Abstract

In optical quantum information technology, a photon number resolving detector (PNRD) is the basic device for developing photonic quantum computers. The demands for the PNRD are high quantum efficiency and wide dynamic range. We have developed a charge integration photon detector (CIPD) with a quantum efficiency of 80% at telecom wavelengths. The repetition rate of the CIPD is as low as 40 Hz at present, but it can be applied for measurement of short pulses. We report the capability of the CIPD for multiphoton counting over 10 photons, its responsivity to the short pulses, and its high linearity using a binary intensity modulated short pulse (2 ns) train and simultaneous irradiation of two kinds of pulses.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Millburn, "A scheme for effective quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46-52 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Gottesman, A. Kitaev, and J. Preskill, "Encoding a qubit in an oscillator," Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. D. Bartlett and B. C. Sanders, "Universal continuous-variable quantum computation: requirement of optical non linearity for photon counting," Phys. Rev. A 65, 04234 (2002).
  4. M. Sasaki, K. Wakui, J. Mizuno, M. Fujiwara, and M. Akiba, "EPR beams and photon number detector: toward synthesizing optional nonlinearity," in Quantum Commununication, Measurement and Computing, S. M. Barnett, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, P. Ohberg, and O. Hirota, eds., 734 (AIP, New York, 2004); e-print quant-ph/0601058.
  5. S. Ghose and B. C. Sanders, "Non-Gaussian states for continuous variable quantum computation via Gaussian maps," Quantum Phys. , quant-ph/0606026 (2006).
  6. M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, G. Brida, M. Bondani, G. Zambra, A. Adreoni, A. R. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, "Measuring the photon distribution with on/off photodetectors," Laser Phys. 16, 385-392 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct loss-tolerant characterization of nonclassical photon statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, "Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113602 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. E. Schwall, "Performance of photon-number resolving transition-edge sensors with integrated 1550 nm resonant cavities," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 575-578 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Multiphoton discrimination at telecom wavelength with charge integration photon detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. , 86, 111119 (2005).
  11. M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Photon-number-resolving detection at a telecommunications wavelength with a charge-integration photon detector," Opt. Lett. 31, 691-693 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Performance of GaAs JFET at a cryogenic temperature for application to readout circuit of high-impedance detectors," IEEE Trans. Electr. Dev. 51, 2042-2047 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and M. Akiba, "Reduction method for low-frequency noise of GaAs junction field-effect transistor at a cryogenic temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1844-1846 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (4)

S. Ghose and B. C. Sanders, "Non-Gaussian states for continuous variable quantum computation via Gaussian maps," Quantum Phys. , quant-ph/0606026 (2006).

M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, G. Brida, M. Bondani, G. Zambra, A. Adreoni, A. R. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, "Measuring the photon distribution with on/off photodetectors," Laser Phys. 16, 385-392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct loss-tolerant characterization of nonclassical photon statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Photon-number-resolving detection at a telecommunications wavelength with a charge-integration photon detector," Opt. Lett. 31, 691-693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. E. Schwall, "Performance of photon-number resolving transition-edge sensors with integrated 1550 nm resonant cavities," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 575-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Multiphoton discrimination at telecom wavelength with charge integration photon detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. , 86, 111119 (2005).

2004 (2)

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, "Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Performance of GaAs JFET at a cryogenic temperature for application to readout circuit of high-impedance detectors," IEEE Trans. Electr. Dev. 51, 2042-2047 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and M. Akiba, "Reduction method for low-frequency noise of GaAs junction field-effect transistor at a cryogenic temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1844-1846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bartlett and B. C. Sanders, "Universal continuous-variable quantum computation: requirement of optical non linearity for photon counting," Phys. Rev. A 65, 04234 (2002).

2001 (2)

N. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Millburn, "A scheme for effective quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Gottesman, A. Kitaev, and J. Preskill, "Encoding a qubit in an oscillator," Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Achilles, D.

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct loss-tolerant characterization of nonclassical photon statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adreoni, A.

M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, G. Brida, M. Bondani, G. Zambra, A. Adreoni, A. R. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, "Measuring the photon distribution with on/off photodetectors," Laser Phys. 16, 385-392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, M.

M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and M. Akiba, "Reduction method for low-frequency noise of GaAs junction field-effect transistor at a cryogenic temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1844-1846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, K. Wakui, J. Mizuno, M. Fujiwara, and M. Akiba, "EPR beams and photon number detector: toward synthesizing optional nonlinearity," in Quantum Commununication, Measurement and Computing, S. M. Barnett, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, P. Ohberg, and O. Hirota, eds., 734 (AIP, New York, 2004); e-print quant-ph/0601058.

Bartlett, S. D.

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, "Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bartlett and B. C. Sanders, "Universal continuous-variable quantum computation: requirement of optical non linearity for photon counting," Phys. Rev. A 65, 04234 (2002).

Bondani, M.

M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, G. Brida, M. Bondani, G. Zambra, A. Adreoni, A. R. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, "Measuring the photon distribution with on/off photodetectors," Laser Phys. 16, 385-392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brida, G.

M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, G. Brida, M. Bondani, G. Zambra, A. Adreoni, A. R. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, "Measuring the photon distribution with on/off photodetectors," Laser Phys. 16, 385-392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, "Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Photon-number-resolving detection at a telecommunications wavelength with a charge-integration photon detector," Opt. Lett. 31, 691-693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Multiphoton discrimination at telecom wavelength with charge integration photon detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. , 86, 111119 (2005).

M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Performance of GaAs JFET at a cryogenic temperature for application to readout circuit of high-impedance detectors," IEEE Trans. Electr. Dev. 51, 2042-2047 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and M. Akiba, "Reduction method for low-frequency noise of GaAs junction field-effect transistor at a cryogenic temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1844-1846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, K. Wakui, J. Mizuno, M. Fujiwara, and M. Akiba, "EPR beams and photon number detector: toward synthesizing optional nonlinearity," in Quantum Commununication, Measurement and Computing, S. M. Barnett, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, P. Ohberg, and O. Hirota, eds., 734 (AIP, New York, 2004); e-print quant-ph/0601058.

Genovese, M.

M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, G. Brida, M. Bondani, G. Zambra, A. Adreoni, A. R. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, "Measuring the photon distribution with on/off photodetectors," Laser Phys. 16, 385-392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghose, S.

S. Ghose and B. C. Sanders, "Non-Gaussian states for continuous variable quantum computation via Gaussian maps," Quantum Phys. , quant-ph/0606026 (2006).

Gottesman, D.

D. Gottesman, A. Kitaev, and J. Preskill, "Encoding a qubit in an oscillator," Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gramegna, M.

M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, G. Brida, M. Bondani, G. Zambra, A. Adreoni, A. R. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, "Measuring the photon distribution with on/off photodetectors," Laser Phys. 16, 385-392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kitaev, A.

D. Gottesman, A. Kitaev, and J. Preskill, "Encoding a qubit in an oscillator," Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knill, N.

N. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Millburn, "A scheme for effective quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laflamme, R.

N. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Millburn, "A scheme for effective quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lita, A. E.

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. E. Schwall, "Performance of photon-number resolving transition-edge sensors with integrated 1550 nm resonant cavities," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 575-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Millburn, G. J.

N. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Millburn, "A scheme for effective quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. J.

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. E. Schwall, "Performance of photon-number resolving transition-edge sensors with integrated 1550 nm resonant cavities," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 575-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, J.

M. Sasaki, K. Wakui, J. Mizuno, M. Fujiwara, and M. Akiba, "EPR beams and photon number detector: toward synthesizing optional nonlinearity," in Quantum Commununication, Measurement and Computing, S. M. Barnett, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, P. Ohberg, and O. Hirota, eds., 734 (AIP, New York, 2004); e-print quant-ph/0601058.

Nam, S.

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. E. Schwall, "Performance of photon-number resolving transition-edge sensors with integrated 1550 nm resonant cavities," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 575-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paris, M. G. A.

M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, G. Brida, M. Bondani, G. Zambra, A. Adreoni, A. R. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, "Measuring the photon distribution with on/off photodetectors," Laser Phys. 16, 385-392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Preskill, J.

D. Gottesman, A. Kitaev, and J. Preskill, "Encoding a qubit in an oscillator," Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, D.

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. E. Schwall, "Performance of photon-number resolving transition-edge sensors with integrated 1550 nm resonant cavities," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 575-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, A. R.

M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, G. Brida, M. Bondani, G. Zambra, A. Adreoni, A. R. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, "Measuring the photon distribution with on/off photodetectors," Laser Phys. 16, 385-392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, B. C.

S. Ghose and B. C. Sanders, "Non-Gaussian states for continuous variable quantum computation via Gaussian maps," Quantum Phys. , quant-ph/0606026 (2006).

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, "Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bartlett and B. C. Sanders, "Universal continuous-variable quantum computation: requirement of optical non linearity for photon counting," Phys. Rev. A 65, 04234 (2002).

Sasaki, M.

M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Photon-number-resolving detection at a telecommunications wavelength with a charge-integration photon detector," Opt. Lett. 31, 691-693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Multiphoton discrimination at telecom wavelength with charge integration photon detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. , 86, 111119 (2005).

M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Performance of GaAs JFET at a cryogenic temperature for application to readout circuit of high-impedance detectors," IEEE Trans. Electr. Dev. 51, 2042-2047 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and M. Akiba, "Reduction method for low-frequency noise of GaAs junction field-effect transistor at a cryogenic temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1844-1846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, K. Wakui, J. Mizuno, M. Fujiwara, and M. Akiba, "EPR beams and photon number detector: toward synthesizing optional nonlinearity," in Quantum Commununication, Measurement and Computing, S. M. Barnett, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, P. Ohberg, and O. Hirota, eds., 734 (AIP, New York, 2004); e-print quant-ph/0601058.

Schwall, R. E.

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. E. Schwall, "Performance of photon-number resolving transition-edge sensors with integrated 1550 nm resonant cavities," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 575-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silberhorn, C.

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct loss-tolerant characterization of nonclassical photon statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, "Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wakui, K.

M. Sasaki, K. Wakui, J. Mizuno, M. Fujiwara, and M. Akiba, "EPR beams and photon number detector: toward synthesizing optional nonlinearity," in Quantum Commununication, Measurement and Computing, S. M. Barnett, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, P. Ohberg, and O. Hirota, eds., 734 (AIP, New York, 2004); e-print quant-ph/0601058.

Walmsley, I. A.

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct loss-tolerant characterization of nonclassical photon statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, "Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zambra, G.

M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, G. Brida, M. Bondani, G. Zambra, A. Adreoni, A. R. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, "Measuring the photon distribution with on/off photodetectors," Laser Phys. 16, 385-392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Multiphoton discrimination at telecom wavelength with charge integration photon detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. , 86, 111119 (2005).

M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and M. Akiba, "Reduction method for low-frequency noise of GaAs junction field-effect transistor at a cryogenic temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1844-1846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (1)

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. E. Schwall, "Performance of photon-number resolving transition-edge sensors with integrated 1550 nm resonant cavities," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 575-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electr. Dev. (1)

M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Performance of GaAs JFET at a cryogenic temperature for application to readout circuit of high-impedance detectors," IEEE Trans. Electr. Dev. 51, 2042-2047 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, G. Brida, M. Bondani, G. Zambra, A. Adreoni, A. R. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, "Measuring the photon distribution with on/off photodetectors," Laser Phys. 16, 385-392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Millburn, "A scheme for effective quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, "Photon-number-resolving detection at a telecommunications wavelength with a charge-integration photon detector," Opt. Lett. 31, 691-693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. Gottesman, A. Kitaev, and J. Preskill, "Encoding a qubit in an oscillator," Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. D. Bartlett and B. C. Sanders, "Universal continuous-variable quantum computation: requirement of optical non linearity for photon counting," Phys. Rev. A 65, 04234 (2002).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct loss-tolerant characterization of nonclassical photon statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Waks, E. Diamanti, B. C. Sanders, S. D. Bartlett, and Y. Yamamoto, "Direct observation of nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Phys. (1)

S. Ghose and B. C. Sanders, "Non-Gaussian states for continuous variable quantum computation via Gaussian maps," Quantum Phys. , quant-ph/0606026 (2006).

Other (1)

M. Sasaki, K. Wakui, J. Mizuno, M. Fujiwara, and M. Akiba, "EPR beams and photon number detector: toward synthesizing optional nonlinearity," in Quantum Commununication, Measurement and Computing, S. M. Barnett, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, P. Ohberg, and O. Hirota, eds., 734 (AIP, New York, 2004); e-print quant-ph/0601058.

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