Abstract

A novel reprogrammable optical phase array (ROPA) device is presented as a reconfigurable electro-optic element. One specific application of the ROPA, a 1×6 electro-optic space switch, is fully described. Switching angles are within 2°, and switching is achieved through a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) controlled, diffraction based, optical phase array in a bulk BaTiO3 crystal. The crystal is flip-chipped to the CMOS chip, creating a compact fully integrated device. The design, optical simulation, and fabrication of the device are described, and preliminary experimental results are presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Mason, A. Vinokurov, N. Zhao, and D. Plant, "Topological design and dimensioning of agile all-photonic networks," Comput. Netw. 50, 268-287 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 electrooptic switches," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Mony, E. Bisaillon, K. W. Goossen, E. Shoukry, and D. V. Plant, "Reprogrammable optical phase array (ROPA) for use in an agile all-photonic network," OSA Information Photonics Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper IWB3.
  4. P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (1)

L. Mason, A. Vinokurov, N. Zhao, and D. Plant, "Topological design and dimensioning of agile all-photonic networks," Comput. Netw. 50, 268-287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 electrooptic switches," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Serati and J. Stockley, "Advanced liquid crystal on silicon optical phased arrays," IEEE Aerospace Conf. Proc. 3, 1395-1402 (2002).

1996 (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

M. J. M. Pelgrom, "A 10-b 50-MHz CMOS D/A converter with 75-Ω buffer," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 25, 1347-1352 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1975 (1)

N. J. Poole, "Effects of aging and compressive stress on the properties of BaTiO3 ceramics," J. Phys. D 8, 1140-1148 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Aimez, V.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 electrooptic switches," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bahamin, B.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 electrooptic switches," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bisaillon, E.

M. Mony, E. Bisaillon, K. W. Goossen, E. Shoukry, and D. V. Plant, "Reprogrammable optical phase array (ROPA) for use in an agile all-photonic network," OSA Information Photonics Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper IWB3.

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Goossen, K. W.

M. Mony, E. Bisaillon, K. W. Goossen, E. Shoukry, and D. V. Plant, "Reprogrammable optical phase array (ROPA) for use in an agile all-photonic network," OSA Information Photonics Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper IWB3.

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Langlois, P.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 electrooptic switches," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mason, L.

L. Mason, A. Vinokurov, N. Zhao, and D. Plant, "Topological design and dimensioning of agile all-photonic networks," Comput. Netw. 50, 268-287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, R. A.

Moharam, M. G.

Mony, M.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 electrooptic switches," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mony, E. Bisaillon, K. W. Goossen, E. Shoukry, and D. V. Plant, "Reprogrammable optical phase array (ROPA) for use in an agile all-photonic network," OSA Information Photonics Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper IWB3.

E. Shoukry, M. Mony, and D. V. Plant, "Design of a fully integrated array of high-voltage digital-to-analog converters," in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2005), pp. 372-375.

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pelgrom, M. J. M.

M. J. M. Pelgrom, "A 10-b 50-MHz CMOS D/A converter with 75-Ω buffer," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 25, 1347-1352 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D.

L. Mason, A. Vinokurov, N. Zhao, and D. Plant, "Topological design and dimensioning of agile all-photonic networks," Comput. Netw. 50, 268-287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 electrooptic switches," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mony, E. Bisaillon, K. W. Goossen, E. Shoukry, and D. V. Plant, "Reprogrammable optical phase array (ROPA) for use in an agile all-photonic network," OSA Information Photonics Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper IWB3.

E. Shoukry, M. Mony, and D. V. Plant, "Design of a fully integrated array of high-voltage digital-to-analog converters," in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2005), pp. 372-375.

Poole, N. J.

N. J. Poole, "Effects of aging and compressive stress on the properties of BaTiO3 ceramics," J. Phys. D 8, 1140-1148 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pulikkaseril, C.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 electrooptic switches," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Resler, D. P.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Serati, S.

S. Serati and J. Stockley, "Advanced liquid crystal on silicon optical phased arrays," IEEE Aerospace Conf. Proc. 3, 1395-1402 (2002).

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shoukry, E.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 electrooptic switches," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mony, E. Bisaillon, K. W. Goossen, E. Shoukry, and D. V. Plant, "Reprogrammable optical phase array (ROPA) for use in an agile all-photonic network," OSA Information Photonics Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper IWB3.

E. Shoukry, M. Mony, and D. V. Plant, "Design of a fully integrated array of high-voltage digital-to-analog converters," in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2005), pp. 372-375.

Stockley, J.

S. Serati and J. Stockley, "Advanced liquid crystal on silicon optical phased arrays," IEEE Aerospace Conf. Proc. 3, 1395-1402 (2002).

Thomas, J. A.

Tremblay, E. J.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 electrooptic switches," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vinokurov, A.

L. Mason, A. Vinokurov, N. Zhao, and D. Plant, "Topological design and dimensioning of agile all-photonic networks," Comput. Netw. 50, 268-287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, N.

L. Mason, A. Vinokurov, N. Zhao, and D. Plant, "Topological design and dimensioning of agile all-photonic networks," Comput. Netw. 50, 268-287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, Y.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 electrooptic switches," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Netw. (1)

L. Mason, A. Vinokurov, N. Zhao, and D. Plant, "Topological design and dimensioning of agile all-photonic networks," Comput. Netw. 50, 268-287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Aerospace Conf. Proc. (1)

S. Serati and J. Stockley, "Advanced liquid crystal on silicon optical phased arrays," IEEE Aerospace Conf. Proc. 3, 1395-1402 (2002).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

M. J. M. Pelgrom, "A 10-b 50-MHz CMOS D/A converter with 75-Ω buffer," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 25, 1347-1352 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

N. J. Poole, "Effects of aging and compressive stress on the properties of BaTiO3 ceramics," J. Phys. D 8, 1140-1148 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 electrooptic switches," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical phased array technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Mony, E. Bisaillon, K. W. Goossen, E. Shoukry, and D. V. Plant, "Reprogrammable optical phase array (ROPA) for use in an agile all-photonic network," OSA Information Photonics Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper IWB3.

MTI Corporation, "BaTiO3 specifications," http://www.mticrystal.com.

E. Shoukry, M. Mony, and D. V. Plant, "Design of a fully integrated array of high-voltage digital-to-analog converters," in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2005), pp. 372-375.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) General ROPA concept.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Simplified ROPA, used as a 1 × 6 space switch.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Incidence angle of light onto crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Index ellipsoid of BaTiO 3 when voltage is applied along the x axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Index change ( Δ n ) of center of unfolded BaTiO 3 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diffraction efficiencies for device used at 1310   nm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diffraction efficiencies for device used at 1550   nm .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Packaged high-voltage chip.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Switching speeds when DAC is providing the maximum output swing.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) EO crystal flip-chipped onto test chip.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Diffraction Angle Spread for Finite Periods and Incident Gaussian Beam

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r i j = [ 0 0 12 0 0 12 0 0 112 0 1700 0 1700 0 0 0 0 0 ] .
x 2 n o 2 + y 2 n o 2 + z 2 n e 2 + 2 r 51 E x x z = 1 ,
n = [ 1 ( tan θ n o ) 2 + 1 n e 2 ] 1 / 2 sin θ .
n E x = [ 1 ( tan θ n o ) 2 + 1 n e 2 + 2 r 51 E x tan θ ] 1 / 2 sin θ .

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