Abstract

Multilayer coating results are discussed for the primary and secondary mirrors of the micro-exposure tool (MET): a 0.30 NA lithographic imaging system with a 200  μm×600  μm field of view at the wafer plane, operating in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region at an illumination wavelength around 13.4   nm. Mo∕Si multilayers were deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering on large-area, curved MET camera substrates. A velocity modulation technique was implemented to consistently achieve multilayer thickness profiles with added figure errors below 0.1   nm rms demonstrating sub-diffraction-limited performance, as defined by the classical diffraction limit of Rayleigh (0.25 waves peak to valley) or Marechal (0.07 waves rms). This work is an experimental demonstration of sub-diffraction- limited multilayer coatings for high-NA EUV imaging systems, which resulted in the highest resolution microfield EUV images to date.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. "Scanner" is a semiconductor industry term for tools used to print microprocessor circuit patterns, typically in "step-and-scan" mode.
  2. See for instance press releases at http://www.intel.com/technology/silicon/45nm_technology.htm and http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/20980.wss.
  3. C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142-3149 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10X Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1219-1228 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. The Scheimpflug condition states that the imaging properties of a centered optical system with a tilted object are preserved on a tilted image plane (ignoring distortion). For a system used at finite conjugates, the required image plane tilt is the object plane tilt scaled by the reduction ratio.
  6. D. M. Williamson, "The Elusive Diffraction Limit", in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike and D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of 1994 OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 68-76.
  7. R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).
  8. C. Montcalm, R. F. Grabner, R. M. Hudyma, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Atomic-precision multilayer coating of the first set of optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography prototype system," Appl. Opt. 41, 3262-3269 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. E. Sommargren, "Phase shifting diffraction interferometry for measuring extreme ultraviolet optics," in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. Kubiak and D. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 108-112.
  10. R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson and E. M. Gullikson, "Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme-ultraviolet illuminators," Opt. Eng. 43, 3089-3095 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
  13. D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, and D. Shafer, "EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3331, 2-10 (1998).
  14. For this throughput calculation a total of six reflections were assumed in the MET system, including the mask, the two MET camera optics, and a condenser/illuminator assembly with three elements. Since there was no definite MET condenser design available when this paper was prepared, the choice of number of condenser elements is somewhat arbitrary, but realistic.
  15. E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, "Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 363-373 (2001).
  16. C. Montcalm, C. C. Walton, and J. A. Folta, "Method and system using power modulation and velocity modulation producing sputtered thin films with sub-angstrom thickness uniformity or custom thickness gradients," U.S. patent 6,668,207 (23 December 2003).
  17. Code V software, by Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, California.
  18. F. Zernike, "Beugungstheorie des Schneidenverfahrens und seiner verbesserten form, der Phasenkontrastmethode," Physica 1, 689-704 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, "Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology," in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume XI (Academic, 1992), pp. 1-53.
  20. B. W. Smith, "Optics for photolithography," in Microlithography: Science and Technology, J.R.Sheats and B.W.Smith, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 1998), pp. 171-270.
  21. E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1994).
  22. V. Holy and T. Baumbach, "Non-specular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668-10676 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. G. Stearns, "Stochastic model for thin film growth and erosion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745-1747 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, P. E. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson, and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3-NA MET optic," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2956-2961 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. P. Cain, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A.-S. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).

2005 (2)

K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, P. E. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson, and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3-NA MET optic," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2956-2961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. P. Cain, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A.-S. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).

2004 (2)

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson and E. M. Gullikson, "Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme-ultraviolet illuminators," Opt. Eng. 43, 3089-3095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10X Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1219-1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, "Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 363-373 (2001).

1999 (1)

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

1998 (2)

D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, and D. Shafer, "EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3331, 2-10 (1998).

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142-3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. Holy and T. Baumbach, "Non-specular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668-10676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. G. Stearns, "Stochastic model for thin film growth and erosion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745-1747 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1934 (1)

F. Zernike, "Beugungstheorie des Schneidenverfahrens und seiner verbesserten form, der Phasenkontrastmethode," Physica 1, 689-704 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. P. Cain, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A.-S. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).

K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, P. E. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson, and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3-NA MET optic," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2956-2961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142-3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. L.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson and E. M. Gullikson, "Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme-ultraviolet illuminators," Opt. Eng. 43, 3089-3095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

Baumbach, T.

V. Holy and T. Baumbach, "Non-specular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668-10676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

Bokor, J.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

Burkhart, S.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bustaus, C.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cain, J. P.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. P. Cain, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A.-S. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).

Chapman, H. N.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, and D. Shafer, "EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3331, 2-10 (1998).

Creath, K.

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, "Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology," in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume XI (Academic, 1992), pp. 1-53.

Davidson, J. C.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

Dean, K.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. P. Cain, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A.-S. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).

Denham, P.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. P. Cain, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A.-S. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).

Denham, P. E.

K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, P. E. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson, and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3-NA MET optic," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2956-2961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dinger, U.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eisert, F.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fellner, B.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Folta, J. A.

C. Montcalm, R. F. Grabner, R. M. Hudyma, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Atomic-precision multilayer coating of the first set of optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography prototype system," Appl. Opt. 41, 3262-3269 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10X Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1219-1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

C. Montcalm, C. C. Walton, and J. A. Folta, "Method and system using power modulation and velocity modulation producing sputtered thin films with sub-angstrom thickness uniformity or custom thickness gradients," U.S. patent 6,668,207 (23 December 2003).

Goldberg, K. A.

K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, P. E. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson, and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3-NA MET optic," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2956-2961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. P. Cain, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A.-S. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

Grabner, R. F.

C. Montcalm, R. F. Grabner, R. M. Hudyma, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Atomic-precision multilayer coating of the first set of optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography prototype system," Appl. Opt. 41, 3262-3269 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

Gullikson, E. M.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson and E. M. Gullikson, "Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme-ultraviolet illuminators," Opt. Eng. 43, 3089-3095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, "Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 363-373 (2001).

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

Gwyn, C. W.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142-3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hocky, O.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoef, B.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. P. Cain, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A.-S. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).

Höfer, H.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holy, V.

V. Holy and T. Baumbach, "Non-specular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668-10676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hudyma, R. M.

C. Montcalm, R. F. Grabner, R. M. Hudyma, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Atomic-precision multilayer coating of the first set of optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography prototype system," Appl. Opt. 41, 3262-3269 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, and D. Shafer, "EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3331, 2-10 (1998).

Jackson, K.

K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, P. E. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson, and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3-NA MET optic," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2956-2961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. P. Cain, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A.-S. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).

Johnson, M. A.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson and E. M. Gullikson, "Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme-ultraviolet illuminators," Opt. Eng. 43, 3089-3095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, B. B.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, "Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 363-373 (2001).

Kürz, P.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, P. E. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson, and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3-NA MET optic," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2956-2961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, M.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

C. Montcalm, R. F. Grabner, R. M. Hudyma, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Atomic-precision multilayer coating of the first set of optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography prototype system," Appl. Opt. 41, 3262-3269 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10X Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1219-1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

C. Montcalm, C. C. Walton, and J. A. Folta, "Method and system using power modulation and velocity modulation producing sputtered thin films with sub-angstrom thickness uniformity or custom thickness gradients," U.S. patent 6,668,207 (23 December 2003).

Morlens, A.-S.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. P. Cain, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A.-S. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).

Mrowka, S.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, "Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 363-373 (2001).

Münster, C.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

Naulleau, P. P.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. P. Cain, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A.-S. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).

K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, P. E. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson, and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3-NA MET optic," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2956-2961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ratti, S.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson and E. M. Gullikson, "Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme-ultraviolet illuminators," Opt. Eng. 43, 3089-3095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rekawa, S.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. P. Cain, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A.-S. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).

Rekawa, S. B.

K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, P. E. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson, and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3-NA MET optic," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2956-2961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riedelsheimer, K.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. C.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson and E. M. Gullikson, "Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme-ultraviolet illuminators," Opt. Eng. 43, 3089-3095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, M.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. A.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson and E. M. Gullikson, "Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme-ultraviolet illuminators," Opt. Eng. 43, 3089-3095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, R. F. Grabner, R. M. Hudyma, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Atomic-precision multilayer coating of the first set of optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography prototype system," Appl. Opt. 41, 3262-3269 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

Schulte, S.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seitz, G.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shafer, D.

D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, and D. Shafer, "EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3331, 2-10 (1998).

Smith, B. W.

B. W. Smith, "Optics for photolithography," in Microlithography: Science and Technology, J.R.Sheats and B.W.Smith, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 1998), pp. 171-270.

Sommargren, G. E.

G. E. Sommargren, "Phase shifting diffraction interferometry for measuring extreme ultraviolet optics," in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. Kubiak and D. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 108-112.

Soufli, R.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson and E. M. Gullikson, "Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme-ultraviolet illuminators," Opt. Eng. 43, 3089-3095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

Spiller, E.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson and E. M. Gullikson, "Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme-ultraviolet illuminators," Opt. Eng. 43, 3089-3095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, R. F. Grabner, R. M. Hudyma, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Atomic-precision multilayer coating of the first set of optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography prototype system," Appl. Opt. 41, 3262-3269 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10X Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1219-1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1994).

Stacklies, S.

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

D. G. Stearns, "Stochastic model for thin film growth and erosion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745-1747 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142-3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142-3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, and D. Shafer, "EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3331, 2-10 (1998).

Taylor, J. S.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

Underwood, J. H.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

Walton, C. C.

C. Montcalm, R. F. Grabner, R. M. Hudyma, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Atomic-precision multilayer coating of the first set of optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography prototype system," Appl. Opt. 41, 3262-3269 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

C. Montcalm, C. C. Walton, and J. A. Folta, "Method and system using power modulation and velocity modulation producing sputtered thin films with sub-angstrom thickness uniformity or custom thickness gradients," U.S. patent 6,668,207 (23 December 2003).

Weber, F. J.

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10X Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1219-1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wedowski, M.

C. Montcalm, R. F. Grabner, R. M. Hudyma, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Atomic-precision multilayer coating of the first set of optics for an extreme-ultraviolet lithography prototype system," Appl. Opt. 41, 3262-3269 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10X Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1219-1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, D. M.

D. M. Williamson, "The Elusive Diffraction Limit", in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike and D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of 1994 OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 68-76.

Wyant, J. C.

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, "Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology," in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume XI (Academic, 1992), pp. 1-53.

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, "Beugungstheorie des Schneidenverfahrens und seiner verbesserten form, der Phasenkontrastmethode," Physica 1, 689-704 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. G. Stearns, "Stochastic model for thin film growth and erosion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745-1747 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (3)

K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, P. E. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson, and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3-NA MET optic," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2956-2961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142-3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, M. Wedowski, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10X Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1219-1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson and E. M. Gullikson, "Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme-ultraviolet illuminators," Opt. Eng. 43, 3089-3095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Holy and T. Baumbach, "Non-specular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668-10676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Physica (1)

F. Zernike, "Beugungstheorie des Schneidenverfahrens und seiner verbesserten form, der Phasenkontrastmethode," Physica 1, 689-704 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

U. Dinger, G. Seitz, S. Schulte, F. Eisert, C. Münster, S. Burkhart, S. Stacklies, C. Bustaus, H. Höfer, M. Mayer, B. Fellner, O. Hocky, M. Rupp, K. Riedelsheimer, P. Kürz, "Fabrication and metrology of diffraction-limited soft x-ray optics for the EUV microlithography," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds., Proc. SPIE 5193, 18-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).

D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, and D. Shafer, "EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3331, 2-10 (1998).

For this throughput calculation a total of six reflections were assumed in the MET system, including the mask, the two MET camera optics, and a condenser/illuminator assembly with three elements. Since there was no definite MET condenser design available when this paper was prepared, the choice of number of condenser elements is somewhat arbitrary, but realistic.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, "Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 363-373 (2001).

C. Montcalm, C. C. Walton, and J. A. Folta, "Method and system using power modulation and velocity modulation producing sputtered thin films with sub-angstrom thickness uniformity or custom thickness gradients," U.S. patent 6,668,207 (23 December 2003).

Code V software, by Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, California.

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, "Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology," in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume XI (Academic, 1992), pp. 1-53.

B. W. Smith, "Optics for photolithography," in Microlithography: Science and Technology, J.R.Sheats and B.W.Smith, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 1998), pp. 171-270.

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1994).

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. P. Cain, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A.-S. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).

"Scanner" is a semiconductor industry term for tools used to print microprocessor circuit patterns, typically in "step-and-scan" mode.

See for instance press releases at http://www.intel.com/technology/silicon/45nm_technology.htm and http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/20980.wss.

G. E. Sommargren, "Phase shifting diffraction interferometry for measuring extreme ultraviolet optics," in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. Kubiak and D. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 108-112.

The Scheimpflug condition states that the imaging properties of a centered optical system with a tilted object are preserved on a tilted image plane (ignoring distortion). For a system used at finite conjugates, the required image plane tilt is the object plane tilt scaled by the reduction ratio.

D. M. Williamson, "The Elusive Diffraction Limit", in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike and D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of 1994 OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 68-76.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Davidson, R. F. Grabner, E. M. Gullikson, B. B. Kaufmann, S. L. Baker, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, J. S. Taylor, C. C. Walton, C. Montcalm, and J. A. Folta, "Multilayer optics for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool with 70 nm resolution," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 51-59 (2001).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of the MET camera, showing the marginal ray path through the reflective mask, the primary and secondary mirrors, and the wafer. Two baffles (not shown in this drawing) are also placed near the optical axis of the system to block the incident beam from reaching the wafer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) The calculated flare versus line width for MET cameras using the Set 1 and Set 2 optics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Schematic of the DC-magnetron deposition system used to coat the MET optics. The two substrate positions holding the MET optics are shown. (b) Typical experimental reflectance versus wavelength results obtained from two Mo∕Si multilayers deposited in the system, measured at 5° off-normal incidence angles. The peak reflectance (R), number of bilayers (N) and ratio of Mo in the Mo∕Si bilayer (Γ) are also noted next to each measurement. To demonstrate the reflective properties of the films, substrates with almost ideally smooth surfaces (Si wafers, HSFR ≤ 0.1 nm rms) were used, as determined by atomic force microscopy.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Schematic drawing of a section of the deposition chamber (top view) showing the motion of an optical substrate mounted on the platter as it travels under the sputtering target. In the two-velocity scenario shown here, the ratio of velocities v2∕v1 and the angle θ1 where v2 transitions to v1 (and vice versa) determine the multilayer thickness profile deposited on the surface. The system allows for a maximum of five different velocities across the optic.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Measured multilayer thickness results are plotted versus radial distance from the optical axis for the primary and secondary MET Set 2 mirrors. The clear aperture area of each optic is shown. In each plot the top 2 curves (left y axis) are: the measured thickness profile (square data points) and the design thickness profile (solid curve). Each data point is derived from the wavelength at the center of the FWHM of the measured EUV reflectance Bragg peak. Data have been normalized to the wavelength at an arbitrary location on the surface. The bottom curve (circle data points plotted on the right y axis) represents the noncompensable figure error that the Mo∕Si multilayer film is adding to the optic surface. Both primary and secondary multilayer coatings contribute added figure errors well within the 0.1 nm rms specification.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Measured multilayer thickness profiles are shown for the primary and secondary MET mirrors. Results from two sets of MET optics (Set 1 = squares, Set 2 = circles) are plotted, with the two coating sets deposited 11 months apart, using identical velocity modulation parameters. The agreement between Set 1 and Set 2 results indicates excellent reproducibility of the deposition process.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Experimental results for the Mo∕Si wavelength versus radius across each MET mirror, corresponding to the actual camera angles of incidence. The average wavelength is noted on the top right corner of each plot. The dash guidelines in each plot represent the ±0.2% P-V wavelength uniformity specification discussed in Subsection 3.A.2. The goal wavelength was 13.352 nm for the multilayer coatings in Set 1 and 13.500 nm for Set 2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Angular distribution of scattering measured for the secondary mirror of the MET Set 2 optics. The calculated distribution is obtained using the distorted wave Born approximation and the measured PSD of the surface.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Design Parameters for the MET Two-Mirror Camera

Tables Icon

Table 2 Metrology Results for the Roughness in the Low (Figure), Mid (MSFR), and High (HSFR) Spatial Frequencies a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Spatial Frequency Ranges Relevant to Flare in the MET Optical System and the Roughness Achieved in These Bands by the Manufacturer of the Set 1 and Set 2 Substrates

Tables Icon

Table 4 Decomposition of the MET System Wavefront Error in Fringe Zernike Polynomial Terms Computed for Ideal and Experimental Multilayer Coatings at the Central Field Point (F1)

Tables Icon

Table 5 RMS Wavefront Error (WFE) Computed at Eight Points (F1–F8) Across the MET Field for Ideal and Experimental Multilayer Coatings

Tables Icon

Table 6 HSFR of the MET Substrates Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy, Calculated EUV Reflectance Loss (ΔR, Given in Absolute %) Due to Light Scattered Outside of the Detector Acceptance Angle in the Reflectometer, and Measured Peak EUV Reflectance (R)

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ i = λ m ( A i / A m ) cos θ i / cos θ m ,

Metrics