Abstract

We report a theoretical and numerical study of self-imaging properties, including time domain and pulse spreading, caused by modal group-delay dispersion in generalized N×N multimode interference devices achieved by using a mode-propagation analysis and finite-difference time-domain method. It was found that the spatial self-imaging condition does not realize temporal self-imaging but lets waveforms separate whose shape depends on input position and input field distribution. Pulse spreading, which is sensitive to beam diameter, has a very large variation (420 fs) among input positions as well as rising to a very high 900 fs in response to a 21 fs and spatially Gaussian pulse for the conveniently smallest size with 10 channels.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

2005 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, and M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fiber links," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 324-331 (1998).

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).

1996 (1)

K.-C. Lin and W.-Y. Lee, "Guided-wave 1.3/1.55 µm wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference," Electron. Lett. 32, 1259-1261 (1996).

1995 (2)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

C. Vazquez, F. J. Mustieles, and F. Hernandez-Gil, "Three-dimensional method for simulation of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2296-2299 (1995).

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

M. J. Yadlowsky and A. R. Mickelson, "Distributed loss and mode coupling and their effect on time-dependent propagation in multimode fibers," Appl. Opt. 32, 6664-6676 (1993).

A. Ferreras, F. Rodríguez, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, and F. Hernández-Gil, "Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224-1227 (1993).

1992 (1)

1981 (1)

D. C. Chang and E. F. Kuester, "A hybrid method for paraxial beam propagation in multimode optical waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. MTT-29, 923-933 (1981).

1975 (1)

R. Ulrich, "Image formation by phase coincidences in optical waveguides," Opt. Commun. 13, 259-264 (1975).

1973 (1)

Bachmann, M.

Besse, P. A.

Brunsting, A.

R. Pimpinella and A. Brunsting, "Differential mode delay (DMD) for multimode fiber types and its relationship to measured performance," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., March 2005, paper NWF2.

Bryngdahl, O.

Chang, D. C.

D. C. Chang and E. F. Kuester, "A hybrid method for paraxial beam propagation in multimode optical waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. MTT-29, 923-933 (1981).

Coppinger, F.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).

Cunningham, D. G.

de Miguel, J. L.

A. Ferreras, F. Rodríguez, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, and F. Hernández-Gil, "Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224-1227 (1993).

Deveraux, R. W.

Euliss, G. W.

Fan, S.

Ferreras, A.

A. Ferreras, F. Rodríguez, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, and F. Hernández-Gil, "Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224-1227 (1993).

Gómez-Salas, E.

A. Ferreras, F. Rodríguez, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, and F. Hernández-Gil, "Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224-1227 (1993).

Hamada, H.

Heaton, J. M.

Hernandez-Gil, F.

C. Vazquez, F. J. Mustieles, and F. Hernandez-Gil, "Three-dimensional method for simulation of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2296-2299 (1995).

Hernández-Gil, F.

A. Ferreras, F. Rodríguez, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, and F. Hernández-Gil, "Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224-1227 (1993).

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).

Jenkins, R. M.

Kahn, J. M.

Kuester, E. F.

D. C. Chang and E. F. Kuester, "A hybrid method for paraxial beam propagation in multimode optical waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. MTT-29, 923-933 (1981).

Lee, W.-Y.

K.-C. Lin and W.-Y. Lee, "Guided-wave 1.3/1.55 µm wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference," Electron. Lett. 32, 1259-1261 (1996).

Lin, K.-C.

K.-C. Lin and W.-Y. Lee, "Guided-wave 1.3/1.55 µm wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference," Electron. Lett. 32, 1259-1261 (1996).

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Kluwer Academic, 2000).

Melchior, H.

Mickelson, A. R.

Mustieles, F. J.

C. Vazquez, F. J. Mustieles, and F. Hernandez-Gil, "Three-dimensional method for simulation of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2296-2299 (1995).

Nowell, M. C.

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

Pimpinella, R.

R. Pimpinella and A. Brunsting, "Differential mode delay (DMD) for multimode fiber types and its relationship to measured performance," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., March 2005, paper NWF2.

Raddatz, L.

Rendina, I.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).

Rodríguez, F.

A. Ferreras, F. Rodríguez, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, and F. Hernández-Gil, "Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224-1227 (1993).

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Kluwer Academic, 2000).

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, "Image formation by phase coincidences in optical waveguides," Opt. Commun. 13, 259-264 (1975).

Vazquez, C.

C. Vazquez, F. J. Mustieles, and F. Hernandez-Gil, "Three-dimensional method for simulation of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2296-2299 (1995).

White, I. H.

Yadlowsky, M. J.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).

Yoon, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).

Yoshimoto, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

K.-C. Lin and W.-Y. Lee, "Guided-wave 1.3/1.55 µm wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference," Electron. Lett. 32, 1259-1261 (1996).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Ferreras, F. Rodríguez, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, and F. Hernández-Gil, "Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224-1227 (1993).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. (1)

D. C. Chang and E. F. Kuester, "A hybrid method for paraxial beam propagation in multimode optical waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. MTT-29, 923-933 (1981).

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

C. Vazquez, F. J. Mustieles, and F. Hernandez-Gil, "Three-dimensional method for simulation of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2296-2299 (1995).

G. W. Euliss, "Temporal characteristics and scaling considerations of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1206-1210 (1999).

L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, and M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fiber links," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 324-331 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Ulrich, "Image formation by phase coincidences in optical waveguides," Opt. Commun. 13, 259-264 (1975).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

R. Pimpinella and A. Brunsting, "Differential mode delay (DMD) for multimode fiber types and its relationship to measured performance," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., March 2005, paper NWF2.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Kluwer Academic, 2000).

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