Abstract

A depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system with electrically variable image planes is proposed. For implementing the variable image planes, polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) films and a projector are adopted as a new display system in the integral imaging. Since the transparencies of PDLC films are electrically controllable, we can make each film diffuse the projected light successively with a different depth from the lens array. As a result, the proposed method enables control of the location of image planes electrically and enhances the depth. The principle of the proposed method is described, and experimental results are also presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Lippmann, "La photograhie integrale," Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, "Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes," Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate," Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  22. A. Sullivan, "DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 279-284 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. http://www.dmdisplay.com/english/technology/default.asp.
  24. J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 94, 591-607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

J. Aria, M. Okui, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system," Appl. Opt. 45, 1704-1712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sullivan, "DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 279-284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

1997

1988

1908

G. Lippmann, "La photograhie integrale," Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Arai, J.

Aria, J.

Cho, S.-W.

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate," Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 730-731.

Davies, N.

Dohi, T.

Forman, M. C.

Hain, M.

Hata, N.

Hong, J.

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 730-731.

Hoshino, H.

Iwahara, M.

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

Jin, F.

Jung, S.

Katayama, Y.

Kim, J.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate," Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, "Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes," Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 730-731.

Liao, H.

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, "La photograhie integrale," Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

McCormick, M.

Min, S.-W.

Okano, F.

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).

Okui, M.

Park, J.-H.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices," Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate," Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, "Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes," Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 730-731.

Schmiedchen, M.

Spiegel, W.

Stern, A.

A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 94, 591-607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

A. Sullivan, "DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 279-284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

Yamashita, T.

Yang, L.

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt.

Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci.

G. Lippmann, "La photograhie integrale," Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Soc. Inf. Display

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 94, 591-607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers," in Three-Dimensional TV, Video, and Display V, B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J.-Y. Son, eds., Proc. SPIE 6392, 639204 (2006).

A. Sullivan, "DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 279-284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

http://www.dmdisplay.com/english/technology/default.asp.

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 730-731.

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Basic concept of integral imaging (a) pickup and display and (b) an example of an elemental image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Configuration of the proposed integral imaging system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Electrical control of the PDLC films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Transparency of PDLC film used in this experiment (a) when voltage is applied and (b) when voltage is not applied.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Experimental setup: lens array, the PDLC films, a projector and the voltage-control part (a) when all films are transparent, (b) when all are turned off, and (c) when it is pictured from the reverse side.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Location of each image plane according to the gap.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Integrated images with different depths (a) using the conventional method and (b) using the proposed method. The numbers (in millimeters) indicate the distance of the integrated image from the lens array.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Integrated images with different depths using the proposed method. The numbers (in millimeters) indicate the distance of the integrated image from the lens array.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Results for parallax comparison: (a) a left image and (b) a right image of the cube located at 50   mm ; (c) a left image and (d) a right image of the cube located at 120   mm in front of the lens array.

Equations (67)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 g + 1 l c = 1 f ,
l c
( g > f )
( l c > 0 )
( g < f )
( l c < 0 )
10   mm
22   mm
( 210   mm × 297   mm )
300   ms
> 150 °
p 1
p 4
p n
p n = p 1 + ( p 4 p 1 ) g n g 1 g 4 g 1 ,
g n
g 1
g 2
g 3
g 4
38   mm
33   mm
29   mm
27   mm
0 .238   mm
0.224   mm
0 .239   mm
0 .225   mm
0 .240   mm
0 .226   mm
0 .241   mm
0 .227   mm
52   mm
66   mm
91   mm
118   mm
14   mm
25   mm
27   mm
40   mm
50   mm
145   mm
5   mm
65   mm
30 40   mm
15 20   mm
50   mm
140   mm
160   mm
145   mm
130 mm
5   mm
40   mm
30   mm
160   mm
50   mm
120   mm
50   mm
50   mm
50   mm
120   mm
120   mm
120   mm
50   mm
120   mm
50   mm
120   mm

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