Abstract

We present a tunable photonic crystal fiber (PCF) directional coupler fabricated by a side-polishing method. The PCF directional coupler was modeled as a typical single-mode fiber-based directional coupler and analyzed using the improved effective-index method (IEIM). The characteristics of the PCF directional coupler such as the coupling coefficient and the coupling ratio were measured and found to be in good agreement with those predicted by the theoretical model. The PCF directional coupler exhibited an insertion loss of 2  dB for a 3   dB coupler and was able to tune the coupling ratio between 0% and 100% by tilting the angle of the top side-polished quartz block against the fixed-bottom quartz block.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. A. Mortensen, M. D. Nielsen, J. R. Folkenberg, A. Petersson, and H. R. Simonsen, "Improved large-mode-area endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 393-395 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. G. R. Broderick, T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennett, and D. J. Richardson, "Nonlinearity in holey optical fibers:measurement and future opportunities," Opt. Lett. 24, 1395-1397 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1415-1417 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. H. Lim, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, "Tunable fiber gratings fabricated in photonic crystal fiber by use of mechanical pressure," Opt. Lett. 29, 331-333 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. H. Lim, H. S. Jang, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kirn, and B. H. Lee, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a photonic crystal fiber based on a pair of long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 346-348 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek, and G.-H. Yang, "Photonic crystal fiber coupler," Opt. Lett. 27, 812-814 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Kim, J. Kim, U.-C. Paek, B. H. Lee, and K. T. Kim, "Tunable photonic crystal fiber coupler based on a side-polishing technique," Opt. Lett. 29, 1194-1196 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. N. Park and K. S. Lee, "Improved effective-index method for analysis of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 958-960 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. N. Park, T. Erdogan, and K. S. Lee, "Cladding mode coupling in long-period gratings formed in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun 266, 541-545 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. F. Digonnet and H. J. Shaw, "Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746-754 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. N. Park, T. Erdogan, and K. S. Lee, "Cladding mode coupling in long-period gratings formed in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun 266, 541-545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1415-1417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1982 (1)

M. J. F. Digonnet and H. J. Shaw, "Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746-754 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, P. J.

Birks, T. A.

Broderick, N. G. R.

Demokan, M. S.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. J. F. Digonnet and H. J. Shaw, "Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746-754 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Eom, J. B.

Erdogan, T.

K. N. Park, T. Erdogan, and K. S. Lee, "Cladding mode coupling in long-period gratings formed in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun 266, 541-545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Jang, H. S.

Jin, W.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. C.

Kim, K. T.

Kirn, J. C.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, K. S.

Lim, J. H.

Lu, C.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Moon, D. S.

Mortensen, N. A.

Nielsen, M. D.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U.-C.

Park, K. N.

K. N. Park, T. Erdogan, and K. S. Lee, "Cladding mode coupling in long-period gratings formed in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun 266, 541-545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Park and K. S. Lee, "Improved effective-index method for analysis of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 958-960 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersson, A.

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Shaw, H. J.

M. J. F. Digonnet and H. J. Shaw, "Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746-754 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H. R.

Wadsworth, W. J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1415-1417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.-H.

Yang, X.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.-L.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. F. Digonnet and H. J. Shaw, "Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746-754 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun (1)

K. N. Park, T. Erdogan, and K. S. Lee, "Cladding mode coupling in long-period gratings formed in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun 266, 541-545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (9)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen, M. D. Nielsen, J. R. Folkenberg, A. Petersson, and H. R. Simonsen, "Improved large-mode-area endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 393-395 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. R. Broderick, T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennett, and D. J. Richardson, "Nonlinearity in holey optical fibers:measurement and future opportunities," Opt. Lett. 24, 1395-1397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1415-1417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lim, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, "Tunable fiber gratings fabricated in photonic crystal fiber by use of mechanical pressure," Opt. Lett. 29, 331-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lim, H. S. Jang, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kirn, and B. H. Lee, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a photonic crystal fiber based on a pair of long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 346-348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek, and G.-H. Yang, "Photonic crystal fiber coupler," Opt. Lett. 27, 812-814 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Kim, U.-C. Paek, B. H. Lee, and K. T. Kim, "Tunable photonic crystal fiber coupler based on a side-polishing technique," Opt. Lett. 29, 1194-1196 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. N. Park and K. S. Lee, "Improved effective-index method for analysis of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 958-960 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SIF model with n S i , n FSFM , ρ c o , and r c l used for the PCF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the PCF directional coupler (a) longitudinal cross-sectional view and (b) enlarged view of the coupling region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated coupling properties of the PCF directional coupler for different wavelengths (a) the coupling coefficient versus d 0 (b) the relative normalized coupled power versus d 0 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Microscopic image of a side-polished surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized coupled power of the PCF directional coupler ( R = 25   cm ) as a function of d 0 (a) λ = 1.312   μm and (b) λ = 1.55   μm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transverse cross-sectional view of the PCF directional coupler.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Definition of the tilt angle for the tunable PCF directional coupler.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Coupling ratio versus the tilt angle of the PCF directional couplers at 1 .55   μm (a) d 0 = 3.65   μm and (b) d 0 = 2.92   μm .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Coupling ratio versus the tilt angle of the PCF directional coupler (a) d 0 = 1.9   μm , λ = 1.312   μm , and (b) d 0 = 2   μm , λ = 1.55   μm .

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P 1 = P 0 cos 2 ( c z ) ,     P 2 = P 0 sin 2 ( c z ) ,
c = λ 2 π n S i u 2 ρ c o 2 V 2 K 0 [ w ( h / ρ c o ) ] K 1 2 [ w ] ,
u = k 0 ρ c o ( n S i 2 n eff 2 ) ,
w = k 0 ρ c o ( n eff 2 n FSFM 2 ) ,
h ( z ) = [ ( h 0 + z 2 R ) 2 + y 2 ] 1 / 2 ,

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