna, R. Barron-Jimenez, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, J. A. Caton, and T. Walther, "Diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption sensor for nitric oxide," Applied Phys. B 75, 113-117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lucht, T. N. Anderson, S. Priyadarsan, S. Arumugam, R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, and K. Annamalai, "Diode-laser-based sensor measurements of nitric oxide in particulate-laden combustion exhaust streams," in Proceeding of the Twentieth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference (Pittsburgh, 2003), Paper 14-2.

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Cho, A. Y.

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Corsi, C.

M. Snels, C. Corsi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, and G. Modugno, "Pressure broadening in the second overtone of NO, measured with a near-infrared DFB laser," Opt. Commun. 159, 80-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Critchley, I.

Crosley, D. R.

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation Program (Version 1.5), SRI International Report MP 99-009 (SRI International, 1999), www.sri.com/psd/lifbase.

D'Amato, F.

M. Snels, C. Corsi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, and G. Modugno, "Pressure broadening in the second overtone of NO, measured with a near-infrared DFB laser," Opt. Commun. 159, 80-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

De Rosa, M.

M. Snels, C. Corsi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, and G. Modugno, "Pressure broadening in the second overtone of NO, measured with a near-infrared DFB laser," Opt. Commun. 159, 80-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Dinklage, A.

H. Scheibner, S. Franke, S. Solyman, J. F. Behnke, C. Wilke, and A. Dinklage, "Laser absorption spectroscopy with a blue diode laser in an aluminum hollow cathode discharge," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 378-382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Docquier, N.

N. Docquier and S. Candel, "Combustion control and sensors: a review," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 28, 107-150 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, V.

V. Ebert, H. Teichert, P. Strauch, T. Kolb, H. Seifert, and J. Wolfrum, "Sensitive in situ detection of CO and O2 in a rotary kiln-based hazardous waste incinerator using 760 nm and new 2.3 μm diode lasers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1611-1618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Teichert, T. Fernholz, and V. Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schlosser, T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "In situ detection of potassium atoms in high-temperature coal-combustion systems using near-infrared-diode lasers," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2347-2359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Schlosser, J. Wolfrum, L. Hildebrandt, H. Seifert, B. Oser, and V. Ebert, "Diode laser based in situ detection of alkali atoms: development of a new method for determination of residence-time distribution in combustion plants," Appl. Phys. B 75, 237-247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eddings, E. G.

A. Molina, E. G. Eddings, D. W. Pershing, and A. F. Sarofim, "Char nitrogen conversion: implications to emissions from coal-fired utility boilers," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 26, 507-531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Falcone, P. K.

P. K. Falcone, R. K. Hanson, and C. H. Kruger, "Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of nitric oxide in combustion gases," Combust. Sci. Technol. 35, 81-99 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fazio, B.

O. M. Marago, B. Fazio, P. G. Gucciardi, and E. Arimondo, "Atomic gallium laser spectroscopy with violet/blue diode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 77, 809-815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fernholz, T.

H. Teichert, T. Fernholz, and V. Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schlosser, T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "In situ detection of potassium atoms in high-temperature coal-combustion systems using near-infrared-diode lasers," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2347-2359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flamand, L.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Franke, S.

H. Scheibner, S. Franke, S. Solyman, J. F. Behnke, C. Wilke, and A. Dinklage, "Laser absorption spectroscopy with a blue diode laser in an aluminum hollow cathode discharge," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 378-382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frazzitta, S.

S. Frazzitta, K. Annamalai, and J. Sweeten, "Performance of a burner with coal and coal-bio-solid fuel blends," J. Propul. Power 15, 181-186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Glaessner, D.

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, "GaN blue diode lasers: a spectroscopist's view," Appl. Phys. B 70, 567-571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Glarborg, P.

P. Glarborg, A. D. Jensen, and J. E. Johnsson, "Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 29, 89-113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

Goldberg, L.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Gord, J. R.

Gucciardi, P. G.

O. M. Marago, B. Fazio, P. G. Gucciardi, and E. Arimondo, "Atomic gallium laser spectroscopy with violet/blue diode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 77, 809-815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, U.

Hanna, S. F.

Hanson, R.

S. Wehe, M. Allen, L. Xiang, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, "NO and CO absorption measurements with a mid-IR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications," paper AIAA 03-0588, presented at the Forty-first AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 6-9 January 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 2003).

Hanson, R. K.

S. T. Sanders, J. Wang, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Diode-laser absorption sensor for line-of-sight gas temperature distributions," Appl. Opt. 40, 4404-4415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "A diode-laser absorption sensor system for combustion emission measurements," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 327-338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Falcone, R. K. Hanson, and C. H. Kruger, "Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of nitric oxide in combustion gases," Combust. Sci. Technol. 35, 81-99 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Haubrich, D.

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, "GaN blue diode lasers: a spectroscopist's view," Appl. Phys. B 70, 567-571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henry, D.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, and P. L. Varghese, "Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel," AIAA J. 34, 494-499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrandt, L.

L. Hildebrandt, R. Knispel, S. Stry, J. R. Sacher, and F. Schael, "Antireflection-coated blue GaN laser diodes in an external cavity and Doppler-free indium absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 42, 2110-2118 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schlosser, J. Wolfrum, L. Hildebrandt, H. Seifert, B. Oser, and V. Ebert, "Diode laser based in situ detection of alkali atoms: development of a new method for determination of residence-time distribution in combustion plants," Appl. Phys. B 75, 237-247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C

S. C Hill and L. D. Smoot, "Modeling of nitrogen oxides formation and destruction in combustion systems," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 26, 417-458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C.

L. D. Smoot, S. C. Hill, and H. Xu, "NOx control through reburning," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 24, 385-408 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hult, J.

J. Hult, I. S. Burns, and C. F. Kaminski, "Wide-bandwidth mode-hop-free tuning of extended-cavity GaN diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 44, 3675-3685 (2005).

Hutchinson, A. L.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Jeffries, J.

S. Wehe, M. Allen, L. Xiang, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, "NO and CO absorption measurements with a mid-IR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications," paper AIAA 03-0588, presented at the Forty-first AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 6-9 January 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 2003).

Jeffries, J. B.

Jensen, A. D.

P. Glarborg, A. D. Jensen, and J. E. Johnsson, "Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 29, 89-113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, J. L.

D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, and J. L. Jimenez, "A tunable diode laser system for the remote sensing of on-road vehicle emissions," Appl. Phys. B 67, 433-441 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnsson, J. E.

P. Glarborg, A. D. Jensen, and J. E. Johnsson, "Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 29, 89-113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. M.

A. Williams, M. Pourkashanian, and J. M. Jones, "Combustion of pulverised coal and biomass," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 27, 587-610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Kaminski, C. F.

J. Hult, I. S. Burns, and C. F. Kaminski, "Wide-bandwidth mode-hop-free tuning of extended-cavity GaN diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 44, 3675-3685 (2005).

Katta, V. R.

Kessler, W. J.

M. G. Allen, B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. J. Kessler, and P. A. Mulhall, "Overview of diode laser measurements in large-scale test facilities," AIAA Paper 2000-2452 presented at the Twenty-first AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Denver, Colo., 19-22 June 2000.

W. J. Kessler, D. M. Sonnenfroh, B. L. Upschulte, and M. G. Allen, "Near-IR diode lasers for in situ measurements of combustor and aeroengine emissions," AIAA paper 97-2706, presented at the Thirty-third AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Seattle, Wash., 6-9 July 1997 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1997).

Khorsandi, A.

Kliner, D. A. V.

Knispel, R.

Kolb, C. E.

D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, and J. L. Jimenez, "A tunable diode laser system for the remote sensing of on-road vehicle emissions," Appl. Phys. B 67, 433-441 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, T.

V. Ebert, H. Teichert, P. Strauch, T. Kolb, H. Seifert, and J. Wolfrum, "Sensitive in situ detection of CO and O2 in a rotary kiln-based hazardous waste incinerator using 760 nm and new 2.3 μm diode lasers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1611-1618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koplow, J. P.

Kosterev, A. A.

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, "Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems," Appl. Phys. B 80, 617-625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, C. H.

P. K. Falcone, R. K. Hanson, and C. H. Kruger, "Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of nitric oxide in combustion gases," Combust. Sci. Technol. 35, 81-99 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Leinen, H.

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, "GaN blue diode lasers: a spectroscopist's view," Appl. Phys. B 70, 567-571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Louvet, Y.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, and P. L. Varghese, "Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel," AIAA J. 34, 494-499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lucht, R. P.

T. N. Anderson, J. K. Magnuson, and R. P. Lucht, "Diode-laser-based sensor for ultraviolet absorption measurements of atomic mercury," Appl. Phys. B 87, 341-353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, T. N. Anderson, J. D. Miller, V. R. Katta, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, "Measurements of OH mole fraction and temperature up to 20 kHz by using a diode-laser-based UV absorption sensor," Appl. Opt. 44, 6729-6740 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, R. Barron-Jimenez, S. F. Hanna, J. A. Caton, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, J. R. Gord, I. Critchley, and L. Flamand, "Combustion exhaust measurements of nitric oxide with an ultraviolet diode-laser-based absorption sensor," Appl. Opt. 44, 1491-1502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Hanna, R. Barron-Jimenez, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, J. A. Caton, and T. Walther, "Diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption sensor for nitric oxide," Applied Phys. B 75, 113-117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lucht, T. N. Anderson, S. Priyadarsan, S. Arumugam, R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, and K. Annamalai, "Diode-laser-based sensor measurements of nitric oxide in particulate-laden combustion exhaust streams," in Proceeding of the Twentieth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference (Pittsburgh, 2003), Paper 14-2.

Luque, J.

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation Program (Version 1.5), SRI International Report MP 99-009 (SRI International, 1999), www.sri.com/psd/lifbase.

Magnuson, J. K.

T. N. Anderson, J. K. Magnuson, and R. P. Lucht, "Diode-laser-based sensor for ultraviolet absorption measurements of atomic mercury," Appl. Phys. B 87, 341-353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Marago, O. M.

O. M. Marago, B. Fazio, P. G. Gucciardi, and E. Arimondo, "Atomic gallium laser spectroscopy with violet/blue diode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 77, 809-815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

McManus, J. B.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, "Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer," Appl. Phys. B 75, 343-350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, and J. L. Jimenez, "A tunable diode laser system for the remote sensing of on-road vehicle emissions," Appl. Phys. B 67, 433-441 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meschede, D.

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, "GaN blue diode lasers: a spectroscopist's view," Appl. Phys. B 70, 567-571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H.

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, "GaN blue diode lasers: a spectroscopist's view," Appl. Phys. B 70, 567-571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T. R.

Mihalcea, R. M.

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "A diode-laser absorption sensor system for combustion emission measurements," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 327-338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. D.

Modugno, G.

M. Snels, C. Corsi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, and G. Modugno, "Pressure broadening in the second overtone of NO, measured with a near-infrared DFB laser," Opt. Commun. 159, 80-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mohamed, A.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, and P. L. Varghese, "Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel," AIAA J. 34, 494-499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Molina, A.

A. Molina, E. G. Eddings, D. W. Pershing, and A. F. Sarofim, "Char nitrogen conversion: implications to emissions from coal-fired utility boilers," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 26, 507-531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mulhall, P. A.

M. G. Allen, B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. J. Kessler, and P. A. Mulhall, "Overview of diode laser measurements in large-scale test facilities," AIAA Paper 2000-2452 presented at the Twenty-first AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Denver, Colo., 19-22 June 2000.

Nelson, D. D.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, "Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer," Appl. Phys. B 75, 343-350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, and J. L. Jimenez, "A tunable diode laser system for the remote sensing of on-road vehicle emissions," Appl. Phys. B 67, 433-441 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oh, D. B.

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Oser, B.

E. Schlosser, J. Wolfrum, L. Hildebrandt, H. Seifert, B. Oser, and V. Ebert, "Diode laser based in situ detection of alkali atoms: development of a new method for determination of residence-time distribution in combustion plants," Appl. Phys. B 75, 237-247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Pershing, D. W.

A. Molina, E. G. Eddings, D. W. Pershing, and A. F. Sarofim, "Char nitrogen conversion: implications to emissions from coal-fired utility boilers," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 26, 507-531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pourkashanian, M.

A. Williams, M. Pourkashanian, and J. M. Jones, "Combustion of pulverised coal and biomass," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 27, 587-610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Priyadarsan, S.

R. P. Lucht, T. N. Anderson, S. Priyadarsan, S. Arumugam, R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, and K. Annamalai, "Diode-laser-based sensor measurements of nitric oxide in particulate-laden combustion exhaust streams," in Proceeding of the Twentieth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference (Pittsburgh, 2003), Paper 14-2.

Rawlins, W. T.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Rosier, B.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, and P. L. Varghese, "Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel," AIAA J. 34, 494-499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Roy, S.

Sacher, J. R.

Sanders, S. T.

Sarofim, A. F.

A. Molina, E. G. Eddings, D. W. Pershing, and A. F. Sarofim, "Char nitrogen conversion: implications to emissions from coal-fired utility boilers," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 26, 507-531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schade, W.

Schael, F.

Scheibner, H.

H. Scheibner, S. Franke, S. Solyman, J. F. Behnke, C. Wilke, and A. Dinklage, "Laser absorption spectroscopy with a blue diode laser in an aluminum hollow cathode discharge," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 378-382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schlosser, E.

E. Schlosser, J. Wolfrum, L. Hildebrandt, H. Seifert, B. Oser, and V. Ebert, "Diode laser based in situ detection of alkali atoms: development of a new method for determination of residence-time distribution in combustion plants," Appl. Phys. B 75, 237-247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Schlosser, T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "In situ detection of potassium atoms in high-temperature coal-combustion systems using near-infrared-diode lasers," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2347-2359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, H.

V. Ebert, H. Teichert, P. Strauch, T. Kolb, H. Seifert, and J. Wolfrum, "Sensitive in situ detection of CO and O2 in a rotary kiln-based hazardous waste incinerator using 760 nm and new 2.3 μm diode lasers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1611-1618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Schlosser, J. Wolfrum, L. Hildebrandt, H. Seifert, B. Oser, and V. Ebert, "Diode laser based in situ detection of alkali atoms: development of a new method for determination of residence-time distribution in combustion plants," Appl. Phys. B 75, 237-247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shorter, J. H.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, "Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer," Appl. Phys. B 75, 343-350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Smoot, L. D.

S. C Hill and L. D. Smoot, "Modeling of nitrogen oxides formation and destruction in combustion systems," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 26, 417-458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Smoot, S. C. Hill, and H. Xu, "NOx control through reburning," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 24, 385-408 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Snels, M.

M. Snels, C. Corsi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, and G. Modugno, "Pressure broadening in the second overtone of NO, measured with a near-infrared DFB laser," Opt. Commun. 159, 80-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solyman, S.

H. Scheibner, S. Franke, S. Solyman, J. F. Behnke, C. Wilke, and A. Dinklage, "Laser absorption spectroscopy with a blue diode laser in an aluminum hollow cathode discharge," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 378-382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. T. Rawlins, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, "Application of balanced detection to absorption measurements of trace gases with room-temperature, quasi-cw quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Opt. 40, 812-820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Sonnenfroh and M. G. Allen, "Absorption measurements of the second overtone band of NO in ambient and combustion gases with a 1.8 μm room-temperature diode laser," Appl. Opt. 36, 7970-7977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Allen, B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. J. Kessler, and P. A. Mulhall, "Overview of diode laser measurements in large-scale test facilities," AIAA Paper 2000-2452 presented at the Twenty-first AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Denver, Colo., 19-22 June 2000.

W. J. Kessler, D. M. Sonnenfroh, B. L. Upschulte, and M. G. Allen, "Near-IR diode lasers for in situ measurements of combustor and aeroengine emissions," AIAA paper 97-2706, presented at the Thirty-third AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Seattle, Wash., 6-9 July 1997 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1997).

Stanton, A. C.

Strauch, P.

V. Ebert, H. Teichert, P. Strauch, T. Kolb, H. Seifert, and J. Wolfrum, "Sensitive in situ detection of CO and O2 in a rotary kiln-based hazardous waste incinerator using 760 nm and new 2.3 μm diode lasers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1611-1618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stry, S.

Svanberg, S.

Sweeten, J.

K. Annamalai, B. Thien, and J. Sweeten, "Co-firing of coal and cattle feedlot biomass (FB) fuels. Part II. Performance results from 30 kWt (100,000 BTU/h) laboratory scale boiler burner," Fuel 82, 1183-1193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Frazzitta, K. Annamalai, and J. Sweeten, "Performance of a burner with coal and coal-bio-solid fuel blends," J. Propul. Power 15, 181-186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sweeten, J. M.

K. Annamalai and J. M. Sweeten, "Reburn system with feedlot biomass for maximum NOx reduction in power plants," U. S. patent 6 ,973,883 (13 December 2005).

Teichert, H.

V. Ebert, H. Teichert, P. Strauch, T. Kolb, H. Seifert, and J. Wolfrum, "Sensitive in situ detection of CO and O2 in a rotary kiln-based hazardous waste incinerator using 760 nm and new 2.3 μm diode lasers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1611-1618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Teichert, T. Fernholz, and V. Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schlosser, T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "In situ detection of potassium atoms in high-temperature coal-combustion systems using near-infrared-diode lasers," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2347-2359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Thien, B.

K. Annamalai, B. Thien, and J. Sweeten, "Co-firing of coal and cattle feedlot biomass (FB) fuels. Part II. Performance results from 30 kWt (100,000 BTU/h) laboratory scale boiler burner," Fuel 82, 1183-1193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, "Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems," Appl. Phys. B 80, 617-625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Upschulte, B. L.

M. G. Allen, B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. J. Kessler, and P. A. Mulhall, "Overview of diode laser measurements in large-scale test facilities," AIAA Paper 2000-2452 presented at the Twenty-first AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Denver, Colo., 19-22 June 2000.

W. J. Kessler, D. M. Sonnenfroh, B. L. Upschulte, and M. G. Allen, "Near-IR diode lasers for in situ measurements of combustor and aeroengine emissions," AIAA paper 97-2706, presented at the Thirty-third AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Seattle, Wash., 6-9 July 1997 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1997).

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Varghese, P. L.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, and P. L. Varghese, "Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel," AIAA J. 34, 494-499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

Walther, T.

Wang, J.

Wehe, S.

S. Wehe, M. Allen, L. Xiang, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, "NO and CO absorption measurements with a mid-IR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications," paper AIAA 03-0588, presented at the Forty-first AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 6-9 January 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 2003).

Wilke, C.

H. Scheibner, S. Franke, S. Solyman, J. F. Behnke, C. Wilke, and A. Dinklage, "Laser absorption spectroscopy with a blue diode laser in an aluminum hollow cathode discharge," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 378-382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Willer, U.

Williams, A.

A. Williams, M. Pourkashanian, and J. M. Jones, "Combustion of pulverised coal and biomass," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 27, 587-610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, J.

V. Ebert, H. Teichert, P. Strauch, T. Kolb, H. Seifert, and J. Wolfrum, "Sensitive in situ detection of CO and O2 in a rotary kiln-based hazardous waste incinerator using 760 nm and new 2.3 μm diode lasers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1611-1618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Schlosser, J. Wolfrum, L. Hildebrandt, H. Seifert, B. Oser, and V. Ebert, "Diode laser based in situ detection of alkali atoms: development of a new method for determination of residence-time distribution in combustion plants," Appl. Phys. B 75, 237-247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wondraczek, L.

Wynands, R.

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, "GaN blue diode lasers: a spectroscopist's view," Appl. Phys. B 70, 567-571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, "Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems," Appl. Phys. B 80, 617-625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, L.

S. Wehe, M. Allen, L. Xiang, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, "NO and CO absorption measurements with a mid-IR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications," paper AIAA 03-0588, presented at the Forty-first AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 6-9 January 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 2003).

Xu, H.

L. D. Smoot, S. C. Hill, and H. Xu, "NOx control through reburning," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 24, 385-408 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, "Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer," Appl. Phys. B 75, 343-350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, and J. L. Jimenez, "A tunable diode laser system for the remote sensing of on-road vehicle emissions," Appl. Phys. B 67, 433-441 (1998).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (1)

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Appl. Opt. (11)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. T. Sanders, J. Wang, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Diode-laser absorption sensor for line-of-sight gas temperature distributions," Appl. Opt. 40, 4404-4415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Teichert, T. Fernholz, and V. Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hildebrandt, R. Knispel, S. Stry, J. R. Sacher, and F. Schael, "Antireflection-coated blue GaN laser diodes in an external cavity and Doppler-free indium absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 42, 2110-2118 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, L. Wondraczek, and W. Schade, "In situ and on-line monitoring of CO in an industrial glass furnace by mid-infrared difference-frequency generation laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 6481-6486 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, R. Barron-Jimenez, S. F. Hanna, J. A. Caton, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, J. R. Gord, I. Critchley, and L. Flamand, "Combustion exhaust measurements of nitric oxide with an ultraviolet diode-laser-based absorption sensor," Appl. Opt. 44, 1491-1502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (7)

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[CrossRef]

T. N. Anderson, J. K. Magnuson, and R. P. Lucht, "Diode-laser-based sensor for ultraviolet absorption measurements of atomic mercury," Appl. Phys. B 87, 341-353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

E. Schlosser, J. Wolfrum, L. Hildebrandt, H. Seifert, B. Oser, and V. Ebert, "Diode laser based in situ detection of alkali atoms: development of a new method for determination of residence-time distribution in combustion plants," Appl. Phys. B 75, 237-247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Leinen, D. Glaessner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, "GaN blue diode lasers: a spectroscopist's view," Appl. Phys. B 70, 567-571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Applied Phys. B (1)

S. F. Hanna, R. Barron-Jimenez, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, J. A. Caton, and T. Walther, "Diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption sensor for nitric oxide," Applied Phys. B 75, 113-117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Fuel (1)

K. Annamalai, B. Thien, and J. Sweeten, "Co-firing of coal and cattle feedlot biomass (FB) fuels. Part II. Performance results from 30 kWt (100,000 BTU/h) laboratory scale boiler burner," Fuel 82, 1183-1193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. Frazzitta, K. Annamalai, and J. Sweeten, "Performance of a burner with coal and coal-bio-solid fuel blends," J. Propul. Power 15, 181-186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "A diode-laser absorption sensor system for combustion emission measurements," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 327-338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Snels, C. Corsi, F. D'Amato, M. De Rosa, and G. Modugno, "Pressure broadening in the second overtone of NO, measured with a near-infrared DFB laser," Opt. Commun. 159, 80-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (1)

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[CrossRef]

U. S. patent 6 (1)

K. Annamalai and J. M. Sweeten, "Reburn system with feedlot biomass for maximum NOx reduction in power plants," U. S. patent 6 ,973,883 (13 December 2005).

Other (10)

R. P. Lucht, T. N. Anderson, S. Priyadarsan, S. Arumugam, R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, and K. Annamalai, "Diode-laser-based sensor measurements of nitric oxide in particulate-laden combustion exhaust streams," in Proceeding of the Twentieth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference (Pittsburgh, 2003), Paper 14-2.

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M. G. Allen, B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. J. Kessler, and P. A. Mulhall, "Overview of diode laser measurements in large-scale test facilities," AIAA Paper 2000-2452 presented at the Twenty-first AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Denver, Colo., 19-22 June 2000.

W. J. Kessler, D. M. Sonnenfroh, B. L. Upschulte, and M. G. Allen, "Near-IR diode lasers for in situ measurements of combustor and aeroengine emissions," AIAA paper 97-2706, presented at the Thirty-third AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Seattle, Wash., 6-9 July 1997 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 1997).

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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

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S. Wehe, M. Allen, L. Xiang, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, "NO and CO absorption measurements with a mid-IR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications," paper AIAA 03-0588, presented at the Forty-first AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 6-9 January 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, 2003).

See http://www.sacher-laser.com.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of line strengths for NO and H 2 O at 296 K . Data for UV line strengths of NO are from Luque and Crosley [27], and data for IR line strengths of NO and H 2 O are from Rothman et al. [28].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Diagram of ECDL in the Littrow configuration with an AR-coated GaN laser diode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Complete cycle of the waveforms generated with LabVIEW software to control the GaN ECDL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Etalon signal recorded during a single scan of the ECDL wavelength, demonstrating the 90 G H z mode-hop-free tuning range with the new ECDL and control scheme. The free spectral range of the etalon is 2 G H z .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Schematic of diode-laser-based sensor for NO measurements in coal-combustion exhaust.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of coal-fired boiler burner with reburn at Texas A&M University.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Absorption spectra of nitric oxide acquired in coal-combustion exhaust using (a) the old ECDL and (b) the new ECDL. Both spectra were acquired in approximately 1 s.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Distribution of NO mole fraction along the UV beam path through the exhaust test section as measured with the electrochemical sensor for coal∕biomass reburn at Φ = 1.0 . The polynomial fit through the data is shown. NO mole fraction is assumed to be 0 ppm at the windows ( ± 13.5 c m ) .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Absorption spectrum of NO in the exhaust stream of the boiler burner under the same conditions as in Fig. 8. The experimental spectrum was acquired in 5 s (40 Hz, 192 sweeps averaged).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Absorption spectrum of NO in the coal-combustion exhaust acquired in 0.2 s ( 40 Hz , 8 sweeps averaged) for coal∕biomass reburn at Φ = 1.0 without the air purge on the windows.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Summary of minimum NO mole fractions measured in the exhaust stream of the boiler burner with reburn for different fuel types and equivalence ratios. Mole fractions were measured in situ with the diode-laser sensor (TDLAS) and with extractive sampling and the EC sensor. Error bars represent the 10% uncertainty in diode-laser measurements.

Equations (2)

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V piezo = V piezo, max ( 4 N i 1 ) ,
V current = V piezo, max α [ ( 4 N β N 2 ) i + β i 2 1 ] .

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