Abstract

A cavity-enhanced absorption setup employing an incoherent broadband light source was used in combination with a Fourier-transform spectrometer to measure the spin-forbidden B-band of gaseous oxygen at 688  nm and several weak absorption transitions of water vapor in the same spectral region at room temperature in ambient air. The experiments demonstrate that the sensitivity of a Fourier-transform spectrometer can be significantly improved by increasing the effective path length, while retaining a rather small sample volume. In comparison with a single-pass absorption measurement, we report a path-length enhancement factor of 200 and an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio of 6 in the present cavity-enhanced absorption experiment. The practical advantages and limitations of this novel approach are outlined and potential applications are briefly discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. A. Paldus and A. A. Kachanov, "An historical overview of cavity-enhanced methods," Can. J. Phys. 83, 975-999 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. M. Ball and R. L. Jones, "Broad-band cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 103, 5239-5262 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 284-294 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Hamers, D. Schram, and R. Engeln, "Fourier transform phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 365, 237-243 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, "Phase shift cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105-109 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Del Olmo, C. Domingo, J. M. Orza, and D. Bermejo, "FT intracavity laser spectroscopy--the BX transition of Cl2," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 145, 323-330 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. M. Hu, H. Lin, S. G. He, J. X. Cheng, and Q. S. Zhu, "Fourier-transform intra-cavity laser absorption spectroscopy of HOD ν(OD) = 5 overtone," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 3727-3730 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. S. Venables, T. Gherman, J. Orphal, J. Wenger, and A. A. Ruth, "High sensitivity in situ monitoring of NO3 in an atmospheric simulation chamber using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 6758-6763 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Please note that for very small (absorption) losses 1 − (I/I0) ≈ (I0/I) − 1.
  13. L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. W. Brault, "High precision Fourier transform spectrometry. The critical role of phase corrections," Microchim. Acta 93, 215-227 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. R. Birch and F. J. J. Clarke, "Fifty categories of ordinate error in Fourier transform spectroscopy," Spectroscopy Europe 7, 16-22 (1995).
  16. S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in liquids," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 023107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in liquids," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 089901 (2005) (Erratum).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Kassi, C. Depiesse, M. Herman, and D. Hurtmans, "Fourier transform-intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy: sampling the overtone spectrum of (C2HD)-C-12m," Mol. Phys. 101, 1155-1163 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2006

D. S. Venables, T. Gherman, J. Orphal, J. Wenger, and A. A. Ruth, "High sensitivity in situ monitoring of NO3 in an atmospheric simulation chamber using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 6758-6763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in liquids," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 023107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in liquids," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 089901 (2005) (Erratum).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus and A. A. Kachanov, "An historical overview of cavity-enhanced methods," Can. J. Phys. 83, 975-999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. M. Ball and R. L. Jones, "Broad-band cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 103, 5239-5262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 284-294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kassi, C. Depiesse, M. Herman, and D. Hurtmans, "Fourier transform-intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy: sampling the overtone spectrum of (C2HD)-C-12m," Mol. Phys. 101, 1155-1163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. Hamers, D. Schram, and R. Engeln, "Fourier transform phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 365, 237-243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. M. Hu, H. Lin, S. G. He, J. X. Cheng, and Q. S. Zhu, "Fourier-transform intra-cavity laser absorption spectroscopy of HOD ν(OD) = 5 overtone," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 3727-3730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, "Phase shift cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105-109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. R. Birch and F. J. J. Clarke, "Fifty categories of ordinate error in Fourier transform spectroscopy," Spectroscopy Europe 7, 16-22 (1995).

1991

A. Del Olmo, C. Domingo, J. M. Orza, and D. Bermejo, "FT intracavity laser spectroscopy--the BX transition of Cl2," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 145, 323-330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. W. Brault, "High precision Fourier transform spectrometry. The critical role of phase corrections," Microchim. Acta 93, 215-227 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ashfold, M. N. R.

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ball, S. M.

S. M. Ball and R. L. Jones, "Broad-band cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 103, 5239-5262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, "Phase shift cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105-109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bermejo, D.

A. Del Olmo, C. Domingo, J. M. Orza, and D. Bermejo, "FT intracavity laser spectroscopy--the BX transition of Cl2," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 145, 323-330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Birch, J. R.

J. R. Birch and F. J. J. Clarke, "Fifty categories of ordinate error in Fourier transform spectroscopy," Spectroscopy Europe 7, 16-22 (1995).

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brault, J. W.

J. W. Brault, "High precision Fourier transform spectrometry. The critical role of phase corrections," Microchim. Acta 93, 215-227 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J. X.

S. M. Hu, H. Lin, S. G. He, J. X. Cheng, and Q. S. Zhu, "Fourier-transform intra-cavity laser absorption spectroscopy of HOD ν(OD) = 5 overtone," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 3727-3730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, F. J. J.

J. R. Birch and F. J. J. Clarke, "Fifty categories of ordinate error in Fourier transform spectroscopy," Spectroscopy Europe 7, 16-22 (1995).

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Del Olmo, A.

A. Del Olmo, C. Domingo, J. M. Orza, and D. Bermejo, "FT intracavity laser spectroscopy--the BX transition of Cl2," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 145, 323-330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Depiesse, C.

S. Kassi, C. Depiesse, M. Herman, and D. Hurtmans, "Fourier transform-intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy: sampling the overtone spectrum of (C2HD)-C-12m," Mol. Phys. 101, 1155-1163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Domingo, C.

A. Del Olmo, C. Domingo, J. M. Orza, and D. Bermejo, "FT intracavity laser spectroscopy--the BX transition of Cl2," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 145, 323-330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Engeln, R.

E. Hamers, D. Schram, and R. Engeln, "Fourier transform phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 365, 237-243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, "Phase shift cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105-109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, S. E.

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in liquids," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 023107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in liquids," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 089901 (2005) (Erratum).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 284-294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gherman, T.

D. S. Venables, T. Gherman, J. Orphal, J. Wenger, and A. A. Ruth, "High sensitivity in situ monitoring of NO3 in an atmospheric simulation chamber using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 6758-6763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hamers, E.

E. Hamers, D. Schram, and R. Engeln, "Fourier transform phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 365, 237-243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, S. G.

S. M. Hu, H. Lin, S. G. He, J. X. Cheng, and Q. S. Zhu, "Fourier-transform intra-cavity laser absorption spectroscopy of HOD ν(OD) = 5 overtone," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 3727-3730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

S. Kassi, C. Depiesse, M. Herman, and D. Hurtmans, "Fourier transform-intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy: sampling the overtone spectrum of (C2HD)-C-12m," Mol. Phys. 101, 1155-1163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hese, A.

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in liquids," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 089901 (2005) (Erratum).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in liquids," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 023107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 284-294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S. M.

S. M. Hu, H. Lin, S. G. He, J. X. Cheng, and Q. S. Zhu, "Fourier-transform intra-cavity laser absorption spectroscopy of HOD ν(OD) = 5 overtone," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 3727-3730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hurtmans, D.

S. Kassi, C. Depiesse, M. Herman, and D. Hurtmans, "Fourier transform-intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy: sampling the overtone spectrum of (C2HD)-C-12m," Mol. Phys. 101, 1155-1163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. L.

S. M. Ball and R. L. Jones, "Broad-band cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 103, 5239-5262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kachanov, A. A.

B. A. Paldus and A. A. Kachanov, "An historical overview of cavity-enhanced methods," Can. J. Phys. 83, 975-999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kassi, S.

S. Kassi, C. Depiesse, M. Herman, and D. Hurtmans, "Fourier transform-intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy: sampling the overtone spectrum of (C2HD)-C-12m," Mol. Phys. 101, 1155-1163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

S. M. Hu, H. Lin, S. G. He, J. X. Cheng, and Q. S. Zhu, "Fourier-transform intra-cavity laser absorption spectroscopy of HOD ν(OD) = 5 overtone," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 3727-3730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, "Phase shift cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105-109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Newman, S. M.

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O'Keefe, A.

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

D. S. Venables, T. Gherman, J. Orphal, J. Wenger, and A. A. Ruth, "High sensitivity in situ monitoring of NO3 in an atmospheric simulation chamber using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 6758-6763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Orr-Ewing, A. J.

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Orza, J. M.

A. Del Olmo, C. Domingo, J. M. Orza, and D. Bermejo, "FT intracavity laser spectroscopy--the BX transition of Cl2," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 145, 323-330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Paldus, B. A.

B. A. Paldus and A. A. Kachanov, "An historical overview of cavity-enhanced methods," Can. J. Phys. 83, 975-999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, R.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruth, A. A.

D. S. Venables, T. Gherman, J. Orphal, J. Wenger, and A. A. Ruth, "High sensitivity in situ monitoring of NO3 in an atmospheric simulation chamber using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 6758-6763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in liquids," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 089901 (2005) (Erratum).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in liquids," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 023107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 284-294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schram, D.

E. Hamers, D. Schram, and R. Engeln, "Fourier transform phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 365, 237-243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Venables, D. S.

D. S. Venables, T. Gherman, J. Orphal, J. Wenger, and A. A. Ruth, "High sensitivity in situ monitoring of NO3 in an atmospheric simulation chamber using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 6758-6763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Helden, G.

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, "Phase shift cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105-109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, J.

D. S. Venables, T. Gherman, J. Orphal, J. Wenger, and A. A. Ruth, "High sensitivity in situ monitoring of NO3 in an atmospheric simulation chamber using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 6758-6763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wheeler, M. D.

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Q. S.

S. M. Hu, H. Lin, S. G. He, J. X. Cheng, and Q. S. Zhu, "Fourier-transform intra-cavity laser absorption spectroscopy of HOD ν(OD) = 5 overtone," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 3727-3730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

B. A. Paldus and A. A. Kachanov, "An historical overview of cavity-enhanced methods," Can. J. Phys. 83, 975-999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 284-294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamers, D. Schram, and R. Engeln, "Fourier transform phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 365, 237-243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, "Phase shift cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105-109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

S. M. Ball and R. L. Jones, "Broad-band cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 103, 5239-5262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Environ. Sci. Technol.

D. S. Venables, T. Gherman, J. Orphal, J. Wenger, and A. A. Ruth, "High sensitivity in situ monitoring of NO3 in an atmospheric simulation chamber using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 6758-6763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans.

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

A. Del Olmo, C. Domingo, J. M. Orza, and D. Bermejo, "FT intracavity laser spectroscopy--the BX transition of Cl2," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 145, 323-330 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. V. Chance, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Microchim. Acta

J. W. Brault, "High precision Fourier transform spectrometry. The critical role of phase corrections," Microchim. Acta 93, 215-227 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys.

S. Kassi, C. Depiesse, M. Herman, and D. Hurtmans, "Fourier transform-intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy: sampling the overtone spectrum of (C2HD)-C-12m," Mol. Phys. 101, 1155-1163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

S. M. Hu, H. Lin, S. G. He, J. X. Cheng, and Q. S. Zhu, "Fourier-transform intra-cavity laser absorption spectroscopy of HOD ν(OD) = 5 overtone," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 3727-3730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in liquids," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 023107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in liquids," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 089901 (2005) (Erratum).
[CrossRef]

Spectroscopy Europe

J. R. Birch and F. J. J. Clarke, "Fifty categories of ordinate error in Fourier transform spectroscopy," Spectroscopy Europe 7, 16-22 (1995).

Other

Please note that for very small (absorption) losses 1 − (I/I0) ≈ (I0/I) − 1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the experimental setup. M 1 and M 2 , high-reflectivity mirrors ( R > 0.996 ) ; L 1 and L 2 , lenses; BS, beam splitter. The optical interference filter with a full width at half-maximum of 40   nm is centered at 700   nm , with a maximum transmission of 67% (see Fig. 2).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Solid curve, overview spectrum from 10000 to 20000 cm 1 using the standard quartz-tungsten-halogen lamp inside the Bruker FTS without an optical cavity. Measurement time of 5   h , resolution of 0.1 c m 1 , and absorption path length (in ambient air at atmospheric pressure) of 3   m . Dashed curve, interference filter transmission. Dotted curve, approximate high-reflectivity mirror transmission. Inset, expanded region from 12600   to   15200 cm 1 . At 13120 cm 1 ( 762   nm ) , the O 2 A-band is strong enough to be clearly visible. The vertical arrows indicate the regions of H 2 O and O 2 absorption that are compared with FT-IBBCEAS measurements shown in Figs. 3 and 4.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) H 2 O band at 13850 cm 1 ( 722   nm ) measured in ambient air at atmospheric pressure using FT-IBBCEAS (cavity length of 89   cm ). The strongest H 2 O lines in this region have an intensity of approximately 4 × 10 23 cm molecule−1. Measurement time of 10   h , resolution of 0 .05   cm 1 . (B) Modeled spectrum in the same region using the HITRAN 2004 database. The calculation is based on an optical path of 50   m . The reflectivity of the mirrors increases toward higher wavenumbers as indicated by the stronger absorption of the R-branch lines at 13900 cm 1 (compare inset in Fig. 2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) O 2 B-band at 14530 cm 1 ( 688   nm ) measured in ambient air at atmospheric pressure using FT-IBBCEAS (cavity length of 89   cm ). The strongest O 2 lines in this region have an intensity of 6.0 × 10 25 cm molecule−1. Measurement time of 10   h , resolution of 0 .05   cm 1 . (B) Modeled spectrum in the same region using the HITRAN 2004 database. The calculation is based on an optical path of 180   m . Inset, the observed curves have an asymmetric profile (see text for discussion).

Equations (2)

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α = 1 d ( 1 I I 0 ) ( 1 R ) ,
I I 0 = ( 1 α d ( 1 R ) ) = 1 α d ¯ ,

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