Abstract

A depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system with electrically variable image planes is proposed. For implementing the variable image planes, polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) films and a projector are adopted as a new display system in the integral imaging. Since the transparencies of PDLC films are electrically controllable, we can make each film diffuse the projected light successively with a different depth from the lens array. As a result, the proposed method enables control of the location of image planes electrically and enhances the depth. The principle of the proposed method is described, and experimental results are also presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  22. A. Sullivan, "DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 279-284 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 94, 591-607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aria, M. Okui, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system," Appl. Opt. 45, 1704-1712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

2005

2004

A. Sullivan, "DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 279-284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

1997

1988

1908

G. Lippmann, "La photograhie integrale," Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Arai, J.

Aria, J.

Cho, S.-W.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate," Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 730-731.

Davies, N.

Dohi, T.

Forman, M. C.

Hain, M.

Hata, N.

Hong, J.

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 730-731.

Hoshino, H.

Iwahara, M.

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

Jin, F.

Jung, S.

Katayama, Y.

Kim, J.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate," Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, "Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes," Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 730-731.

Liao, H.

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, "La photograhie integrale," Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

McCormick, M.

Min, S.-W.

Okano, F.

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).

Okui, M.

Park, J.-H.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate," Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, "Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes," Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 730-731.

Schmiedchen, M.

Spiegel, W.

Stern, A.

A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 94, 591-607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

A. Sullivan, "DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 279-284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

Yamashita, T.

Yang, L.

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt.

Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci.

G. Lippmann, "La photograhie integrale," Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Soc. Inf. Display

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 94, 591-607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

A. Sullivan, "DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 279-284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

http://www.dmdisplay.com/english/technology/default.asp.

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 730-731.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Basic concept of integral imaging (a) pickup and display and (b) an example of an elemental image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Configuration of the proposed integral imaging system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Electrical control of the PDLC films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Transparency of PDLC film used in this experiment (a) when voltage is applied and (b) when voltage is not applied.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Experimental setup: lens array, the PDLC films, a projector and the voltage-control part (a) when all films are transparent, (b) when all are turned off, and (c) when it is pictured from the reverse side.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Location of each image plane according to the gap.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Integrated images with different depths (a) using the conventional method and (b) using the proposed method. The numbers (in millimeters) indicate the distance of the integrated image from the lens array.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Integrated images with different depths using the proposed method. The numbers (in millimeters) indicate the distance of the integrated image from the lens array.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Results for parallax comparison: (a) a left image and (b) a right image of the cube located at 50   mm ; (c) a left image and (d) a right image of the cube located at 120   mm in front of the lens array.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 g + 1 l c = 1 f ,
p n = p 1 + ( p 4 p 1 ) g n g 1 g 4 g 1 ,

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