Abstract

A high-resolution, flat-field, plane-grating, f/10 spectrometer based on the novel design proposed by Gil and Simon [Appl. Opt. 22, 152 (1983)] is demonstrated. The spectrometer design employs off-axis parabolic collimation and camera mirrors in a configuration that eliminates spherical aberrations and minimizes astigmatism, coma, and field curvature in the image plane. In accordance with theoretical analysis, the performance of this spectrometer achieves a high spatial resolution over the large detection area, which is shown to be limited only by the quality of its optics and their proper alignment within the spatial resolution of a 13μm×13μm pixelated CCD detector. With a 1500lines/mm grating in first order, the measured spectral resolving power of λ/Δλ=2.5(±0.5)×104 allows the clear resolution of the violet Ar(I) doublet at 419.07 and 419.10  nm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. F. Davidsen, G. Hartwig, and W. G. Fastie, "Ultraviolet spectrum of quasi-stellar object 3C273," Nature 26, 203-206 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and D. J. Kane, "Comparison of ultrashort-pulse frequency-resolved-optical-gating traces for three common beam geometries," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1595-1608 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Model 1 CX 406 AQ, 3.125 μm pixel size, 3.98 Mpixel (2312 × 1720) CCD from Sony, www.sony.net/Products/SC-HP/cx_news/vol16/pdf/icx238.pdf.
  4. 2.25 μm pixel pitch, 4 Mpixel CMOS CCD from Matsushita Electric Industrial Co, Ltd (Panasonic), http://neasia.nikkeibp.com/nea/200402/conele_288148.html.
  5. Q. R. Morrissey, N. R. Waltham, R. Turchetta, M. J. French, D. M. Bagnall, and B. M. Al-Hashimi, "Design of a 3 μm pixel linear CMOS sensor for earth observation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 512, 350-357 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, "Über den Astigmatismus bei Spiegelspektrometem," Z. Phys. 61, 792-797 (1930).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Gil, J. M. Simon, and A. N. Fantino, "Czerny-Turner spectrograph with a wide spectral range," Appl. Opt. 27, 4069-4072 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Ebert, "Zwei Formen von Spectrographen," Ann. Phys. 274, 489-493 (1889).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. G. Fastie, "Small plane grating monochromator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 641-647 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. G. Fastie, "Image forming properties of the Ebert spectrometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 647-651 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. G. Fastie, "Ebert spectrometer reflections," Phys. Today 44, 37-43 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Aberrations in plane grating spectrometers," Opt. Acta 30, 777-806 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. M. Simon, M. A. Gil, and A. N. Fantino, "Use of plate diagram method in the evaluation of monochromators and spectrographs," Appl. Opt. 27, 4062-4068 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. V. L. Chupp and P. C. Grantz, "Coma canceling monochromator with no slit mismatch," Appl. Opt. 8, 925-925 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 2002).
  17. M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "New plane grating monochromator with off-axis parabolical mirrors," Appl. Opt. 22, 152-158 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. M. Simon and M. A. Gil, "Distortion and split-image curvature calculated by the plate diagram analysis in monochromators with off-axis mirrors," Opt. Acta 25, 381-394 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Calculation of field curvature by the plate method for off-axis systems," Opt. Acta 30, 65-71 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Aberrations in off-axis spectrometers," Opt. Acta 30, 1287-1301 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications," in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D'Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE 3355, 866-876 (1998).

2003 (1)

Q. R. Morrissey, N. R. Waltham, R. Turchetta, M. J. French, D. M. Bagnall, and B. M. Al-Hashimi, "Design of a 3 μm pixel linear CMOS sensor for earth observation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 512, 350-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications," in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D'Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE 3355, 866-876 (1998).

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

W. G. Fastie, "Ebert spectrometer reflections," Phys. Today 44, 37-43 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1983 (4)

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Calculation of field curvature by the plate method for off-axis systems," Opt. Acta 30, 65-71 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Aberrations in off-axis spectrometers," Opt. Acta 30, 1287-1301 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "New plane grating monochromator with off-axis parabolical mirrors," Appl. Opt. 22, 152-158 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Aberrations in plane grating spectrometers," Opt. Acta 30, 777-806 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. M. Simon and M. A. Gil, "Distortion and split-image curvature calculated by the plate diagram analysis in monochromators with off-axis mirrors," Opt. Acta 25, 381-394 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. F. Davidsen, G. Hartwig, and W. G. Fastie, "Ultraviolet spectrum of quasi-stellar object 3C273," Nature 26, 203-206 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

1952 (2)

1930 (1)

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, "Über den Astigmatismus bei Spiegelspektrometem," Z. Phys. 61, 792-797 (1930).
[CrossRef]

1889 (1)

H. Ebert, "Zwei Formen von Spectrographen," Ann. Phys. 274, 489-493 (1889).
[CrossRef]

Al-Hashimi, B. M.

Q. R. Morrissey, N. R. Waltham, R. Turchetta, M. J. French, D. M. Bagnall, and B. M. Al-Hashimi, "Design of a 3 μm pixel linear CMOS sensor for earth observation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 512, 350-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arns, J. A.

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications," in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D'Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE 3355, 866-876 (1998).

Bagnall, D. M.

Q. R. Morrissey, N. R. Waltham, R. Turchetta, M. J. French, D. M. Bagnall, and B. M. Al-Hashimi, "Design of a 3 μm pixel linear CMOS sensor for earth observation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 512, 350-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barden, S. C.

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications," in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D'Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE 3355, 866-876 (1998).

Chupp, V. L.

Colburn, W. S.

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications," in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D'Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE 3355, 866-876 (1998).

Czerny, M.

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, "Über den Astigmatismus bei Spiegelspektrometem," Z. Phys. 61, 792-797 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Davidsen, A. F.

A. F. Davidsen, G. Hartwig, and W. G. Fastie, "Ultraviolet spectrum of quasi-stellar object 3C273," Nature 26, 203-206 (1977).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

Ebert, H.

H. Ebert, "Zwei Formen von Spectrographen," Ann. Phys. 274, 489-493 (1889).
[CrossRef]

Fantino, A. N.

Fastie, W. G.

W. G. Fastie, "Ebert spectrometer reflections," Phys. Today 44, 37-43 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Davidsen, G. Hartwig, and W. G. Fastie, "Ultraviolet spectrum of quasi-stellar object 3C273," Nature 26, 203-206 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Fastie, "Small plane grating monochromator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 641-647 (1952).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Fastie, "Image forming properties of the Ebert spectrometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 647-651 (1952).
[CrossRef]

French, M. J.

Q. R. Morrissey, N. R. Waltham, R. Turchetta, M. J. French, D. M. Bagnall, and B. M. Al-Hashimi, "Design of a 3 μm pixel linear CMOS sensor for earth observation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 512, 350-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gil, M. A.

M. A. Gil, J. M. Simon, and A. N. Fantino, "Czerny-Turner spectrograph with a wide spectral range," Appl. Opt. 27, 4069-4072 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Simon, M. A. Gil, and A. N. Fantino, "Use of plate diagram method in the evaluation of monochromators and spectrographs," Appl. Opt. 27, 4062-4068 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Calculation of field curvature by the plate method for off-axis systems," Opt. Acta 30, 65-71 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Aberrations in plane grating spectrometers," Opt. Acta 30, 777-806 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Aberrations in off-axis spectrometers," Opt. Acta 30, 1287-1301 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "New plane grating monochromator with off-axis parabolical mirrors," Appl. Opt. 22, 152-158 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Simon and M. A. Gil, "Distortion and split-image curvature calculated by the plate diagram analysis in monochromators with off-axis mirrors," Opt. Acta 25, 381-394 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Grantz, P. C.

Hartwig, G.

A. F. Davidsen, G. Hartwig, and W. G. Fastie, "Ultraviolet spectrum of quasi-stellar object 3C273," Nature 26, 203-206 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 2002).

Hill, R. A.

Kane, D. J.

Morrissey, Q. R.

Q. R. Morrissey, N. R. Waltham, R. Turchetta, M. J. French, D. M. Bagnall, and B. M. Al-Hashimi, "Design of a 3 μm pixel linear CMOS sensor for earth observation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 512, 350-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J. M.

J. M. Simon, M. A. Gil, and A. N. Fantino, "Use of plate diagram method in the evaluation of monochromators and spectrographs," Appl. Opt. 27, 4062-4068 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gil, J. M. Simon, and A. N. Fantino, "Czerny-Turner spectrograph with a wide spectral range," Appl. Opt. 27, 4069-4072 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Aberrations in plane grating spectrometers," Opt. Acta 30, 777-806 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Calculation of field curvature by the plate method for off-axis systems," Opt. Acta 30, 65-71 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "New plane grating monochromator with off-axis parabolical mirrors," Appl. Opt. 22, 152-158 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Aberrations in off-axis spectrometers," Opt. Acta 30, 1287-1301 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Simon and M. A. Gil, "Distortion and split-image curvature calculated by the plate diagram analysis in monochromators with off-axis mirrors," Opt. Acta 25, 381-394 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Turchetta, R.

Q. R. Morrissey, N. R. Waltham, R. Turchetta, M. J. French, D. M. Bagnall, and B. M. Al-Hashimi, "Design of a 3 μm pixel linear CMOS sensor for earth observation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 512, 350-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. F.

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, "Über den Astigmatismus bei Spiegelspektrometem," Z. Phys. 61, 792-797 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Waltham, N. R.

Q. R. Morrissey, N. R. Waltham, R. Turchetta, M. J. French, D. M. Bagnall, and B. M. Al-Hashimi, "Design of a 3 μm pixel linear CMOS sensor for earth observation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 512, 350-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

H. Ebert, "Zwei Formen von Spectrographen," Ann. Phys. 274, 489-493 (1889).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

A. F. Davidsen, G. Hartwig, and W. G. Fastie, "Ultraviolet spectrum of quasi-stellar object 3C273," Nature 26, 203-206 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

Q. R. Morrissey, N. R. Waltham, R. Turchetta, M. J. French, D. M. Bagnall, and B. M. Al-Hashimi, "Design of a 3 μm pixel linear CMOS sensor for earth observation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 512, 350-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (4)

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Aberrations in plane grating spectrometers," Opt. Acta 30, 777-806 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Simon and M. A. Gil, "Distortion and split-image curvature calculated by the plate diagram analysis in monochromators with off-axis mirrors," Opt. Acta 25, 381-394 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Calculation of field curvature by the plate method for off-axis systems," Opt. Acta 30, 65-71 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gil and J. M. Simon, "Aberrations in off-axis spectrometers," Opt. Acta 30, 1287-1301 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

W. G. Fastie, "Ebert spectrometer reflections," Phys. Today 44, 37-43 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, "Über den Astigmatismus bei Spiegelspektrometem," Z. Phys. 61, 792-797 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Model 1 CX 406 AQ, 3.125 μm pixel size, 3.98 Mpixel (2312 × 1720) CCD from Sony, www.sony.net/Products/SC-HP/cx_news/vol16/pdf/icx238.pdf.

2.25 μm pixel pitch, 4 Mpixel CMOS CCD from Matsushita Electric Industrial Co, Ltd (Panasonic), http://neasia.nikkeibp.com/nea/200402/conele_288148.html.

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, "Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications," in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D'Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE 3355, 866-876 (1998).

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of the aberration-corrected, flat-field, f / 10 spectrometer: entrance slit (S); off-axis parabolic collimating (P1) and camera (P2) mirrors; plane pick-off mirrors (M1–M3). The 40   in .   ( 1016   mm ) focal length mirrors P1 and P2 have a common focal point (O) above which the grating is positioned with its axis of rotation inclined at the off-axis angle β of the parabolic mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Theoretical wavefront piston error in the central 13   mm × 13   mm portion of the image plane of the f / 10 ( f = 1016   mm ) spectrograph at 579   nm for the employed 15   mm entrance slit length. (b) Theoretical piston error in the central 13   mm × 13   mm portion of the image plane of an equivalent f / 5 ( f = 508 m m ) spectrograph with a 15 m m entrance slit length at a wavelength of 579   nm . (The units on all axes are meters; e.g., from −0.0065 to 0.0065 m in the 13 mm × 13 mm horizontal image plane).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Evaluation of the smile error of the f / 10 spectrograph using correctly registered background-subtracted lineouts of the Hg 579.07 n m spectral line integrated over five sections of 50 pixels across the 1024 pixel wide CCD image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured FWHM image widths of the first-order 579.07  nm Hg spectral line as a function of the entrance slit width a. The FWHM image width variation predicted by a diffraction analysis with perfect optics is plotted as the solid curve. The dashed line indicates perfect 1:1 imaging.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Ar(I) emission spectrum between 415 and 420 nm in first order. The weak doublet lines at 419.07 and 419.10 n m are clearly resolved owing to the 2 pixel image width (see inset for the 415.86 n m line) of the 10 μ m entrance slit.

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