Abstract

We propose two novel electro-optic (EO) deflectors based on two new nonrectangular geometries: the parabolic and the half-horn configurations. These devices not only provide excellent deflection angles, but also have the potential to build nonblocking 2×2 optical switches. A deflector figure of merit is defined, and comparisons with existing EO deflectors are given. Devices fabricated in LiTaO3 demonstrate 3  dB of average insertion loss and 3° deflection angles. These results represent the best deflection performances to our knowledge reported to date for bulk EO deflectors.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. P. Kaminow, An Introduction to Electrooptic Devices (Academic, 1974), pp. 39-70.
  2. E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, B. Bahamin, Y. Zuo, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "A 1 × 2 fast fiber-optic switch based on electro-optic beam scanning," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuFF1.
  3. Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "Packaging and performance of an ultra-fast 1 × 4 optical switch," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CTuW2.
  4. Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 Electro-optic switches for agile all-photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Shu, H. Wang, and N. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481-5483 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. N. Lambeth, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Guided-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401-1404 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. Lotspeich, "Electrooptic light-beam deflection," IEEE Spectrum , February 1968, pp. 45-52.
  8. Y. Chiu, R. S. Burton, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Design and simulation of waveguide electrooptic beam deflectors," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2049-2052 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Chiu, J. Zou, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: analysis, design, and simulation," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 108-114 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Fang, M. J. Kawas, J. Zou, V. Gopalan, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 66-68 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. A. Scrymgeour, A. Sharan, V. Gopalan, K. T. Gahagan, J. L. Casson, R. Sander, J. M. Robinson, F. Muhammad, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, "Cascaded electro-optic scanning of laser light over large angles using domain microengineered ferroelectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3140-3142 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991), pp. 696-736.
    [CrossRef]
  13. Ref. 12, pp. 1-39.
  14. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 Electro-optic switches for agile all-photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. A. Scrymgeour, A. Sharan, V. Gopalan, K. T. Gahagan, J. L. Casson, R. Sander, J. M. Robinson, F. Muhammad, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, "Cascaded electro-optic scanning of laser light over large angles using domain microengineered ferroelectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3140-3142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Y. Chiu, J. Zou, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: analysis, design, and simulation," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 108-114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Fang, M. J. Kawas, J. Zou, V. Gopalan, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 66-68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

Y. Chiu, R. S. Burton, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Design and simulation of waveguide electrooptic beam deflectors," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2049-2052 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Shu, H. Wang, and N. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481-5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. N. Lambeth, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Guided-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401-1404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aimez, V.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 Electro-optic switches for agile all-photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, B. Bahamin, Y. Zuo, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "A 1 × 2 fast fiber-optic switch based on electro-optic beam scanning," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuFF1.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "Packaging and performance of an ultra-fast 1 × 4 optical switch," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CTuW2.

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bahamin, B.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 Electro-optic switches for agile all-photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "Packaging and performance of an ultra-fast 1 × 4 optical switch," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CTuW2.

E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, B. Bahamin, Y. Zuo, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "A 1 × 2 fast fiber-optic switch based on electro-optic beam scanning," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuFF1.

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burton, R. S.

Y. Chiu, R. S. Burton, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Design and simulation of waveguide electrooptic beam deflectors," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2049-2052 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Casson, J. L.

D. A. Scrymgeour, A. Sharan, V. Gopalan, K. T. Gahagan, J. L. Casson, R. Sander, J. M. Robinson, F. Muhammad, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, "Cascaded electro-optic scanning of laser light over large angles using domain microengineered ferroelectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3140-3142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chandramani, P.

D. A. Scrymgeour, A. Sharan, V. Gopalan, K. T. Gahagan, J. L. Casson, R. Sander, J. M. Robinson, F. Muhammad, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, "Cascaded electro-optic scanning of laser light over large angles using domain microengineered ferroelectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3140-3142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. N. Lambeth, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Guided-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401-1404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, Y.

Y. Chiu, J. Zou, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: analysis, design, and simulation," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 108-114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chiu, R. S. Burton, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Design and simulation of waveguide electrooptic beam deflectors," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2049-2052 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. N. Lambeth, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Guided-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401-1404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J. C.

J. C. Fang, M. J. Kawas, J. Zou, V. Gopalan, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 66-68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gahagan, K. T.

D. A. Scrymgeour, A. Sharan, V. Gopalan, K. T. Gahagan, J. L. Casson, R. Sander, J. M. Robinson, F. Muhammad, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, "Cascaded electro-optic scanning of laser light over large angles using domain microengineered ferroelectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3140-3142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, V.

D. A. Scrymgeour, A. Sharan, V. Gopalan, K. T. Gahagan, J. L. Casson, R. Sander, J. M. Robinson, F. Muhammad, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, "Cascaded electro-optic scanning of laser light over large angles using domain microengineered ferroelectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3140-3142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Fang, M. J. Kawas, J. Zou, V. Gopalan, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 66-68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hallemeier, P. F.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, An Introduction to Electrooptic Devices (Academic, 1974), pp. 39-70.

Kawas, M. J.

J. C. Fang, M. J. Kawas, J. Zou, V. Gopalan, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 66-68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kiamilev, F.

D. A. Scrymgeour, A. Sharan, V. Gopalan, K. T. Gahagan, J. L. Casson, R. Sander, J. M. Robinson, F. Muhammad, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, "Cascaded electro-optic scanning of laser light over large angles using domain microengineered ferroelectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3140-3142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kissa, K. M.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lafaw, D. A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lambeth, D. N.

Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. N. Lambeth, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Guided-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401-1404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Langlois, P.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 Electro-optic switches for agile all-photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, B. Bahamin, Y. Zuo, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "A 1 × 2 fast fiber-optic switch based on electro-optic beam scanning," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuFF1.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "Packaging and performance of an ultra-fast 1 × 4 optical switch," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CTuW2.

Lotspeich, J. F.

J. F. Lotspeich, "Electrooptic light-beam deflection," IEEE Spectrum , February 1968, pp. 45-52.

Maack, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McBrien, G. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ming, N.

S. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Shu, H. Wang, and N. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481-5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mony, M.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 Electro-optic switches for agile all-photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, B. Bahamin, Y. Zuo, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "A 1 × 2 fast fiber-optic switch based on electro-optic beam scanning," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuFF1.

Muhammad, F.

D. A. Scrymgeour, A. Sharan, V. Gopalan, K. T. Gahagan, J. L. Casson, R. Sander, J. M. Robinson, F. Muhammad, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, "Cascaded electro-optic scanning of laser light over large angles using domain microengineered ferroelectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3140-3142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, E. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 Electro-optic switches for agile all-photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, B. Bahamin, Y. Zuo, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "A 1 × 2 fast fiber-optic switch based on electro-optic beam scanning," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuFF1.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "Packaging and performance of an ultra-fast 1 × 4 optical switch," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CTuW2.

Pulikkaseril, C.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 Electro-optic switches for agile all-photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, B. Bahamin, Y. Zuo, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "A 1 × 2 fast fiber-optic switch based on electro-optic beam scanning," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuFF1.

Robinson, J. M.

D. A. Scrymgeour, A. Sharan, V. Gopalan, K. T. Gahagan, J. L. Casson, R. Sander, J. M. Robinson, F. Muhammad, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, "Cascaded electro-optic scanning of laser light over large angles using domain microengineered ferroelectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3140-3142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991), pp. 696-736.
[CrossRef]

Sander, R.

D. A. Scrymgeour, A. Sharan, V. Gopalan, K. T. Gahagan, J. L. Casson, R. Sander, J. M. Robinson, F. Muhammad, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, "Cascaded electro-optic scanning of laser light over large angles using domain microengineered ferroelectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3140-3142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schlesinger, T. E.

J. C. Fang, M. J. Kawas, J. Zou, V. Gopalan, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 66-68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chiu, J. Zou, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: analysis, design, and simulation," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 108-114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chiu, R. S. Burton, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Design and simulation of waveguide electrooptic beam deflectors," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2049-2052 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. N. Lambeth, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Guided-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401-1404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scrymgeour, D. A.

D. A. Scrymgeour, A. Sharan, V. Gopalan, K. T. Gahagan, J. L. Casson, R. Sander, J. M. Robinson, F. Muhammad, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, "Cascaded electro-optic scanning of laser light over large angles using domain microengineered ferroelectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3140-3142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharan, A.

D. A. Scrymgeour, A. Sharan, V. Gopalan, K. T. Gahagan, J. L. Casson, R. Sander, J. M. Robinson, F. Muhammad, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, "Cascaded electro-optic scanning of laser light over large angles using domain microengineered ferroelectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3140-3142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shoukry, E.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 Electro-optic switches for agile all-photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, B. Bahamin, Y. Zuo, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "A 1 × 2 fast fiber-optic switch based on electro-optic beam scanning," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuFF1.

Shu, H.

S. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Shu, H. Wang, and N. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481-5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stancil, D. D.

J. C. Fang, M. J. Kawas, J. Zou, V. Gopalan, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 66-68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chiu, J. Zou, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: analysis, design, and simulation," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 108-114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chiu, R. S. Burton, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Design and simulation of waveguide electrooptic beam deflectors," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2049-2052 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. N. Lambeth, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Guided-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401-1404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991), pp. 696-736.
[CrossRef]

Tremblay, E. J.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 Electro-optic switches for agile all-photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, B. Bahamin, Y. Zuo, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "A 1 × 2 fast fiber-optic switch based on electro-optic beam scanning," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuFF1.

Wang, H.

S. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Shu, H. Wang, and N. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481-5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, E. L.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yi-Yan, A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

S. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Shu, H. Wang, and N. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481-5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Shu, H. Wang, and N. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481-5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

S. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Shu, H. Wang, and N. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481-5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J.

Y. Chiu, J. Zou, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: analysis, design, and simulation," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 108-114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Fang, M. J. Kawas, J. Zou, V. Gopalan, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 66-68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, Y.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 Electro-optic switches for agile all-photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "Packaging and performance of an ultra-fast 1 × 4 optical switch," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CTuW2.

E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, B. Bahamin, Y. Zuo, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "A 1 × 2 fast fiber-optic switch based on electro-optic beam scanning," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuFF1.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. A. Scrymgeour, A. Sharan, V. Gopalan, K. T. Gahagan, J. L. Casson, R. Sander, J. M. Robinson, F. Muhammad, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, "Cascaded electro-optic scanning of laser light over large angles using domain microengineered ferroelectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3140-3142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. C. Fang, M. J. Kawas, J. Zou, V. Gopalan, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 66-68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "1 × 2 and 1 × 4 Electro-optic switches for agile all-photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Spectrum (1)

J. F. Lotspeich, "Electrooptic light-beam deflection," IEEE Spectrum , February 1968, pp. 45-52.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Shu, H. Wang, and N. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481-5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. N. Lambeth, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, "Guided-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401-1404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chiu, R. S. Burton, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Design and simulation of waveguide electrooptic beam deflectors," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2049-2052 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chiu, J. Zou, D. D. Stancil, and T. E. Schlesinger, "Shape-optimized electrooptic beam scanners: analysis, design, and simulation," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 108-114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991), pp. 696-736.
[CrossRef]

Ref. 12, pp. 1-39.

I. P. Kaminow, An Introduction to Electrooptic Devices (Academic, 1974), pp. 39-70.

E. J. Tremblay, C. Pulikkaseril, E. Shoukry, B. Bahamin, Y. Zuo, M. Mony, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "A 1 × 2 fast fiber-optic switch based on electro-optic beam scanning," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CTuFF1.

Y. Zuo, B. Bahamin, P. Langlois, V. Aimez, and D. V. Plant, "Packaging and performance of an ultra-fast 1 × 4 optical switch," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CTuW2.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Domains with concatenated prisms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two types of deflector structure: (a) iterated prism and (b) gradient index.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Parallel trajectory and the light trajectory at each interface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Parabola device using a prism sequence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Half-horn device using a prism sequence.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematics of two different deflectors: (a) half-horn and (b) parabola.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Deflection angles of the half-horn and parabola deflectors when the device length changes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic of 2 × 2 switches using (a) half-horn geometries and (b) parabola geometries.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Cross and bar status of the nonblocking optical switch based on the EO deflectors, with distance between two channels.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Deflection angles for different devices.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Deflector figure of merit for different devices.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Index profile of the parabola devices.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Index profile of the half-horn devices.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Beam transmission within the parabola deflectors in BPM simulation.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Beam transmission within the half-horn deflectors in BPM simulation.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Two output beams for the parabola deflector ( 38.6   mm long and 450   μm wide).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Two output spots from the incoming B in the half-horn deflector (spot C is on the left; spot D is on the right).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Designs

Tables Icon

Table 2 Simulation Comparisons

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Table 3 Insertion Loss, Cross Talk, and Deflection Angle

Equations (26)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n = 1 2 n 3 r 33 V D .
Δ θ = 4 Δ n n tan ( β 2 ) .
θ = i 4 Δ n n tan ( β 2 ) = 4 Δ n n i L i / 2 W i ,
θ = 4 Δ n n i L i / 2 W i = 2 Δ n n L W ,
W 2 = w a W + L 2 n 2 r 33 V D ,
W = w a + θ L .
θ < ( n 2 r 33 V / D ) 1 / 2 .
L / W > 11 × 2 × tan ( 30 ° ) 13 ,
θ > 13 n 2 r 33 V / D .
13 n 2 r 33 V / D < θ < ( n 2 r 33 V / D ) 1 / 2 .
n x = 2 Δ n W ( z ) ,
d 2 x d z 2 = d θ d z = n n = 1 n n x .
d 2 x d z 2 = 2 Δ n n 1 W ( z ) ,
Δ θ = 2 Δ n n 1 W ( z )  d z .
θ = 2 Δ n n 1 W ( z )  d z = i 2 Δ n n z i W i = 4 Δ n n i L i / 2 W i .
c = b sin ( β + θ 3 ) sin ( β θ 3 ) = a sin ( β + θ 3 ) sin ( β θ 3 ) sin ( β θ 2 ) sin ( β + θ 2 ) = a cos ( 2 β + θ 3 θ 2 ) cos ( θ 2 + θ 3 ) cos ( 2 β + θ 3 θ 2 ) cos ( θ 2 + θ 3 ) .
θ = 4 Δ n n i L i / 2 W i = 2 Δ n n W 0 L ,
W ( z ) = Δ n n W 0 z 2 ,
n ( x ,   z ) = n Δ n + 2 Δ n W ( z ) x ,
d W d z = [ 4 Δ n n ln ( W ( z ) W 0 ) ] 1 / 2 ,
θ = [ 4 Δ n n ln ( W ( L ) W 0 ) ] 1 / 2 .
θ half - horn = 2 [ 4 Δ n n ln ( W L W L / 2 ) ] 1 / 2 ,
θ parabola = 2 Δ n L / ( n W 0 ) .
dis parabola = 2 Δ n n W L 2 W ,
dis half - horn = 2 { L [ 4 Δ n n ln ( W L W L / 2 ) ] 1 / 2 W L } + W L / 2 .
deflector   figure   of   merit = V L / D ,

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