Abstract

Fiber delivery of 64.7mJ laser pulses (6ns duration) from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 532nm is demonstrated. A custom diffractive optical element was used to shape the laser beam and facilitate coupling into a linear fiber array. This launch arrangement achieves an improvement in launch efficiency compared with a circular fiber bundle evaluated in previous work and the delivery of higher pulse energies is demonstrated. The bundle is capable of delivering light of sufficient pulse energy and, importantly, with suitable focusability, to generate a thin light sheet for the fluid flow measurement technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV). Fiber delivery offers an advantage, in terms of optical access, for the application of PIV to enclosed measurement volumes, such as the cylinder of a combustion engine.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. J. Stephens, "Fibre-optic delivery of high peak power laser pulses for flow measurement," Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, 2003).
  2. T. J. StephensM. J. Haste, D. P. Towers, M. J. Thomson, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. D. C. Jones, and D. P. Hand, "Fiber optic delivery of high peak power Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses for in-cylinder flow measurement," Appl. Opt. 42, 4307-4314 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Westerweel, "Fundamentals of digital particle image velocimetry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1379-1392 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Li, H. Zhao, Z. Peng, and N. Ladommatos, "Particle image velocimetry measurement of in-cylinder flow in internal combustion engines--experiment and flow structure analysis," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. , Part D (J. Automob. Eng.) 216, 65-81 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Geis, G. Rottenkolber, M. Dittmann, B. Richter, K. Dullenkopf, and S. Wittig, "Endoscopic PIV-measurements in an enclosed rotor-stator system with pre-swirled cooling air," presented at the 11th International Symposium on the Application of Laser Techniques to Flow Measurement (Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, Portugal, 8-11 July 2002).
  6. U. Dierksheide, P. Meyer, T. Hovestadt, and W. Hentschel, "Endoscopic 2D-PIV flow field measurements in IC engines," presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry (Gottingen, Germany, 17-19 September 2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Thomson, J. Liu, and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Iterative algorithm for the design of free-space diffractive optical elements for fiber coupling," Appl. Opt. 43, 1996-1999 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Thomson and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Diffractive elements for high-power fibre coupling applications," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1691-1699 (2003).

2005 (1)

M. J. Thomson and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Design and fabrication of Fourier plane diffractive optical elements for high-power fibre-coupling applications," Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 671-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

Y. Li, H. Zhao, Z. Peng, and N. Ladommatos, "Particle image velocimetry measurement of in-cylinder flow in internal combustion engines--experiment and flow structure analysis," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. , Part D (J. Automob. Eng.) 216, 65-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Westerweel, "Fundamentals of digital particle image velocimetry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1379-1392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

Allebach, J. P.

Bryngdaiil, O.

Dierksheide, U.

U. Dierksheide, P. Meyer, T. Hovestadt, and W. Hentschel, "Endoscopic 2D-PIV flow field measurements in IC engines," presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry (Gottingen, Germany, 17-19 September 2001).

Dittmann, M.

T. Geis, G. Rottenkolber, M. Dittmann, B. Richter, K. Dullenkopf, and S. Wittig, "Endoscopic PIV-measurements in an enclosed rotor-stator system with pre-swirled cooling air," presented at the 11th International Symposium on the Application of Laser Techniques to Flow Measurement (Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, Portugal, 8-11 July 2002).

Dullenkopf, K.

T. Geis, G. Rottenkolber, M. Dittmann, B. Richter, K. Dullenkopf, and S. Wittig, "Endoscopic PIV-measurements in an enclosed rotor-stator system with pre-swirled cooling air," presented at the 11th International Symposium on the Application of Laser Techniques to Flow Measurement (Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, Portugal, 8-11 July 2002).

Entwistle, J. D.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geis, T.

T. Geis, G. Rottenkolber, M. Dittmann, B. Richter, K. Dullenkopf, and S. Wittig, "Endoscopic PIV-measurements in an enclosed rotor-stator system with pre-swirled cooling air," presented at the 11th International Symposium on the Application of Laser Techniques to Flow Measurement (Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, Portugal, 8-11 July 2002).

Greated, C. A.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

T. J. StephensM. J. Haste, D. P. Towers, M. J. Thomson, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. D. C. Jones, and D. P. Hand, "Fiber optic delivery of high peak power Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses for in-cylinder flow measurement," Appl. Opt. 42, 4307-4314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haste, M. J.

Hentschel, W.

U. Dierksheide, P. Meyer, T. Hovestadt, and W. Hentschel, "Endoscopic 2D-PIV flow field measurements in IC engines," presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry (Gottingen, Germany, 17-19 September 2001).

Hovestadt, T.

U. Dierksheide, P. Meyer, T. Hovestadt, and W. Hentschel, "Endoscopic 2D-PIV flow field measurements in IC engines," presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry (Gottingen, Germany, 17-19 September 2001).

Jones, J. D. C.

T. J. StephensM. J. Haste, D. P. Towers, M. J. Thomson, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. D. C. Jones, and D. P. Hand, "Fiber optic delivery of high peak power Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses for in-cylinder flow measurement," Appl. Opt. 42, 4307-4314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, A.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ladommatos, N.

Y. Li, H. Zhao, Z. Peng, and N. Ladommatos, "Particle image velocimetry measurement of in-cylinder flow in internal combustion engines--experiment and flow structure analysis," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. , Part D (J. Automob. Eng.) 216, 65-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, H. Zhao, Z. Peng, and N. Ladommatos, "Particle image velocimetry measurement of in-cylinder flow in internal combustion engines--experiment and flow structure analysis," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. , Part D (J. Automob. Eng.) 216, 65-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Maier, R. R. J.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, P.

U. Dierksheide, P. Meyer, T. Hovestadt, and W. Hentschel, "Endoscopic 2D-PIV flow field measurements in IC engines," presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry (Gottingen, Germany, 17-19 September 2001).

Peng, Z.

Y. Li, H. Zhao, Z. Peng, and N. Ladommatos, "Particle image velocimetry measurement of in-cylinder flow in internal combustion engines--experiment and flow structure analysis," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. , Part D (J. Automob. Eng.) 216, 65-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richter, B.

T. Geis, G. Rottenkolber, M. Dittmann, B. Richter, K. Dullenkopf, and S. Wittig, "Endoscopic PIV-measurements in an enclosed rotor-stator system with pre-swirled cooling air," presented at the 11th International Symposium on the Application of Laser Techniques to Flow Measurement (Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, Portugal, 8-11 July 2002).

Rottenkolber, G.

T. Geis, G. Rottenkolber, M. Dittmann, B. Richter, K. Dullenkopf, and S. Wittig, "Endoscopic PIV-measurements in an enclosed rotor-stator system with pre-swirled cooling air," presented at the 11th International Symposium on the Application of Laser Techniques to Flow Measurement (Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, Portugal, 8-11 July 2002).

Seldowitz, M. A.

Stephens, T. J.

Sweeney, D. W.

Taghizadeh, M. R.

M. J. Thomson and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Design and fabrication of Fourier plane diffractive optical elements for high-power fibre-coupling applications," Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 671-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Thomson, J. Liu, and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Iterative algorithm for the design of free-space diffractive optical elements for fiber coupling," Appl. Opt. 43, 1996-1999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. StephensM. J. Haste, D. P. Towers, M. J. Thomson, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. D. C. Jones, and D. P. Hand, "Fiber optic delivery of high peak power Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses for in-cylinder flow measurement," Appl. Opt. 42, 4307-4314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Thomson and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Diffractive elements for high-power fibre coupling applications," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1691-1699 (2003).

Thomson, M. J.

M. J. Thomson and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Design and fabrication of Fourier plane diffractive optical elements for high-power fibre-coupling applications," Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 671-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Thomson, J. Liu, and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Iterative algorithm for the design of free-space diffractive optical elements for fiber coupling," Appl. Opt. 43, 1996-1999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. StephensM. J. Haste, D. P. Towers, M. J. Thomson, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. D. C. Jones, and D. P. Hand, "Fiber optic delivery of high peak power Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses for in-cylinder flow measurement," Appl. Opt. 42, 4307-4314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Thomson and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Diffractive elements for high-power fibre coupling applications," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1691-1699 (2003).

Towers, D. P.

Westerweel, J.

J. Westerweel, "Fundamentals of digital particle image velocimetry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1379-1392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wittig, S.

T. Geis, G. Rottenkolber, M. Dittmann, B. Richter, K. Dullenkopf, and S. Wittig, "Endoscopic PIV-measurements in an enclosed rotor-stator system with pre-swirled cooling air," presented at the 11th International Symposium on the Application of Laser Techniques to Flow Measurement (Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, Portugal, 8-11 July 2002).

Wyrowski, F.

Zhao, H.

Y. Li, H. Zhao, Z. Peng, and N. Ladommatos, "Particle image velocimetry measurement of in-cylinder flow in internal combustion engines--experiment and flow structure analysis," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. , Part D (J. Automob. Eng.) 216, 65-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. J. Thomson and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Diffractive elements for high-power fibre coupling applications," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1691-1699 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Westerweel, "Fundamentals of digital particle image velocimetry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1379-1392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

M. J. Thomson and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Design and fabrication of Fourier plane diffractive optical elements for high-power fibre-coupling applications," Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 671-681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. (1)

Y. Li, H. Zhao, Z. Peng, and N. Ladommatos, "Particle image velocimetry measurement of in-cylinder flow in internal combustion engines--experiment and flow structure analysis," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. , Part D (J. Automob. Eng.) 216, 65-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. Geis, G. Rottenkolber, M. Dittmann, B. Richter, K. Dullenkopf, and S. Wittig, "Endoscopic PIV-measurements in an enclosed rotor-stator system with pre-swirled cooling air," presented at the 11th International Symposium on the Application of Laser Techniques to Flow Measurement (Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, Portugal, 8-11 July 2002).

U. Dierksheide, P. Meyer, T. Hovestadt, and W. Hentschel, "Endoscopic 2D-PIV flow field measurements in IC engines," presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry (Gottingen, Germany, 17-19 September 2001).

T. J. Stephens, "Fibre-optic delivery of high peak power laser pulses for flow measurement," Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, 2003).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sample PIV data showing the flow within a test combustion engine taken using fiber delivery [2].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of the 19-fiber bundle used in previous work.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation of the diffraction pattern produced the 17-spot linear DOE.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of the output from the 17-spot DOE.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy transmitted by a fiber when launching a single spot from a 17-spot DOE.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Microscope image of a section of the finished array.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Array assembly with fibers protruding to facilitate removal of wax.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Launch arrangement used to couple light into a fiber array.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Closeup image of damage to the central fiber in a 17-fiber array.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Breakdown of Transmission Efficiency for the 17-Spot Linear DOE and Fiber Array a

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