Abstract

The diagnostic techniques for simultaneous velocity and relative OH distribution, simultaneous temperature and relative OH distribution, and three component velocity mapping are described. The data extracted from the measurements include statistical moments for inflow fluid dynamics, temperature, conditional velocities, and scalar flux. The work is a first step in the development of a detailed large eddy simulation (LES) validation database for a turbulent, premixed flame. The low-swirl burner used in this investigation has many of the necessary attributes for LES model validation, including a simplified interior geometry; it operates well into the thin reaction zone for turbulent premixed flames, and flame stabilization is based entirely on the flow field and not on hardware or pilot flames.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. J. Santoro, "Applications of laser-based diagnostics to high pressure rocket and gas turbine combustor studies," in Proceedings of the 20th AIAA Advanced Measurement and Ground Testing Technology Conference (AIAA, 1998), paper 98-2698.
  2. A. Dreizler and J. Janicka, "Diagnostic challenges for gas turbine combustor model validation," in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), p. 561.
  3. H. Pitsch, "Large-Eddy simulation of turbulent combustion," Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 38, 453-482 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Janicka and A. Sadiki, "Large Eddy simulation of turbulent combustion systems," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 537-548 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Soika, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of the resolved flame structure of turbulent premixed flames with constant Reynolds number and varied stoichiometry," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 785-792 (1998).
  6. Y.-C. Chen, N. Peters, G. A. Schneemann, N. Wruck, U. Renz, and M. S. Mansour, "The detailed structure of highly stretched turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Combust. Flame 107, 223-244 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. J. Stevens, K. N. C. Bray, and B. Lecordier, "Velocity and scalar statistics for premixed turbulent stagnation flames using PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 949-955 (1998).
  8. B. Bédat and R. K. Cheng, "Experimental study of premixed flames in intense isotropic turbulence," Combust. Flame 100, 485-494 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. S. Barlow, International Workshop on Measurement and Computation of Turbulent Non-Premixed Flames, http://www.ca.sandia.gov/TNF/.
  10. C. K. Chan, K. S. Lau, W. K. Chin, and R. K. Cheng, "Freely propagating open premixed turbulent flames stabilized by swirl," Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 511-518 (1992).
  11. R. K. Cheng, D. T. Yegian, M. M. Miyasato, G. S. Samuelsen, R. Pellizzari, P. Loftus, and C. Benson, "Scaling and development of low-swirl burners for low-emission furnaces and boilers" Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1305-1313 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. R. Johnson, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, K. O. Smith, and R. K. Cheng, "A comparison of the flowfields and emissions of high-swirl injectors and low-swirl injectors for lean premixed gas turbines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 2867-2874 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. K. Cheng, "Velocity and scalar characteristics of premixed turbulent flames stabilized by weak swirl," Combust. Flame 101, 1-14 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. K. Cheng, I. G. Shepherd, B. Bédat, and L. Talbot, "Premixed turbulent flame structures in moderate and intense isotropic turbulence," Combust. Sci. Technol. 174, 29-59 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Kortschik, T. Plessing, and N. Peters, "Laser optical investigation of turbulent transport of temperature ahead of the preheat zone in a premixed flame," Combust. Flame 136, 43-50 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Plessing, C. Kortschik, N. Peters, M. S. Mansour, and R. K. Cheng, "Measurements of the turbulent burning velocity and the structure of premixed flames on a low swirl burner," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 359-366 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. K. Cheng, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, and K. O. Smith, "Laboratory studies of the flow field characteristics of low-swirl injectors for adaptation to fuel-flexible turbines," ASME Turbo Expo GT2006-90878 (2006).
  18. D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, "Scalar dissipation rates in isothermal and reactive turbulent opposed jets: 1D-Raman/Rayleigh experiments supported by LES," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 681-689 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Peters, Turbulent Combustion (Cambridge U. Press, 2000), p. 78.
  20. P. Wang and X. S. Bai, "Large Eddy simulation of turbulent premixed flames using level-set G-equation," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 583-591 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Littlejohn, A. J. Majeski, S. Tonse, C. Castaldini, and R. K. Cheng, "Laboratory investigation of an ultra-low NOx premixed combustion concept for industrial boilers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1115-1121 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Wieneke, "Stereo-PIV using self-calibration on particle images," Exp. Fluids 39, 267-280 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Hult, M. Richter, J. Nygren, M. Aldén, A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, and B. Johansson, "Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines" Appl. Opt. 41, 5002-5014 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. LIFBASE: Database and spectral simulation, http://www:sri.com/psd/lifbase/.
  25. R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, and W. R. Lempert, "Filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements in supersonic/hypersonic facilities," AIAA paper 92-3894 (1992).
  26. J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Afzelius, and M. Aldén, "Applications of a single-longitudinal-mode alexandrite laser for diagnostics of combustion interest," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3208-3215 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. A. M. Kalt, J. H. Frank, and R. W. Bilger, "Laser imaging of conditional velocities in premixed propane/air flames by simultaneous OH PLIF and PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 751-758 (1998).
  28. J. H. Frank, P. A. M. Kalt, and R. W. Bilger, "Measurement of conditional velocities in turbulent premixed flames by simultaneous OH PLIF and PIV," Combust. Flame 116, 220-232 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Nauert and A. Dreizler, "Conditional velocity measurements by simultaneously applied laser Doppler velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence in a swirling natural gas/air flame," Z. Phys. Chem. 219, 635-648 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. N. C. Bray, P. A. Libby, and J. B. Moss, "Flamelet crossing frequencies and mean reaction rates in premixed turbulent combustion," Combust. Sci. Technol. 41, 143-172 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  32. P. A. M. Kalt, Y.-C. Chen, and R. W. Bilger, "Experimental investigation of turbulent scalar flux in premixed stagnation-plate flames," Combust. Flame 129, 401-415 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. Most, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Direct determination of the turbulent flux by simultaneous application of filtered Rayleigh scattering thermometry and particle image velocimetry," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2669-2677 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  34. CHEM1D, "A one-dimensional laminar flame code," Eindhoven University of Technology, http://www.combustion.tue.nl/chem1d.
  35. M. D. Smooke and V. Giovangigli, Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms and Asymptotic Approximations for Methane-Air Flames, M. D. Smooke, ed. (Springer, 1991), p. 1R28.
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. Pitsch, "Large-Eddy simulation of turbulent combustion," Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 38, 453-482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Cheng, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, and K. O. Smith, "Laboratory studies of the flow field characteristics of low-swirl injectors for adaptation to fuel-flexible turbines," ASME Turbo Expo GT2006-90878 (2006).

2005 (6)

D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, "Scalar dissipation rates in isothermal and reactive turbulent opposed jets: 1D-Raman/Rayleigh experiments supported by LES," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 681-689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang and X. S. Bai, "Large Eddy simulation of turbulent premixed flames using level-set G-equation," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 583-591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Janicka and A. Sadiki, "Large Eddy simulation of turbulent combustion systems," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 537-548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Johnson, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, K. O. Smith, and R. K. Cheng, "A comparison of the flowfields and emissions of high-swirl injectors and low-swirl injectors for lean premixed gas turbines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 2867-2874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Nauert and A. Dreizler, "Conditional velocity measurements by simultaneously applied laser Doppler velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence in a swirling natural gas/air flame," Z. Phys. Chem. 219, 635-648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Wieneke, "Stereo-PIV using self-calibration on particle images," Exp. Fluids 39, 267-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Afzelius, and M. Aldén, "Applications of a single-longitudinal-mode alexandrite laser for diagnostics of combustion interest," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3208-3215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Kortschik, T. Plessing, and N. Peters, "Laser optical investigation of turbulent transport of temperature ahead of the preheat zone in a premixed flame," Combust. Flame 136, 43-50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

R. K. Cheng, I. G. Shepherd, B. Bédat, and L. Talbot, "Premixed turbulent flame structures in moderate and intense isotropic turbulence," Combust. Sci. Technol. 174, 29-59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Littlejohn, A. J. Majeski, S. Tonse, C. Castaldini, and R. K. Cheng, "Laboratory investigation of an ultra-low NOx premixed combustion concept for industrial boilers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1115-1121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, M. Richter, J. Nygren, M. Aldén, A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, and B. Johansson, "Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines" Appl. Opt. 41, 5002-5014 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. M. Kalt, Y.-C. Chen, and R. W. Bilger, "Experimental investigation of turbulent scalar flux in premixed stagnation-plate flames," Combust. Flame 129, 401-415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Most, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Direct determination of the turbulent flux by simultaneous application of filtered Rayleigh scattering thermometry and particle image velocimetry," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2669-2677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. K. Cheng, D. T. Yegian, M. M. Miyasato, G. S. Samuelsen, R. Pellizzari, P. Loftus, and C. Benson, "Scaling and development of low-swirl burners for low-emission furnaces and boilers" Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1305-1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Plessing, C. Kortschik, N. Peters, M. S. Mansour, and R. K. Cheng, "Measurements of the turbulent burning velocity and the structure of premixed flames on a low swirl burner," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 359-366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. H. Frank, P. A. M. Kalt, and R. W. Bilger, "Measurement of conditional velocities in turbulent premixed flames by simultaneous OH PLIF and PIV," Combust. Flame 116, 220-232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

P. A. M. Kalt, J. H. Frank, and R. W. Bilger, "Laser imaging of conditional velocities in premixed propane/air flames by simultaneous OH PLIF and PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 751-758 (1998).

E. J. Stevens, K. N. C. Bray, and B. Lecordier, "Velocity and scalar statistics for premixed turbulent stagnation flames using PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 949-955 (1998).

A. Soika, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of the resolved flame structure of turbulent premixed flames with constant Reynolds number and varied stoichiometry," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 785-792 (1998).

1996 (1)

Y.-C. Chen, N. Peters, G. A. Schneemann, N. Wruck, U. Renz, and M. S. Mansour, "The detailed structure of highly stretched turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Combust. Flame 107, 223-244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

B. Bédat and R. K. Cheng, "Experimental study of premixed flames in intense isotropic turbulence," Combust. Flame 100, 485-494 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Cheng, "Velocity and scalar characteristics of premixed turbulent flames stabilized by weak swirl," Combust. Flame 101, 1-14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. K. Chan, K. S. Lau, W. K. Chin, and R. K. Cheng, "Freely propagating open premixed turbulent flames stabilized by swirl," Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 511-518 (1992).

1984 (1)

K. N. C. Bray, P. A. Libby, and J. B. Moss, "Flamelet crossing frequencies and mean reaction rates in premixed turbulent combustion," Combust. Sci. Technol. 41, 143-172 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Afzelius, M.

J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Afzelius, and M. Aldén, "Applications of a single-longitudinal-mode alexandrite laser for diagnostics of combustion interest," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3208-3215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Afzelius, and M. Aldén, "Applications of a single-longitudinal-mode alexandrite laser for diagnostics of combustion interest," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3208-3215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, M. Richter, J. Nygren, M. Aldén, A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, and B. Johansson, "Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines" Appl. Opt. 41, 5002-5014 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, X. S.

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang and X. S. Bai, "Large Eddy simulation of turbulent premixed flames using level-set G-equation," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 583-591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, R. S.

R. S. Barlow, International Workshop on Measurement and Computation of Turbulent Non-Premixed Flames, http://www.ca.sandia.gov/TNF/.

Bédat, B.

R. K. Cheng, I. G. Shepherd, B. Bédat, and L. Talbot, "Premixed turbulent flame structures in moderate and intense isotropic turbulence," Combust. Sci. Technol. 174, 29-59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Bédat and R. K. Cheng, "Experimental study of premixed flames in intense isotropic turbulence," Combust. Flame 100, 485-494 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Benson, C.

R. K. Cheng, D. T. Yegian, M. M. Miyasato, G. S. Samuelsen, R. Pellizzari, P. Loftus, and C. Benson, "Scaling and development of low-swirl burners for low-emission furnaces and boilers" Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1305-1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bilger, R. W.

P. A. M. Kalt, Y.-C. Chen, and R. W. Bilger, "Experimental investigation of turbulent scalar flux in premixed stagnation-plate flames," Combust. Flame 129, 401-415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, P. A. M. Kalt, and R. W. Bilger, "Measurement of conditional velocities in turbulent premixed flames by simultaneous OH PLIF and PIV," Combust. Flame 116, 220-232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. A. M. Kalt, J. H. Frank, and R. W. Bilger, "Laser imaging of conditional velocities in premixed propane/air flames by simultaneous OH PLIF and PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 751-758 (1998).

Brackman, C.

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bray, K. N. C.

E. J. Stevens, K. N. C. Bray, and B. Lecordier, "Velocity and scalar statistics for premixed turbulent stagnation flames using PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 949-955 (1998).

K. N. C. Bray, P. A. Libby, and J. B. Moss, "Flamelet crossing frequencies and mean reaction rates in premixed turbulent combustion," Combust. Sci. Technol. 41, 143-172 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Castaldini, C.

D. Littlejohn, A. J. Majeski, S. Tonse, C. Castaldini, and R. K. Cheng, "Laboratory investigation of an ultra-low NOx premixed combustion concept for industrial boilers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1115-1121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. K.

C. K. Chan, K. S. Lau, W. K. Chin, and R. K. Cheng, "Freely propagating open premixed turbulent flames stabilized by swirl," Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 511-518 (1992).

Chen, Y.-C.

P. A. M. Kalt, Y.-C. Chen, and R. W. Bilger, "Experimental investigation of turbulent scalar flux in premixed stagnation-plate flames," Combust. Flame 129, 401-415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Chen, N. Peters, G. A. Schneemann, N. Wruck, U. Renz, and M. S. Mansour, "The detailed structure of highly stretched turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Combust. Flame 107, 223-244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, R. K.

R. K. Cheng, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, and K. O. Smith, "Laboratory studies of the flow field characteristics of low-swirl injectors for adaptation to fuel-flexible turbines," ASME Turbo Expo GT2006-90878 (2006).

M. R. Johnson, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, K. O. Smith, and R. K. Cheng, "A comparison of the flowfields and emissions of high-swirl injectors and low-swirl injectors for lean premixed gas turbines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 2867-2874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Cheng, I. G. Shepherd, B. Bédat, and L. Talbot, "Premixed turbulent flame structures in moderate and intense isotropic turbulence," Combust. Sci. Technol. 174, 29-59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Littlejohn, A. J. Majeski, S. Tonse, C. Castaldini, and R. K. Cheng, "Laboratory investigation of an ultra-low NOx premixed combustion concept for industrial boilers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1115-1121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Plessing, C. Kortschik, N. Peters, M. S. Mansour, and R. K. Cheng, "Measurements of the turbulent burning velocity and the structure of premixed flames on a low swirl burner," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 359-366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Cheng, D. T. Yegian, M. M. Miyasato, G. S. Samuelsen, R. Pellizzari, P. Loftus, and C. Benson, "Scaling and development of low-swirl burners for low-emission furnaces and boilers" Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1305-1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Bédat and R. K. Cheng, "Experimental study of premixed flames in intense isotropic turbulence," Combust. Flame 100, 485-494 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Cheng, "Velocity and scalar characteristics of premixed turbulent flames stabilized by weak swirl," Combust. Flame 101, 1-14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chan, K. S. Lau, W. K. Chin, and R. K. Cheng, "Freely propagating open premixed turbulent flames stabilized by swirl," Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 511-518 (1992).

Chin, W. K.

C. K. Chan, K. S. Lau, W. K. Chin, and R. K. Cheng, "Freely propagating open premixed turbulent flames stabilized by swirl," Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 511-518 (1992).

Christensen, M.

Dinkelacker, F.

D. Most, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Direct determination of the turbulent flux by simultaneous application of filtered Rayleigh scattering thermometry and particle image velocimetry," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2669-2677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Soika, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of the resolved flame structure of turbulent premixed flames with constant Reynolds number and varied stoichiometry," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 785-792 (1998).

Dreizler, A.

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Nauert and A. Dreizler, "Conditional velocity measurements by simultaneously applied laser Doppler velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence in a swirling natural gas/air flame," Z. Phys. Chem. 219, 635-648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, "Scalar dissipation rates in isothermal and reactive turbulent opposed jets: 1D-Raman/Rayleigh experiments supported by LES," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 681-689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreizler and J. Janicka, "Diagnostic challenges for gas turbine combustor model validation," in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), p. 561.

Forkey, J. N.

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, and W. R. Lempert, "Filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements in supersonic/hypersonic facilities," AIAA paper 92-3894 (1992).

Frank, J. H.

J. H. Frank, P. A. M. Kalt, and R. W. Bilger, "Measurement of conditional velocities in turbulent premixed flames by simultaneous OH PLIF and PIV," Combust. Flame 116, 220-232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. A. M. Kalt, J. H. Frank, and R. W. Bilger, "Laser imaging of conditional velocities in premixed propane/air flames by simultaneous OH PLIF and PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 751-758 (1998).

Geyer, D.

D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, "Scalar dissipation rates in isothermal and reactive turbulent opposed jets: 1D-Raman/Rayleigh experiments supported by LES," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 681-689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giovangigli, V.

M. D. Smooke and V. Giovangigli, Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms and Asymptotic Approximations for Methane-Air Flames, M. D. Smooke, ed. (Springer, 1991), p. 1R28.
[CrossRef]

Hult, J.

Hultqvist, A.

Janicka, J.

D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, "Scalar dissipation rates in isothermal and reactive turbulent opposed jets: 1D-Raman/Rayleigh experiments supported by LES," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 681-689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Janicka and A. Sadiki, "Large Eddy simulation of turbulent combustion systems," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 537-548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreizler and J. Janicka, "Diagnostic challenges for gas turbine combustor model validation," in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), p. 561.

Johansson, B.

Johnson, M. R.

M. R. Johnson, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, K. O. Smith, and R. K. Cheng, "A comparison of the flowfields and emissions of high-swirl injectors and low-swirl injectors for lean premixed gas turbines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 2867-2874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, P. A. M.

P. A. M. Kalt, Y.-C. Chen, and R. W. Bilger, "Experimental investigation of turbulent scalar flux in premixed stagnation-plate flames," Combust. Flame 129, 401-415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, P. A. M. Kalt, and R. W. Bilger, "Measurement of conditional velocities in turbulent premixed flames by simultaneous OH PLIF and PIV," Combust. Flame 116, 220-232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. A. M. Kalt, J. H. Frank, and R. W. Bilger, "Laser imaging of conditional velocities in premixed propane/air flames by simultaneous OH PLIF and PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 751-758 (1998).

Kempf, A.

D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, "Scalar dissipation rates in isothermal and reactive turbulent opposed jets: 1D-Raman/Rayleigh experiments supported by LES," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 681-689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kortschik, C.

C. Kortschik, T. Plessing, and N. Peters, "Laser optical investigation of turbulent transport of temperature ahead of the preheat zone in a premixed flame," Combust. Flame 136, 43-50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Plessing, C. Kortschik, N. Peters, M. S. Mansour, and R. K. Cheng, "Measurements of the turbulent burning velocity and the structure of premixed flames on a low swirl burner," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 359-366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. S.

C. K. Chan, K. S. Lau, W. K. Chin, and R. K. Cheng, "Freely propagating open premixed turbulent flames stabilized by swirl," Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 511-518 (1992).

Lecordier, B.

E. J. Stevens, K. N. C. Bray, and B. Lecordier, "Velocity and scalar statistics for premixed turbulent stagnation flames using PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 949-955 (1998).

Leipertz, A.

D. Most, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Direct determination of the turbulent flux by simultaneous application of filtered Rayleigh scattering thermometry and particle image velocimetry," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2669-2677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Soika, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of the resolved flame structure of turbulent premixed flames with constant Reynolds number and varied stoichiometry," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 785-792 (1998).

Lempert, W. R.

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, and W. R. Lempert, "Filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements in supersonic/hypersonic facilities," AIAA paper 92-3894 (1992).

Li, Z. S.

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Afzelius, and M. Aldén, "Applications of a single-longitudinal-mode alexandrite laser for diagnostics of combustion interest," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3208-3215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Libby, P. A.

K. N. C. Bray, P. A. Libby, and J. B. Moss, "Flamelet crossing frequencies and mean reaction rates in premixed turbulent combustion," Combust. Sci. Technol. 41, 143-172 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Linne, M.

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Littlejohn, D.

R. K. Cheng, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, and K. O. Smith, "Laboratory studies of the flow field characteristics of low-swirl injectors for adaptation to fuel-flexible turbines," ASME Turbo Expo GT2006-90878 (2006).

M. R. Johnson, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, K. O. Smith, and R. K. Cheng, "A comparison of the flowfields and emissions of high-swirl injectors and low-swirl injectors for lean premixed gas turbines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 2867-2874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Littlejohn, A. J. Majeski, S. Tonse, C. Castaldini, and R. K. Cheng, "Laboratory investigation of an ultra-low NOx premixed combustion concept for industrial boilers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1115-1121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Loftus, P.

R. K. Cheng, D. T. Yegian, M. M. Miyasato, G. S. Samuelsen, R. Pellizzari, P. Loftus, and C. Benson, "Scaling and development of low-swirl burners for low-emission furnaces and boilers" Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1305-1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Majeski, A. J.

D. Littlejohn, A. J. Majeski, S. Tonse, C. Castaldini, and R. K. Cheng, "Laboratory investigation of an ultra-low NOx premixed combustion concept for industrial boilers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1115-1121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, M. S.

T. Plessing, C. Kortschik, N. Peters, M. S. Mansour, and R. K. Cheng, "Measurements of the turbulent burning velocity and the structure of premixed flames on a low swirl burner," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 359-366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Chen, N. Peters, G. A. Schneemann, N. Wruck, U. Renz, and M. S. Mansour, "The detailed structure of highly stretched turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Combust. Flame 107, 223-244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. B.

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, and W. R. Lempert, "Filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements in supersonic/hypersonic facilities," AIAA paper 92-3894 (1992).

Miyasato, M. M.

R. K. Cheng, D. T. Yegian, M. M. Miyasato, G. S. Samuelsen, R. Pellizzari, P. Loftus, and C. Benson, "Scaling and development of low-swirl burners for low-emission furnaces and boilers" Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1305-1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moss, J. B.

K. N. C. Bray, P. A. Libby, and J. B. Moss, "Flamelet crossing frequencies and mean reaction rates in premixed turbulent combustion," Combust. Sci. Technol. 41, 143-172 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Most, D.

D. Most, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Direct determination of the turbulent flux by simultaneous application of filtered Rayleigh scattering thermometry and particle image velocimetry," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2669-2677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nauert, A.

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Nauert and A. Dreizler, "Conditional velocity measurements by simultaneously applied laser Doppler velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence in a swirling natural gas/air flame," Z. Phys. Chem. 219, 635-648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nazeer, W.

R. K. Cheng, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, and K. O. Smith, "Laboratory studies of the flow field characteristics of low-swirl injectors for adaptation to fuel-flexible turbines," ASME Turbo Expo GT2006-90878 (2006).

M. R. Johnson, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, K. O. Smith, and R. K. Cheng, "A comparison of the flowfields and emissions of high-swirl injectors and low-swirl injectors for lean premixed gas turbines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 2867-2874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nogenmyr, K.-J.

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nygren, J.

Olofsson, J.

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pellizzari, R.

R. K. Cheng, D. T. Yegian, M. M. Miyasato, G. S. Samuelsen, R. Pellizzari, P. Loftus, and C. Benson, "Scaling and development of low-swirl burners for low-emission furnaces and boilers" Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1305-1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peters, N.

C. Kortschik, T. Plessing, and N. Peters, "Laser optical investigation of turbulent transport of temperature ahead of the preheat zone in a premixed flame," Combust. Flame 136, 43-50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Plessing, C. Kortschik, N. Peters, M. S. Mansour, and R. K. Cheng, "Measurements of the turbulent burning velocity and the structure of premixed flames on a low swirl burner," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 359-366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Chen, N. Peters, G. A. Schneemann, N. Wruck, U. Renz, and M. S. Mansour, "The detailed structure of highly stretched turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Combust. Flame 107, 223-244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Peters, Turbulent Combustion (Cambridge U. Press, 2000), p. 78.

Petersson, P.

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pitsch, H.

H. Pitsch, "Large-Eddy simulation of turbulent combustion," Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 38, 453-482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Plessing, T.

C. Kortschik, T. Plessing, and N. Peters, "Laser optical investigation of turbulent transport of temperature ahead of the preheat zone in a premixed flame," Combust. Flame 136, 43-50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Plessing, C. Kortschik, N. Peters, M. S. Mansour, and R. K. Cheng, "Measurements of the turbulent burning velocity and the structure of premixed flames on a low swirl burner," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 359-366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Renz, U.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Peters, G. A. Schneemann, N. Wruck, U. Renz, and M. S. Mansour, "The detailed structure of highly stretched turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Combust. Flame 107, 223-244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richter, M.

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, M. Richter, J. Nygren, M. Aldén, A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, and B. Johansson, "Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines" Appl. Opt. 41, 5002-5014 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadiki, A.

J. Janicka and A. Sadiki, "Large Eddy simulation of turbulent combustion systems," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 537-548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Samuelsen, G. S.

R. K. Cheng, D. T. Yegian, M. M. Miyasato, G. S. Samuelsen, R. Pellizzari, P. Loftus, and C. Benson, "Scaling and development of low-swirl burners for low-emission furnaces and boilers" Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1305-1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Santoro, R. J.

R. J. Santoro, "Applications of laser-based diagnostics to high pressure rocket and gas turbine combustor studies," in Proceedings of the 20th AIAA Advanced Measurement and Ground Testing Technology Conference (AIAA, 1998), paper 98-2698.

Schneemann, G. A.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Peters, G. A. Schneemann, N. Wruck, U. Renz, and M. S. Mansour, "The detailed structure of highly stretched turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Combust. Flame 107, 223-244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seyfried, H.

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, I. G.

R. K. Cheng, I. G. Shepherd, B. Bédat, and L. Talbot, "Premixed turbulent flame structures in moderate and intense isotropic turbulence," Combust. Sci. Technol. 174, 29-59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. O.

R. K. Cheng, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, and K. O. Smith, "Laboratory studies of the flow field characteristics of low-swirl injectors for adaptation to fuel-flexible turbines," ASME Turbo Expo GT2006-90878 (2006).

M. R. Johnson, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, K. O. Smith, and R. K. Cheng, "A comparison of the flowfields and emissions of high-swirl injectors and low-swirl injectors for lean premixed gas turbines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 2867-2874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smooke, M. D.

M. D. Smooke and V. Giovangigli, Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms and Asymptotic Approximations for Methane-Air Flames, M. D. Smooke, ed. (Springer, 1991), p. 1R28.
[CrossRef]

Soika, A.

A. Soika, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of the resolved flame structure of turbulent premixed flames with constant Reynolds number and varied stoichiometry," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 785-792 (1998).

Stevens, E. J.

E. J. Stevens, K. N. C. Bray, and B. Lecordier, "Velocity and scalar statistics for premixed turbulent stagnation flames using PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 949-955 (1998).

Talbot, L.

R. K. Cheng, I. G. Shepherd, B. Bédat, and L. Talbot, "Premixed turbulent flame structures in moderate and intense isotropic turbulence," Combust. Sci. Technol. 174, 29-59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tonse, S.

D. Littlejohn, A. J. Majeski, S. Tonse, C. Castaldini, and R. K. Cheng, "Laboratory investigation of an ultra-low NOx premixed combustion concept for industrial boilers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1115-1121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

P. Wang and X. S. Bai, "Large Eddy simulation of turbulent premixed flames using level-set G-equation," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 583-591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wieneke, B.

B. Wieneke, "Stereo-PIV using self-calibration on particle images," Exp. Fluids 39, 267-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wruck, N.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Peters, G. A. Schneemann, N. Wruck, U. Renz, and M. S. Mansour, "The detailed structure of highly stretched turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Combust. Flame 107, 223-244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yegian, D. T.

R. K. Cheng, D. T. Yegian, M. M. Miyasato, G. S. Samuelsen, R. Pellizzari, P. Loftus, and C. Benson, "Scaling and development of low-swirl burners for low-emission furnaces and boilers" Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1305-1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zetterberg, J.

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Afzelius, and M. Aldén, "Applications of a single-longitudinal-mode alexandrite laser for diagnostics of combustion interest," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3208-3215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (1)

H. Pitsch, "Large-Eddy simulation of turbulent combustion," Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 38, 453-482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

ASME Turbo Expo (1)

R. K. Cheng, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, and K. O. Smith, "Laboratory studies of the flow field characteristics of low-swirl injectors for adaptation to fuel-flexible turbines," ASME Turbo Expo GT2006-90878 (2006).

Combust. Flame (6)

C. Kortschik, T. Plessing, and N. Peters, "Laser optical investigation of turbulent transport of temperature ahead of the preheat zone in a premixed flame," Combust. Flame 136, 43-50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Cheng, "Velocity and scalar characteristics of premixed turbulent flames stabilized by weak swirl," Combust. Flame 101, 1-14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Chen, N. Peters, G. A. Schneemann, N. Wruck, U. Renz, and M. S. Mansour, "The detailed structure of highly stretched turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Combust. Flame 107, 223-244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Bédat and R. K. Cheng, "Experimental study of premixed flames in intense isotropic turbulence," Combust. Flame 100, 485-494 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, P. A. M. Kalt, and R. W. Bilger, "Measurement of conditional velocities in turbulent premixed flames by simultaneous OH PLIF and PIV," Combust. Flame 116, 220-232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. A. M. Kalt, Y.-C. Chen, and R. W. Bilger, "Experimental investigation of turbulent scalar flux in premixed stagnation-plate flames," Combust. Flame 129, 401-415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (2)

K. N. C. Bray, P. A. Libby, and J. B. Moss, "Flamelet crossing frequencies and mean reaction rates in premixed turbulent combustion," Combust. Sci. Technol. 41, 143-172 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Cheng, I. G. Shepherd, B. Bédat, and L. Talbot, "Premixed turbulent flame structures in moderate and intense isotropic turbulence," Combust. Sci. Technol. 174, 29-59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (1)

B. Wieneke, "Stereo-PIV using self-calibration on particle images," Exp. Fluids 39, 267-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (13)

P. Wang and X. S. Bai, "Large Eddy simulation of turbulent premixed flames using level-set G-equation," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 583-591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Littlejohn, A. J. Majeski, S. Tonse, C. Castaldini, and R. K. Cheng, "Laboratory investigation of an ultra-low NOx premixed combustion concept for industrial boilers," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1115-1121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. A. M. Kalt, J. H. Frank, and R. W. Bilger, "Laser imaging of conditional velocities in premixed propane/air flames by simultaneous OH PLIF and PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 751-758 (1998).

K.-J. Nogenmyr, P. Petersson, X. S. Bai, A. Nauert, J. Olofsson, C. Brackman, H. Seyfried, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Richter, A. Dreizler, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, "Large Eddy Simulation and experiments of stratified lean premixed methane/air turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1467-1475 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Most, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Direct determination of the turbulent flux by simultaneous application of filtered Rayleigh scattering thermometry and particle image velocimetry," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2669-2677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chan, K. S. Lau, W. K. Chin, and R. K. Cheng, "Freely propagating open premixed turbulent flames stabilized by swirl," Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 511-518 (1992).

R. K. Cheng, D. T. Yegian, M. M. Miyasato, G. S. Samuelsen, R. Pellizzari, P. Loftus, and C. Benson, "Scaling and development of low-swirl burners for low-emission furnaces and boilers" Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1305-1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Johnson, D. Littlejohn, W. Nazeer, K. O. Smith, and R. K. Cheng, "A comparison of the flowfields and emissions of high-swirl injectors and low-swirl injectors for lean premixed gas turbines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 2867-2874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Plessing, C. Kortschik, N. Peters, M. S. Mansour, and R. K. Cheng, "Measurements of the turbulent burning velocity and the structure of premixed flames on a low swirl burner," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 359-366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Geyer, A. Kempf, A. Dreizler, and J. Janicka, "Scalar dissipation rates in isothermal and reactive turbulent opposed jets: 1D-Raman/Rayleigh experiments supported by LES," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 681-689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Stevens, K. N. C. Bray, and B. Lecordier, "Velocity and scalar statistics for premixed turbulent stagnation flames using PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 949-955 (1998).

J. Janicka and A. Sadiki, "Large Eddy simulation of turbulent combustion systems," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 537-548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Soika, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of the resolved flame structure of turbulent premixed flames with constant Reynolds number and varied stoichiometry," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 785-792 (1998).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, M. Afzelius, and M. Aldén, "Applications of a single-longitudinal-mode alexandrite laser for diagnostics of combustion interest," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3208-3215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. Chem. (1)

A. Nauert and A. Dreizler, "Conditional velocity measurements by simultaneously applied laser Doppler velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence in a swirling natural gas/air flame," Z. Phys. Chem. 219, 635-648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

LIFBASE: Database and spectral simulation, http://www:sri.com/psd/lifbase/.

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, and W. R. Lempert, "Filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements in supersonic/hypersonic facilities," AIAA paper 92-3894 (1992).

CHEM1D, "A one-dimensional laminar flame code," Eindhoven University of Technology, http://www.combustion.tue.nl/chem1d.

M. D. Smooke and V. Giovangigli, Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms and Asymptotic Approximations for Methane-Air Flames, M. D. Smooke, ed. (Springer, 1991), p. 1R28.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Santoro, "Applications of laser-based diagnostics to high pressure rocket and gas turbine combustor studies," in Proceedings of the 20th AIAA Advanced Measurement and Ground Testing Technology Conference (AIAA, 1998), paper 98-2698.

A. Dreizler and J. Janicka, "Diagnostic challenges for gas turbine combustor model validation," in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), p. 561.

R. S. Barlow, International Workshop on Measurement and Computation of Turbulent Non-Premixed Flames, http://www.ca.sandia.gov/TNF/.

N. Peters, Turbulent Combustion (Cambridge U. Press, 2000), p. 78.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross section of burner without swirl assembly. Premixed air and fuel enter via four nozzles (two visible) and pass several perforated plates before reaching the swirler. (b) Swirl assembly; arrow marks the location where the assembly is installed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup for simultaneous PIV∕OH-PLIF measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Multi-YAG laser cluster at LTH Lund.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Ensemble average of 500 single-shot stereo PIV images for LSF-2 (flow is going into the paper on the right side; note that a few vectors were lost in the upper left of the image).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Combined single-shot PIV∕OH-PLIF image for LSF-2 (r = radial distance, x = height above nozzle).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Exit velocity profiles of swirler for LSF-1 (2 mm downstream). Mean axial and tangential velocities (a) crossing over the center of a flow passage and (b) crossing over the center of a vane.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Exit velocity profiles of nozzle for LSF-1 (2 mm downstream). (a) Mean axial, radial, and tangential velocities and (b) respective rms values.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Single-shot FRS temperature image (top) followed by a sequence of four OH-PLIF images with a Δ t = 400   μs .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Radial profiles of temperature and rms values.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Contour plot of the mean reaction progress variable for LSF-2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Axial dependence of the mean reaction progress variable.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Combined single-shot PIV∕OH-PLIF image in the upper part of the flame for LSF-2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Operational Points and Characteristics of Lean Premixed Methane–Air Flames

Tables Icon

Table 2 Conditional Velocities and Scalar Fluxes at c ¯ = 0.5 for the Flames Described in Table 1

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ ¯ u c ˜ = ρ ¯ c ˜ ( 1 c ˜ ) ( u ¯ b u ¯ u ) .
c ˜ = c ¯ c ¯ + ρ u ρ b ( 1 c ¯ ) .

Metrics