Abstract

Using a combination of rigorous coupled-wave analysis and simulated annealing, parallel-face slanted surface-relief gratings (PFSSRGs) are optimized. For substrate-mode optical interconnects, profiles are presented for both polymer and silicon PFSSRGs for both TE and TM polarizations at normal incidence with grating periods designed to give a 45° output angle in the negative-first forward-diffracted order. The resulting diffraction efficiencies range from 70% to 99%, with a majority of the optimized profiles yielding over 90%. Optimized polymer profiles for TE and TM polarizations exhibit similar high diffraction efficiencies, but the TM profiles generally require greater groove depths. Silicon profiles optimized for TM polarization have greater diffraction efficiencies than those for TE polarization. Profiles that can feasibly be fabricated are identified, and sensitivities to groove depth, filling factor, slant angle, and incident angle are shown to be modest.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, "An integrated-optic disk pickup device," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 913-918 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Miller, N. de Meaucoudrey, P. Chavel, J. Turunen, and E. Cambril, "Design and fabrication of binary slanted surface-relief gratings for a planar optical interconnection," Appl. Opt. 36, 5717-5727 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, "Unidirectional waveguide grating coupling by means of parallelogramic grooves," Proc. SPIE 3099, 269-277 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, B. A. Usievich, and O. Parriaux, "Optimization and control of grating coupling to or from a silicon-based optical waveguide," Opt. Eng. 35, 3092-3100 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. D. Clymer, "Surface-relief grating structures for efficient high-bandwidth integrated photodetectors for optical interconnections in silicon VLSI," Appl. Opt. 28, 5374-5382 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Dupont, "Optimization of lamellar gratings for quantum-well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. 88, 2687-2692 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Hamori and N. Nagy, "Sub-micrometer period refractive index grating coupler for single mode optical waveguide sensors," Proc. IEEE Sensors 3, 1333-1336 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Kinrot and M. Nathan, "Investigation of a periodically segmented waveguide Fabry-Pérot interferometer for use as a chemical/biosensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2139-2145 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Taillaert, R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, B. Luyssaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and J. Wouters, "Silicon-on-insulator platform for integrated wavelength-selective components," in Fourth IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibers and Optical Passive Components (IEEE, 2005), pp. 115-120.
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. L. Brundrett, T. K. Gaylord, and E. N. Glytsis, "Polarizing mirror/absorber for visible wavelengths based on a silicon subwavelength grating: design and fabrication," Appl. Opt. 37, 2534-2541 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Li, D. Chen, and C. Yang, "Sub-microns period grating couplers fabricated by silicon mold," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 623-626 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Okano, H. Kikuta, Y. Hirai, K. Yamamoto, and T. Yotsuya, "Optimization of diffraction grating profiles in fabrication by electron-beam lithography," Appl. Opt. 43, 5137-5142 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Nakano, T. Tanino, and Y. Shirota, "Surface relief grating formation on a single crystal of 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061910 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. A. Akhadov, A. H. Mueller, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Energetic neutral atom beam lithography/epitaxy for nanoscale device fabrication," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 872, 503-506 (2005).
  17. E. A. Akhadov, D. E. Read, A. H. Mueller, J. Murray, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Innovative approach to nanoscale device fabrication and low-temperature nitride film growth," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3116-3119 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. H. Mueller, E. A. Akhadov, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Low-temperature growth of crystalline GaN films using energetic neutral atomic-beam lithography/epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 041907 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. K. Gaylord and M. G. Moharam, "Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings," Proc. IEEE 73, 894-937 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, "Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385-1392 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, J. S. Maikisch, and E. N. Glytsis, "Optimization of anisotropically etched silicon surface-relief gratings for substrate-mode optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 45, 15-21 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, and E. N. Glytsis, "Optimization of sawtooth surface-relief gratings: effects of substrate refractive index and polarization," Appl. Opt. 45, 3420-3424 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Compact slanted grating couplers," Opt. Express 12, 3313-3326 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884-1886 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Systematic design process for slanted grating couplers," Appl. Opt. 45, 6223-6226 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. M. Rytov, "Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium," Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466-475 (1956).

2006 (5)

N. Kinrot and M. Nathan, "Investigation of a periodically segmented waveguide Fabry-Pérot interferometer for use as a chemical/biosensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2139-2145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Mueller, E. A. Akhadov, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Low-temperature growth of crystalline GaN films using energetic neutral atomic-beam lithography/epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 041907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, J. S. Maikisch, and E. N. Glytsis, "Optimization of anisotropically etched silicon surface-relief gratings for substrate-mode optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 45, 15-21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, and E. N. Glytsis, "Optimization of sawtooth surface-relief gratings: effects of substrate refractive index and polarization," Appl. Opt. 45, 3420-3424 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Systematic design process for slanted grating couplers," Appl. Opt. 45, 6223-6226 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884-1886 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakano, T. Tanino, and Y. Shirota, "Surface relief grating formation on a single crystal of 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Akhadov, A. H. Mueller, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Energetic neutral atom beam lithography/epitaxy for nanoscale device fabrication," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 872, 503-506 (2005).

E. A. Akhadov, D. E. Read, A. H. Mueller, J. Murray, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Innovative approach to nanoscale device fabrication and low-temperature nitride film growth," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3116-3119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Okano, H. Kikuta, Y. Hirai, K. Yamamoto, and T. Yotsuya, "Optimization of diffraction grating profiles in fabrication by electron-beam lithography," Appl. Opt. 43, 5137-5142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Compact slanted grating couplers," Opt. Express 12, 3313-3326 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hamori and N. Nagy, "Sub-micrometer period refractive index grating coupler for single mode optical waveguide sensors," Proc. IEEE Sensors 3, 1333-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Li, D. Chen, and C. Yang, "Sub-microns period grating couplers fabricated by silicon mold," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 623-626 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Dupont, "Optimization of lamellar gratings for quantum-well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. 88, 2687-2692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. L. Brundrett, T. K. Gaylord, and E. N. Glytsis, "Polarizing mirror/absorber for visible wavelengths based on a silicon subwavelength grating: design and fabrication," Appl. Opt. 37, 2534-2541 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, "Unidirectional waveguide grating coupling by means of parallelogramic grooves," Proc. SPIE 3099, 269-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Miller, N. de Meaucoudrey, P. Chavel, J. Turunen, and E. Cambril, "Design and fabrication of binary slanted surface-relief gratings for a planar optical interconnection," Appl. Opt. 36, 5717-5727 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, B. A. Usievich, and O. Parriaux, "Optimization and control of grating coupling to or from a silicon-based optical waveguide," Opt. Eng. 35, 3092-3100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

B. D. Clymer, "Surface-relief grating structures for efficient high-bandwidth integrated photodetectors for optical interconnections in silicon VLSI," Appl. Opt. 28, 5374-5382 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, "An integrated-optic disk pickup device," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 913-918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

T. K. Gaylord and M. G. Moharam, "Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings," Proc. IEEE 73, 894-937 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, "Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385-1392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, "Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium," Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466-475 (1956).

Akhadov, E. A.

A. H. Mueller, E. A. Akhadov, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Low-temperature growth of crystalline GaN films using energetic neutral atomic-beam lithography/epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 041907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Akhadov, A. H. Mueller, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Energetic neutral atom beam lithography/epitaxy for nanoscale device fabrication," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 872, 503-506 (2005).

E. A. Akhadov, D. E. Read, A. H. Mueller, J. Murray, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Innovative approach to nanoscale device fabrication and low-temperature nitride film growth," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3116-3119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, B. Luyssaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and J. Wouters, "Silicon-on-insulator platform for integrated wavelength-selective components," in Fourth IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibers and Optical Passive Components (IEEE, 2005), pp. 115-120.
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

D. Taillaert, R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, B. Luyssaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and J. Wouters, "Silicon-on-insulator platform for integrated wavelength-selective components," in Fourth IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibers and Optical Passive Components (IEEE, 2005), pp. 115-120.
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bihari, B.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, B. Luyssaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and J. Wouters, "Silicon-on-insulator platform for integrated wavelength-selective components," in Fourth IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibers and Optical Passive Components (IEEE, 2005), pp. 115-120.
[CrossRef]

Bristow, S.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brundrett, D. L.

D. L. Brundrett, T. K. Gaylord, and E. N. Glytsis, "Polarizing mirror/absorber for visible wavelengths based on a silicon subwavelength grating: design and fabrication," Appl. Opt. 37, 2534-2541 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cambril, E.

Chavel, P.

Chen, D.

Y. Li, D. Chen, and C. Yang, "Sub-microns period grating couplers fabricated by silicon mold," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 623-626 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clymer, B. D.

B. D. Clymer, "Surface-relief grating structures for efficient high-bandwidth integrated photodetectors for optical interconnections in silicon VLSI," Appl. Opt. 28, 5374-5382 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Meaucoudrey, N.

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

D. Taillaert, R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, B. Luyssaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and J. Wouters, "Silicon-on-insulator platform for integrated wavelength-selective components," in Fourth IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibers and Optical Passive Components (IEEE, 2005), pp. 115-120.
[CrossRef]

Dupont, E.

E. Dupont, "Optimization of lamellar gratings for quantum-well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. 88, 2687-2692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

S. D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, and E. N. Glytsis, "Optimization of sawtooth surface-relief gratings: effects of substrate refractive index and polarization," Appl. Opt. 45, 3420-3424 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, J. S. Maikisch, and E. N. Glytsis, "Optimization of anisotropically etched silicon surface-relief gratings for substrate-mode optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 45, 15-21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Brundrett, T. K. Gaylord, and E. N. Glytsis, "Polarizing mirror/absorber for visible wavelengths based on a silicon subwavelength grating: design and fabrication," Appl. Opt. 37, 2534-2541 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Gaylord and M. G. Moharam, "Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings," Proc. IEEE 73, 894-937 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, "Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385-1392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

S. D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, and E. N. Glytsis, "Optimization of sawtooth surface-relief gratings: effects of substrate refractive index and polarization," Appl. Opt. 45, 3420-3424 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, J. S. Maikisch, and E. N. Glytsis, "Optimization of anisotropically etched silicon surface-relief gratings for substrate-mode optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 45, 15-21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Brundrett, T. K. Gaylord, and E. N. Glytsis, "Polarizing mirror/absorber for visible wavelengths based on a silicon subwavelength grating: design and fabrication," Appl. Opt. 37, 2534-2541 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamori, A.

A. Hamori and N. Nagy, "Sub-micrometer period refractive index grating coupler for single mode optical waveguide sensors," Proc. IEEE Sensors 3, 1333-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hibbs-Brenner, M. K.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, Y.

M. Okano, H. Kikuta, Y. Hirai, K. Yamamoto, and T. Yotsuya, "Optimization of diffraction grating profiles in fabrication by electron-beam lithography," Appl. Opt. 43, 5137-5142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffbauer, M. A.

A. H. Mueller, E. A. Akhadov, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Low-temperature growth of crystalline GaN films using energetic neutral atomic-beam lithography/epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 041907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Akhadov, A. H. Mueller, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Energetic neutral atom beam lithography/epitaxy for nanoscale device fabrication," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 872, 503-506 (2005).

E. A. Akhadov, D. E. Read, A. H. Mueller, J. Murray, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Innovative approach to nanoscale device fabrication and low-temperature nitride film growth," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3116-3119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Systematic design process for slanted grating couplers," Appl. Opt. 45, 6223-6226 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884-1886 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Compact slanted grating couplers," Opt. Express 12, 3313-3326 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuta, H.

M. Okano, H. Kikuta, Y. Hirai, K. Yamamoto, and T. Yotsuya, "Optimization of diffraction grating profiles in fabrication by electron-beam lithography," Appl. Opt. 43, 5137-5142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinrot, N.

N. Kinrot and M. Nathan, "Investigation of a periodically segmented waveguide Fabry-Pérot interferometer for use as a chemical/biosensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2139-2145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, J.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, "An integrated-optic disk pickup device," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 913-918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, D. Chen, and C. Yang, "Sub-microns period grating couplers fabricated by silicon mold," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 623-626 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Loktev, S. M.

A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, "Unidirectional waveguide grating coupling by means of parallelogramic grooves," Proc. SPIE 3099, 269-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luyssaert, B.

D. Taillaert, R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, B. Luyssaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and J. Wouters, "Silicon-on-insulator platform for integrated wavelength-selective components," in Fourth IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibers and Optical Passive Components (IEEE, 2005), pp. 115-120.
[CrossRef]

Lyndin, N. M.

A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, "Unidirectional waveguide grating coupling by means of parallelogramic grooves," Proc. SPIE 3099, 269-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maikisch, J. S.

S. D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, J. S. Maikisch, and E. N. Glytsis, "Optimization of anisotropically etched silicon surface-relief gratings for substrate-mode optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 45, 15-21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, J. M.

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

T. K. Gaylord and M. G. Moharam, "Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings," Proc. IEEE 73, 894-937 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, "Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385-1392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, A. H.

A. H. Mueller, E. A. Akhadov, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Low-temperature growth of crystalline GaN films using energetic neutral atomic-beam lithography/epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 041907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Akhadov, A. H. Mueller, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Energetic neutral atom beam lithography/epitaxy for nanoscale device fabrication," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 872, 503-506 (2005).

E. A. Akhadov, D. E. Read, A. H. Mueller, J. Murray, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Innovative approach to nanoscale device fabrication and low-temperature nitride film growth," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3116-3119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J.

E. A. Akhadov, D. E. Read, A. H. Mueller, J. Murray, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Innovative approach to nanoscale device fabrication and low-temperature nitride film growth," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3116-3119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagy, N.

A. Hamori and N. Nagy, "Sub-micrometer period refractive index grating coupler for single mode optical waveguide sensors," Proc. IEEE Sensors 3, 1333-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, H.

H. Nakano, T. Tanino, and Y. Shirota, "Surface relief grating formation on a single crystal of 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nathan, M.

N. Kinrot and M. Nathan, "Investigation of a periodically segmented waveguide Fabry-Pérot interferometer for use as a chemical/biosensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2139-2145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, "An integrated-optic disk pickup device," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 913-918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nordin, G. P.

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Systematic design process for slanted grating couplers," Appl. Opt. 45, 6223-6226 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884-1886 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Compact slanted grating couplers," Opt. Express 12, 3313-3326 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okano, M.

M. Okano, H. Kikuta, Y. Hirai, K. Yamamoto, and T. Yotsuya, "Optimization of diffraction grating profiles in fabrication by electron-beam lithography," Appl. Opt. 43, 5137-5142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parriaux, O.

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, B. A. Usievich, and O. Parriaux, "Optimization and control of grating coupling to or from a silicon-based optical waveguide," Opt. Eng. 35, 3092-3100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Picor, B.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Read, D. E.

E. A. Akhadov, D. E. Read, A. H. Mueller, J. Murray, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Innovative approach to nanoscale device fabrication and low-temperature nitride film growth," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3116-3119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, "Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium," Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466-475 (1956).

Shirota, Y.

H. Nakano, T. Tanino, and Y. Shirota, "Surface relief grating formation on a single crystal of 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, "An integrated-optic disk pickup device," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 913-918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sychugov, V. A.

A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, "Unidirectional waveguide grating coupling by means of parallelogramic grooves," Proc. SPIE 3099, 269-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, B. A. Usievich, and O. Parriaux, "Optimization and control of grating coupling to or from a silicon-based optical waveguide," Opt. Eng. 35, 3092-3100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, B. Luyssaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and J. Wouters, "Silicon-on-insulator platform for integrated wavelength-selective components," in Fourth IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibers and Optical Passive Components (IEEE, 2005), pp. 115-120.
[CrossRef]

Tang, S.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanino, T.

H. Nakano, T. Tanino, and Y. Shirota, "Surface relief grating formation on a single crystal of 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tishchenko, A. V.

A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, "Unidirectional waveguide grating coupling by means of parallelogramic grooves," Proc. SPIE 3099, 269-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, B. A. Usievich, and O. Parriaux, "Optimization and control of grating coupling to or from a silicon-based optical waveguide," Opt. Eng. 35, 3092-3100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

Ura, S.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, "An integrated-optic disk pickup device," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 913-918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Usievich, B. A.

A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, "Unidirectional waveguide grating coupling by means of parallelogramic grooves," Proc. SPIE 3099, 269-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, B. A. Usievich, and O. Parriaux, "Optimization and control of grating coupling to or from a silicon-based optical waveguide," Opt. Eng. 35, 3092-3100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Thourhout, D.

D. Taillaert, R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, B. Luyssaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and J. Wouters, "Silicon-on-insulator platform for integrated wavelength-selective components," in Fourth IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibers and Optical Passive Components (IEEE, 2005), pp. 115-120.
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Systematic design process for slanted grating couplers," Appl. Opt. 45, 6223-6226 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884-1886 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Compact slanted grating couplers," Opt. Express 12, 3313-3326 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiaux, V.

D. Taillaert, R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, B. Luyssaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and J. Wouters, "Silicon-on-insulator platform for integrated wavelength-selective components," in Fourth IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibers and Optical Passive Components (IEEE, 2005), pp. 115-120.
[CrossRef]

Wickman, R.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

D. Taillaert, R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, B. Luyssaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and J. Wouters, "Silicon-on-insulator platform for integrated wavelength-selective components," in Fourth IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibers and Optical Passive Components (IEEE, 2005), pp. 115-120.
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. D.

S. D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, J. S. Maikisch, and E. N. Glytsis, "Optimization of anisotropically etched silicon surface-relief gratings for substrate-mode optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 45, 15-21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, and E. N. Glytsis, "Optimization of sawtooth surface-relief gratings: effects of substrate refractive index and polarization," Appl. Opt. 45, 3420-3424 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, K.

M. Okano, H. Kikuta, Y. Hirai, K. Yamamoto, and T. Yotsuya, "Optimization of diffraction grating profiles in fabrication by electron-beam lithography," Appl. Opt. 43, 5137-5142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Y. Li, D. Chen, and C. Yang, "Sub-microns period grating couplers fabricated by silicon mold," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 623-626 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yotsuya, T.

M. Okano, H. Kikuta, Y. Hirai, K. Yamamoto, and T. Yotsuya, "Optimization of diffraction grating profiles in fabrication by electron-beam lithography," Appl. Opt. 43, 5137-5142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (6)

B. D. Clymer, "Surface-relief grating structures for efficient high-bandwidth integrated photodetectors for optical interconnections in silicon VLSI," Appl. Opt. 28, 5374-5382 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Brundrett, T. K. Gaylord, and E. N. Glytsis, "Polarizing mirror/absorber for visible wavelengths based on a silicon subwavelength grating: design and fabrication," Appl. Opt. 37, 2534-2541 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Okano, H. Kikuta, Y. Hirai, K. Yamamoto, and T. Yotsuya, "Optimization of diffraction grating profiles in fabrication by electron-beam lithography," Appl. Opt. 43, 5137-5142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, J. S. Maikisch, and E. N. Glytsis, "Optimization of anisotropically etched silicon surface-relief gratings for substrate-mode optical interconnects," Appl. Opt. 45, 15-21 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, and E. N. Glytsis, "Optimization of sawtooth surface-relief gratings: effects of substrate refractive index and polarization," Appl. Opt. 45, 3420-3424 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Systematic design process for slanted grating couplers," Appl. Opt. 45, 6223-6226 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Nakano, T. Tanino, and Y. Shirota, "Surface relief grating formation on a single crystal of 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Mueller, E. A. Akhadov, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Low-temperature growth of crystalline GaN films using energetic neutral atomic-beam lithography/epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 041907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Dupont, "Optimization of lamellar gratings for quantum-well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. 88, 2687-2692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884-1886 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, "An integrated-optic disk pickup device," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 913-918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Kinrot and M. Nathan, "Investigation of a periodically segmented waveguide Fabry-Pérot interferometer for use as a chemical/biosensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2139-2145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, "Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385-1392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

E. A. Akhadov, D. E. Read, A. H. Mueller, J. Murray, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Innovative approach to nanoscale device fabrication and low-temperature nitride film growth," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3116-3119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

E. A. Akhadov, A. H. Mueller, and M. A. Hoffbauer, "Energetic neutral atom beam lithography/epitaxy for nanoscale device fabrication," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 872, 503-506 (2005).

Opt. Express (1)

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. P. Nordin, "Compact slanted grating couplers," Opt. Express 12, 3313-3326 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

Y. Li, D. Chen, and C. Yang, "Sub-microns period grating couplers fabricated by silicon mold," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 623-626 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, B. A. Usievich, and O. Parriaux, "Optimization and control of grating coupling to or from a silicon-based optical waveguide," Opt. Eng. 35, 3092-3100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

T. K. Gaylord and M. G. Moharam, "Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings," Proc. IEEE 73, 894-937 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE Sensors (1)

A. Hamori and N. Nagy, "Sub-micrometer period refractive index grating coupler for single mode optical waveguide sensors," Proc. IEEE Sensors 3, 1333-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronics interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, "Unidirectional waveguide grating coupling by means of parallelogramic grooves," Proc. SPIE 3099, 269-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. M. Rytov, "Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium," Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466-475 (1956).

Other (1)

D. Taillaert, R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, B. Luyssaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and J. Wouters, "Silicon-on-insulator platform for integrated wavelength-selective components," in Fourth IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibers and Optical Passive Components (IEEE, 2005), pp. 115-120.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of a PFSSRG illuminated by normally incident light. The PFSSRGs are characterized by the grating period Λ x (which is determined by choosing an output angle of 45° for the negative-first diffracted order), the groove depth d, the slant angle ϕ, and the filling factor F. The substrate refractive index is n, and the input region index is n 0 (air in our case).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Mapped points for polymer PFSSRGs in TE operation with diffraction efficiencies greater than 94.73% in the negative-first order. There are 13 identified regions with local optima.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Mapped points for polymer PFSSRGs in TM operation with diffraction efficiencies greater than 96.37% in the negative-first order. There are 11 identified regions with local optima.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Summary of optimized profiles with reasonable fabrication feasibility for both the polymer and silicon cases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Diffraction efficiencies of polymer PFSSRGs as a function of normalized groove depth for both the TE and TM optimized profiles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Diffraction efficiencies of polymer PFSSRGs as a function of normalized filling factor for both the TE and TM optimized profiles.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Diffraction efficiencies of polymer PFSSRGs as a function of normalized slant angle for both the TE and TM optimized profiles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Diffraction efficiencies of polymer PFSSRGs as a function of angle of incidence for both the TE and TM optimized profiles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Diffraction efficiencies of silicon PFSSRGs as a function of normalized groove depth for both the TE and TM optimized profiles.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diffraction efficiencies of silicon PFSSRGs as a function of normalized filling factor for both the TE and TM optimized profiles.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Diffraction efficiencies of silicon PFSSRGs as a function of normalized slant angle for both the TE and TM optimized profiles.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Diffraction efficiencies of silicon PFSSRGs as a function of angle of incidence for both the TE and TM optimized profiles.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimization of Polymer Parallel-Face Slanted Surface-Relief Gratings

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optimization of Silicon Parallel-Face Slanted Surface-Relief Gratings

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of Optimum Profiles for the Polymer and Silicon Cases with the Highest Fabrication Feasibility

Metrics