Abstract

The Virgo interferometer, aimed at detecting gravitational waves, is now in a commissioning phase. Measurements of its optical properties are needed for the understanding of the instrument. We present the techniques developed for the measurement of the optical parameters of Virgo. These parameters are compared with the Virgo specifications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  12. The Virgo Collaboration, “The VIRGO large mirrors: a challenge for low loss coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S935-S945 (2004).
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  16. B. Caron, L. Derome, R. Flaminio, X. Grave, F. Marion, B. Mours, D. Verkindt, F. Cavalier, and A. Viceré, “A time domain, general purpose simulation program for the VIRGO experiment,” Astropart. Phys. 10, 369-386 (1999).
  17. A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1067-1074 (2003).
  18. J.-Y. Vinet, P. Hello, C. N. Man, and A. Brillet, “A high accuracy method for the simulation of non-ideal optical cavities,” J. Phys. I 2, 1287-1303 (1992).
  19. A. Brillet, J.-Y. Vinet, V. Loriette, J.-M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Virtual gravitational wave interferometers with actual mirrors,” Phys. Rev. D 67, 102006 (2003).
  20. F. Bondu and O. Debieu, “Accurate measurement method of Fabry-Perot cavity parameters via optical transfer function,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2611-2614 (2007).
  21. B. J. J. Slagmolen, M. B. Gray, K.G. Baigent, and D. E. McClelland, “Phase-sensitive reflection technique for characterization of a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl Opt. 39, 3638-3643 (2000).
  22. D. Z. Anderson, J. C. Frisch, and C. S. Masser, “Mirror reflectometer based on optical cavity decay time,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1238-1245 (1984).
  23. The Virgo Collaboration, “The commissioning of the central interferometer of the Virgo gravitational wave detector,” Astropart. Phys. 21, 1-22 (2004).
  24. The Virgo Collaboration, “Interferometer signal detection system for the VIRGO experiment,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1857-1863 (2002).

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

D. Sigg, “Status of the LIGO detectors,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 23, S51-S56 (2006).

The GEO Collaboration, “Status of the GEO600 detector,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S71-S78 (2006).

K. Hayama and M. Fujimoto, “Monitoring non-stationary burst-like signals in an interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S9-S15 (2006).

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

2004 (2)

The Virgo Collaboration, “The VIRGO large mirrors: a challenge for low loss coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S935-S945 (2004).

The Virgo Collaboration, “The commissioning of the central interferometer of the Virgo gravitational wave detector,” Astropart. Phys. 21, 1-22 (2004).

2003 (2)

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1067-1074 (2003).

A. Brillet, J.-Y. Vinet, V. Loriette, J.-M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Virtual gravitational wave interferometers with actual mirrors,” Phys. Rev. D 67, 102006 (2003).

2002 (1)

The Virgo Collaboration, “Interferometer signal detection system for the VIRGO experiment,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1857-1863 (2002).

2000 (1)

B. J. J. Slagmolen, M. B. Gray, K.G. Baigent, and D. E. McClelland, “Phase-sensitive reflection technique for characterization of a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl Opt. 39, 3638-3643 (2000).

1999 (1)

B. Caron, L. Derome, R. Flaminio, X. Grave, F. Marion, B. Mours, D. Verkindt, F. Cavalier, and A. Viceré, “A time domain, general purpose simulation program for the VIRGO experiment,” Astropart. Phys. 10, 369-386 (1999).

1997 (1)

D. Babusci, H. Fang, G. Giordano, G. Matone, L. Matone, and V. Sannibale, “Alignment procedure for the VIRGO interferometer: experimental results from the Frascati prototype,” Phys. Lett. A 226, 31-40 (1997).

1992 (1)

J.-Y. Vinet, P. Hello, C. N. Man, and A. Brillet, “A high accuracy method for the simulation of non-ideal optical cavities,” J. Phys. I 2, 1287-1303 (1992).

1991 (1)

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022-5029 (1991).

1984 (2)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).

1963 (1)

M. E. Gersenshtem and V. I. Pustovoit, Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 433 (1963).

1946 (1)

R. V. Pound, “Electronic frequency stabilization of microwave oscillators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 490-505 (1946).

Anderson, D. Z.

Babusci, D.

D. Babusci, H. Fang, G. Giordano, G. Matone, L. Matone, and V. Sannibale, “Alignment procedure for the VIRGO interferometer: experimental results from the Frascati prototype,” Phys. Lett. A 226, 31-40 (1997).

Baigent, K.G.

B. J. J. Slagmolen, M. B. Gray, K.G. Baigent, and D. E. McClelland, “Phase-sensitive reflection technique for characterization of a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl Opt. 39, 3638-3643 (2000).

Beauville, F.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

Bondu, F.

Brillet, A.

A. Brillet, J.-Y. Vinet, V. Loriette, J.-M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Virtual gravitational wave interferometers with actual mirrors,” Phys. Rev. D 67, 102006 (2003).

J.-Y. Vinet, P. Hello, C. N. Man, and A. Brillet, “A high accuracy method for the simulation of non-ideal optical cavities,” J. Phys. I 2, 1287-1303 (1992).

Buskulic, D.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

Caron, B.

B. Caron, L. Derome, R. Flaminio, X. Grave, F. Marion, B. Mours, D. Verkindt, F. Cavalier, and A. Viceré, “A time domain, general purpose simulation program for the VIRGO experiment,” Astropart. Phys. 10, 369-386 (1999).

Cavalier, F.

B. Caron, L. Derome, R. Flaminio, X. Grave, F. Marion, B. Mours, D. Verkindt, F. Cavalier, and A. Viceré, “A time domain, general purpose simulation program for the VIRGO experiment,” Astropart. Phys. 10, 369-386 (1999).

Danzmann, K.

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1067-1074 (2003).

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022-5029 (1991).

Debieu, O.

Derome, L.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

B. Caron, L. Derome, R. Flaminio, X. Grave, F. Marion, B. Mours, D. Verkindt, F. Cavalier, and A. Viceré, “A time domain, general purpose simulation program for the VIRGO experiment,” Astropart. Phys. 10, 369-386 (1999).

Dominjon, A.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).

R. W. P. Drever, in Gravitational Radiation Proceedings, Les Houches Summer Institute, T.Piran and N.Deruelle, eds. (North-Holland, 1982), p. 321.

Fang, H.

D. Babusci, H. Fang, G. Giordano, G. Matone, L. Matone, and V. Sannibale, “Alignment procedure for the VIRGO interferometer: experimental results from the Frascati prototype,” Phys. Lett. A 226, 31-40 (1997).

Flaminio, R.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

B. Caron, L. Derome, R. Flaminio, X. Grave, F. Marion, B. Mours, D. Verkindt, F. Cavalier, and A. Viceré, “A time domain, general purpose simulation program for the VIRGO experiment,” Astropart. Phys. 10, 369-386 (1999).

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).

Freise, A.

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1067-1074 (2003).

Frisch, J. C.

Fujimoto, M.

K. Hayama and M. Fujimoto, “Monitoring non-stationary burst-like signals in an interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S9-S15 (2006).

Gersenshtem, M. E.

M. E. Gersenshtem and V. I. Pustovoit, Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 433 (1963).

Giordano, G.

D. Babusci, H. Fang, G. Giordano, G. Matone, L. Matone, and V. Sannibale, “Alignment procedure for the VIRGO interferometer: experimental results from the Frascati prototype,” Phys. Lett. A 226, 31-40 (1997).

Grave, X.

B. Caron, L. Derome, R. Flaminio, X. Grave, F. Marion, B. Mours, D. Verkindt, F. Cavalier, and A. Viceré, “A time domain, general purpose simulation program for the VIRGO experiment,” Astropart. Phys. 10, 369-386 (1999).

Gray, M. B.

B. J. J. Slagmolen, M. B. Gray, K.G. Baigent, and D. E. McClelland, “Phase-sensitive reflection technique for characterization of a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl Opt. 39, 3638-3643 (2000).

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).

Hayama, K.

K. Hayama and M. Fujimoto, “Monitoring non-stationary burst-like signals in an interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S9-S15 (2006).

Heinzel, G.

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1067-1074 (2003).

Hello, P.

J.-Y. Vinet, P. Hello, C. N. Man, and A. Brillet, “A high accuracy method for the simulation of non-ideal optical cavities,” J. Phys. I 2, 1287-1303 (1992).

Hermel, R.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).

Loriette, V.

A. Brillet, J.-Y. Vinet, V. Loriette, J.-M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Virtual gravitational wave interferometers with actual mirrors,” Phys. Rev. D 67, 102006 (2003).

Luck, H.

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1067-1074 (2003).

Mackowski, J.-M.

A. Brillet, J.-Y. Vinet, V. Loriette, J.-M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Virtual gravitational wave interferometers with actual mirrors,” Phys. Rev. D 67, 102006 (2003).

Man, C. N.

J.-Y. Vinet, P. Hello, C. N. Man, and A. Brillet, “A high accuracy method for the simulation of non-ideal optical cavities,” J. Phys. I 2, 1287-1303 (1992).

Marion, F.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

B. Caron, L. Derome, R. Flaminio, X. Grave, F. Marion, B. Mours, D. Verkindt, F. Cavalier, and A. Viceré, “A time domain, general purpose simulation program for the VIRGO experiment,” Astropart. Phys. 10, 369-386 (1999).

Masser, C. S.

Masserot, A.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

Massonnet, L.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

Matone, G.

D. Babusci, H. Fang, G. Giordano, G. Matone, L. Matone, and V. Sannibale, “Alignment procedure for the VIRGO interferometer: experimental results from the Frascati prototype,” Phys. Lett. A 226, 31-40 (1997).

Matone, L.

D. Babusci, H. Fang, G. Giordano, G. Matone, L. Matone, and V. Sannibale, “Alignment procedure for the VIRGO interferometer: experimental results from the Frascati prototype,” Phys. Lett. A 226, 31-40 (1997).

McClelland, D. E.

B. J. J. Slagmolen, M. B. Gray, K.G. Baigent, and D. E. McClelland, “Phase-sensitive reflection technique for characterization of a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl Opt. 39, 3638-3643 (2000).

Moreau, F.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

Mours, B.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

B. Caron, L. Derome, R. Flaminio, X. Grave, F. Marion, B. Mours, D. Verkindt, F. Cavalier, and A. Viceré, “A time domain, general purpose simulation program for the VIRGO experiment,” Astropart. Phys. 10, 369-386 (1999).

Mugnier, P.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).

Niebauer, T. M.

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022-5029 (1991).

Pinard, L.

A. Brillet, J.-Y. Vinet, V. Loriette, J.-M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Virtual gravitational wave interferometers with actual mirrors,” Phys. Rev. D 67, 102006 (2003).

Pound, R. V.

R. V. Pound, “Electronic frequency stabilization of microwave oscillators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 490-505 (1946).

Pustovoit, V. I.

M. E. Gersenshtem and V. I. Pustovoit, Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 433 (1963).

Ramonet, J.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

Remillieux, A.

A. Brillet, J.-Y. Vinet, V. Loriette, J.-M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Virtual gravitational wave interferometers with actual mirrors,” Phys. Rev. D 67, 102006 (2003).

Rüdiger, A.

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022-5029 (1991).

Sannibale, V.

D. Babusci, H. Fang, G. Giordano, G. Matone, L. Matone, and V. Sannibale, “Alignment procedure for the VIRGO interferometer: experimental results from the Frascati prototype,” Phys. Lett. A 226, 31-40 (1997).

Schilling, R.

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1067-1074 (2003).

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022-5029 (1991).

Sigg, D.

D. Sigg, “Status of the LIGO detectors,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 23, S51-S56 (2006).

Slagmolen, B. J. J.

B. J. J. Slagmolen, M. B. Gray, K.G. Baigent, and D. E. McClelland, “Phase-sensitive reflection technique for characterization of a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl Opt. 39, 3638-3643 (2000).

Tournefier, E.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

Verkindt, D.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

B. Caron, L. Derome, R. Flaminio, X. Grave, F. Marion, B. Mours, D. Verkindt, F. Cavalier, and A. Viceré, “A time domain, general purpose simulation program for the VIRGO experiment,” Astropart. Phys. 10, 369-386 (1999).

Veziant, O.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

Viceré, A.

B. Caron, L. Derome, R. Flaminio, X. Grave, F. Marion, B. Mours, D. Verkindt, F. Cavalier, and A. Viceré, “A time domain, general purpose simulation program for the VIRGO experiment,” Astropart. Phys. 10, 369-386 (1999).

Vinet, J.-Y.

A. Brillet, J.-Y. Vinet, V. Loriette, J.-M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Virtual gravitational wave interferometers with actual mirrors,” Phys. Rev. D 67, 102006 (2003).

J.-Y. Vinet, P. Hello, C. N. Man, and A. Brillet, “A high accuracy method for the simulation of non-ideal optical cavities,” J. Phys. I 2, 1287-1303 (1992).

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).

Weiss, R.

R. Weiss, Quarterly Progress Report of the Research Laboratory of Electronics 105, (MIT, 1972), p. 379.

Willke, B.

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1067-1074 (2003).

Winkler, W.

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022-5029 (1991).

Yvert, M.

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

Appl Opt. (1)

B. J. J. Slagmolen, M. B. Gray, K.G. Baigent, and D. E. McClelland, “Phase-sensitive reflection technique for characterization of a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl Opt. 39, 3638-3643 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).

Astropart. Phys. (2)

B. Caron, L. Derome, R. Flaminio, X. Grave, F. Marion, B. Mours, D. Verkindt, F. Cavalier, and A. Viceré, “A time domain, general purpose simulation program for the VIRGO experiment,” Astropart. Phys. 10, 369-386 (1999).

The Virgo Collaboration, “The commissioning of the central interferometer of the Virgo gravitational wave detector,” Astropart. Phys. 21, 1-22 (2004).

Class. Quantum Grav. (6)

The Virgo Collaboration, “Interferometer signal detection system for the VIRGO experiment,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 1857-1863 (2002).

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1067-1074 (2003).

The Virgo Collaboration, “The VIRGO large mirrors: a challenge for low loss coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S935-S945 (2004).

F. Beauville, D. Buskulic, L. Derome, A. Dominjon, R. Flaminio, R. Hermel, F. Marion, A. Masserot, L. Massonnet, B. Mours, F. Moreau, P. Mugnier, J. Ramonet, E. Tournefier, D. Verkindt, O. Veziant, and M. Yvert, “Improvement in the shot noise of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector by means of an output mode-cleaner,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 3235-3250 (2006).

The GEO Collaboration, “Status of the GEO600 detector,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S71-S78 (2006).

K. Hayama and M. Fujimoto, “Monitoring non-stationary burst-like signals in an interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S9-S15 (2006).

Class. Quantum. Grav. (1)

D. Sigg, “Status of the LIGO detectors,” Class. Quantum. Grav. 23, S51-S56 (2006).

J. Phys. I (1)

J.-Y. Vinet, P. Hello, C. N. Man, and A. Brillet, “A high accuracy method for the simulation of non-ideal optical cavities,” J. Phys. I 2, 1287-1303 (1992).

Phys. Lett. A (1)

D. Babusci, H. Fang, G. Giordano, G. Matone, L. Matone, and V. Sannibale, “Alignment procedure for the VIRGO interferometer: experimental results from the Frascati prototype,” Phys. Lett. A 226, 31-40 (1997).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022-5029 (1991).

Phys. Rev. D (1)

A. Brillet, J.-Y. Vinet, V. Loriette, J.-M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Virtual gravitational wave interferometers with actual mirrors,” Phys. Rev. D 67, 102006 (2003).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. V. Pound, “Electronic frequency stabilization of microwave oscillators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 490-505 (1946).

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. E. Gersenshtem and V. I. Pustovoit, Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 433 (1963).

Other (4)

R. Weiss, Quarterly Progress Report of the Research Laboratory of Electronics 105, (MIT, 1972), p. 379.

R. W. P. Drever, in Gravitational Radiation Proceedings, Les Houches Summer Institute, T.Piran and N.Deruelle, eds. (North-Holland, 1982), p. 321.

The Virgo Collaboration, Final Design Report, VIR-TRE-DIR-1000-13 (1997).

The Virgo Collaboration, “The status of Virgo,” in HEP2005 International Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics, PoS(HEP2005)029 (2005).

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