Abstract

An interferometric lithographic technique and double exposure method are applied to theoretically and experimentally investigate several kinds of 2D periodic structures. The shape, lattice symmetries, and lattice constants of the 2D structures, for different substrate rotational angles, are obtained from the simulated predictions. The shape of the 2D structures can be varied by controlling the rotational angle of the substrate and the development process, and they are validated experimentally. The variation of the lattice symmetry of the 2D structure with the substrate rotational angle is discussed in detail in relation to the axial angle and lattice constant. It is found that square, circular, rectangular, and elliptical scatterers which are arranged in parallelogram, triangular, and square lattices (with different lattice constants) can be obtained. The photonic bandgaps for each condition are also investigated. When the substrate rotational angles are the same, the normalized frequency (ωa/2πc) of photonic bandgap structures with an equal filling factor are very similar regardless of the interference angle. The results are helpful in designing the forbidden frequency when the lattice constant and the scatterer shape can be controlled by the interferometric lithographic technique.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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