Abstract

A Raman shifter is optimized for generating high-energy laser pulses at a 1.54μm wavelength. A forward-scattering design is described, including details of the multiple pass and nonfocused optical design, Stokes injection seeding, and internal gas recirculation. First-Stokes conversion efficiencies up to 43%—equivalent to 62% photon conversion efficiency—were measured. Experimental results show output average power in excess of 17.5 W, pulse energies of 350  mJ at 50  Hz, with good beam quality (M2<6). Narrow bandwidth and tunable output is produced when pumping with a single longitudinal mode Nd:YAG laser and seeding the process with a Stokes wavelength narrowband laser diode.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (1)

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. Maroni, D. Papageorgopoulos, A. Ruf, R. D. Beck, and T. R. Rizzo, "Efficient stimulated Raman pumping for quantum state resolved surface reactivity measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 054103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. M. Spuler and S. Mayor, "Scanning eye-safe elastic backscatter lidar at 1.54 microns," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 696-703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hua, J. Leng, H. Yang, G. Sha, and C. Zhang, "Highly efficient Raman conversion on O2 pumped by a seeded narrow band second-harmonic Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 525-530 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Line centers, pressure shift, and pressure broadening of 1530-1560 nm hydrogen cyanide wavelength calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1749-1756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

1996 (2)

J. G. Wessell, K. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, "Competition between spontaneous scattering and stimulated scattering in an injection-seeded Raman amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 53, 1854-1860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Roy and P. Mathieu, "Comparison of Raman and degenerated optical parameteric oscillators for a high-energy and high-repetition-rate eye-safe laser," Opt. Eng. 35, 3579-3584 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, "A powerful eyesafe infrared aerosol lidar: application of stimulated Raman backscattering of 1.06 micron radiation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3324-3331 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Kazzaz, S. Ruschin, I. Shoshan, and G. Ravnitsky, "Stimulated Raman scattering in methane--experimental optimization and numerical model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 3017-3024 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. R. Battle, J. G. Wessel, and J. L. Carlsten, "Gain-guiding effects in an amplifier with focused gain," Phys. Rev. A 48, 707-716 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

K. Sassen, "The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Stultz, D. E. Nieuwsma, and E. Gregor, "Eyesafe high pulse rate laser progress at hughes," in Eyesafe Lasers: Componets, Systems, and Applications,Proc. SPIE 1419, 64-74 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, "Stimulated Raman scattering in the visible with a multipass cell," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1741-1746 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Patterson, D. W. Roberts, and G. G. Gimmestad, "Initial measurements using a 1.54 micron eyesafe Raman shifted lidar," Appl. Opt. 28, 4978-4981 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, "Quantum fluctuations in the stimulated-Raman-scattering linewidth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 66-69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

D. J. Brink, H. P. Burger, T. N. de Kock, J. A. Strauss, and D. R. Preussler, "Importance of focusing geometry with stimulated Raman scattering of Nd:YAG laser light in methane," J. Phys. D 19, 1421-1427 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Shaw, J. P. Partanen, Y. Owadano, I. N. Ross, E. Hodgson, C. B. Edwards, and F. O'Neill, "High-power forward Raman amplifiers employing low-pressure gases in light guides. II. Experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1466-1475 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. G. Raymer and J. Mostowski, "Stimulated Raman scattering: unified treatment of spontaneous initiation and spatial propagation," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1980-1992 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

C. S. Wang, "Theory of Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. 182, 482-494 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Argenta, E.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aronian, B.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baird, W.

N. A. Kurnit, R. F. Harrison, R. R. Karl, Jr., J. P. Brucker, J. Busse, W. K. Grace, O. G. Peterson, W. Baird, and W. S. Hungate, "Generation of 1.54 micron radiation with application to an eye-safe laser lidar," in Proceedings of the International Conference on LASERS '97, S. Press, ed. (McLean, 1998), pp. 608-610.

Balsley, B.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Battle, P. R.

P. R. Battle, J. G. Wessel, and J. L. Carlsten, "Gain-guiding effects in an amplifier with focused gain," Phys. Rev. A 48, 707-716 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, R. D.

P. Maroni, D. Papageorgopoulos, A. Ruf, R. D. Beck, and T. R. Rizzo, "Efficient stimulated Raman pumping for quantum state resolved surface reactivity measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 054103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benda, P.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bösenberg, J.

J. Bösenberg, "Differential-absorption lidar for water vapor and temperature profiling," in Lidar, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 213-239.
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brink, D. J.

D. J. Brink, H. P. Burger, T. N. de Kock, J. A. Strauss, and D. R. Preussler, "Importance of focusing geometry with stimulated Raman scattering of Nd:YAG laser light in methane," J. Phys. D 19, 1421-1427 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brucker, J. P.

N. A. Kurnit, R. F. Harrison, R. R. Karl, Jr., J. P. Brucker, J. Busse, W. K. Grace, O. G. Peterson, W. Baird, and W. S. Hungate, "Generation of 1.54 micron radiation with application to an eye-safe laser lidar," in Proceedings of the International Conference on LASERS '97, S. Press, ed. (McLean, 1998), pp. 608-610.

Bufton, J. L.

Burger, H. P.

D. J. Brink, H. P. Burger, T. N. de Kock, J. A. Strauss, and D. R. Preussler, "Importance of focusing geometry with stimulated Raman scattering of Nd:YAG laser light in methane," J. Phys. D 19, 1421-1427 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Busse, J.

N. A. Kurnit, R. F. Harrison, R. R. Karl, Jr., J. P. Brucker, J. Busse, W. K. Grace, O. G. Peterson, W. Baird, and W. S. Hungate, "Generation of 1.54 micron radiation with application to an eye-safe laser lidar," in Proceedings of the International Conference on LASERS '97, S. Press, ed. (McLean, 1998), pp. 608-610.

Calpini, B.

Carlsten, J. L.

J. G. Wessell, K. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, "Competition between spontaneous scattering and stimulated scattering in an injection-seeded Raman amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 53, 1854-1860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Battle, J. G. Wessel, and J. L. Carlsten, "Gain-guiding effects in an amplifier with focused gain," Phys. Rev. A 48, 707-716 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, "Stimulated Raman scattering in the visible with a multipass cell," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1741-1746 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, "Quantum fluctuations in the stimulated-Raman-scattering linewidth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 66-69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carnuth, W.

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, "A powerful eyesafe infrared aerosol lidar: application of stimulated Raman backscattering of 1.06 micron radiation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3324-3331 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carter, R.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cavanaugh, J. F.

Chudamani, S.

Clark, P. A.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clawson, K.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Copeland, J.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crook, A.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Kock, T. N.

D. J. Brink, H. P. Burger, T. N. de Kock, J. A. Strauss, and D. R. Preussler, "Importance of focusing geometry with stimulated Raman scattering of Nd:YAG laser light in methane," J. Phys. D 19, 1421-1427 (1986).
[CrossRef]

de Schoulepnikoff, L.

Edwards, C. B.

Eichinger, W. E.

V. A. Kovalev and W. E. Eichinger, Elastic Lidar (Wiley, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

E. W. Eloranta, "High spectral resolution lidar," in Lidar, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 143-163.
[CrossRef]

Frehlich, R.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, S. L.

Gimmestad, G. G.

E. M. Patterson, D. W. Roberts, and G. G. Gimmestad, "Initial measurements using a 1.54 micron eyesafe Raman shifted lidar," Appl. Opt. 28, 4978-4981 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Gimmestad, "Differential-absorption lidar for ozone and industrial emissions," in Lidar, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 187-212.
[CrossRef]

Grace, W. K.

N. A. Kurnit, R. F. Harrison, R. R. Karl, Jr., J. P. Brucker, J. Busse, W. K. Grace, O. G. Peterson, W. Baird, and W. S. Hungate, "Generation of 1.54 micron radiation with application to an eye-safe laser lidar," in Proceedings of the International Conference on LASERS '97, S. Press, ed. (McLean, 1998), pp. 608-610.

Gregor, E.

R. Stultz, D. E. Nieuwsma, and E. Gregor, "Eyesafe high pulse rate laser progress at hughes," in Eyesafe Lasers: Componets, Systems, and Applications,Proc. SPIE 1419, 64-74 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, R. F.

N. A. Kurnit, R. F. Harrison, R. R. Karl, Jr., J. P. Brucker, J. Busse, W. K. Grace, O. G. Peterson, W. Baird, and W. S. Hungate, "Generation of 1.54 micron radiation with application to an eye-safe laser lidar," in Proceedings of the International Conference on LASERS '97, S. Press, ed. (McLean, 1998), pp. 608-610.

Hodgson, E.

Hua, X.

X. Hua, J. Leng, H. Yang, G. Sha, and C. Zhang, "Highly efficient Raman conversion on O2 pumped by a seeded narrow band second-harmonic Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 525-530 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hungate, W. S.

N. A. Kurnit, R. F. Harrison, R. R. Karl, Jr., J. P. Brucker, J. Busse, W. K. Grace, O. G. Peterson, W. Baird, and W. S. Hungate, "Generation of 1.54 micron radiation with application to an eye-safe laser lidar," in Proceedings of the International Conference on LASERS '97, S. Press, ed. (McLean, 1998), pp. 608-610.

Jensen, M. L.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karl, R. R.

N. A. Kurnit, R. F. Harrison, R. R. Karl, Jr., J. P. Brucker, J. Busse, W. K. Grace, O. G. Peterson, W. Baird, and W. S. Hungate, "Generation of 1.54 micron radiation with application to an eye-safe laser lidar," in Proceedings of the International Conference on LASERS '97, S. Press, ed. (McLean, 1998), pp. 608-610.

Kazzaz, A.

A. Kazzaz, S. Ruschin, I. Shoshan, and G. Ravnitsky, "Stimulated Raman scattering in methane--experimental optimization and numerical model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 3017-3024 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Knievel, J.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kovalev, V. A.

V. A. Kovalev and W. E. Eichinger, Elastic Lidar (Wiley, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurnit, N. A.

N. A. Kurnit, R. F. Harrison, R. R. Karl, Jr., J. P. Brucker, J. Busse, W. K. Grace, O. G. Peterson, W. Baird, and W. S. Hungate, "Generation of 1.54 micron radiation with application to an eye-safe laser lidar," in Proceedings of the International Conference on LASERS '97, S. Press, ed. (McLean, 1998), pp. 608-610.

Leng, J.

X. Hua, J. Leng, H. Yang, G. Sha, and C. Zhang, "Highly efficient Raman conversion on O2 pumped by a seeded narrow band second-harmonic Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 525-530 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, D. C.

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, "Stimulated Raman scattering in the visible with a multipass cell," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1741-1746 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, "Quantum fluctuations in the stimulated-Raman-scattering linewidth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 66-69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Maroni, P.

P. Maroni, D. Papageorgopoulos, A. Ruf, R. D. Beck, and T. R. Rizzo, "Efficient stimulated Raman pumping for quantum state resolved surface reactivity measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 054103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mathieu, P.

G. Roy and P. Mathieu, "Comparison of Raman and degenerated optical parameteric oscillators for a high-energy and high-repetition-rate eye-safe laser," Opt. Eng. 35, 3579-3584 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mayor, S.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spuler and S. Mayor, "Scanning eye-safe elastic backscatter lidar at 1.54 microns," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 696-703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mayor, S. D.

S. D. Mayor and S. M. Spuler, "Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar," Appl. Opt. 43, 3915-3924 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, and B. M. Morley, "Scanning eye-safe depolarization lidar at 1.54 microns and potential usefulness in bioaerosol plume detection," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring IV (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, 2005).

Meillier, Y.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitev, V.

Morley, B.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morley, B. M.

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, and B. M. Morley, "Scanning eye-safe depolarization lidar at 1.54 microns and potential usefulness in bioaerosol plume detection," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring IV (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, 2005).

Mostowski, J.

M. G. Raymer and J. Mostowski, "Stimulated Raman scattering: unified treatment of spontaneous initiation and spatial propagation," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1980-1992 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nieuwsma, D. E.

R. Stultz, D. E. Nieuwsma, and E. Gregor, "Eyesafe high pulse rate laser progress at hughes," in Eyesafe Lasers: Componets, Systems, and Applications,Proc. SPIE 1419, 64-74 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O'Neill, F.

Owadano, Y.

Papageorgopoulos, D.

P. Maroni, D. Papageorgopoulos, A. Ruf, R. D. Beck, and T. R. Rizzo, "Efficient stimulated Raman pumping for quantum state resolved surface reactivity measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 054103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Partanen, J. P.

Patterson, E. M.

Peterson, O. G.

N. A. Kurnit, R. F. Harrison, R. R. Karl, Jr., J. P. Brucker, J. Busse, W. K. Grace, O. G. Peterson, W. Baird, and W. S. Hungate, "Generation of 1.54 micron radiation with application to an eye-safe laser lidar," in Proceedings of the International Conference on LASERS '97, S. Press, ed. (McLean, 1998), pp. 608-610.

Preussler, D. R.

D. J. Brink, H. P. Burger, T. N. de Kock, J. A. Strauss, and D. R. Preussler, "Importance of focusing geometry with stimulated Raman scattering of Nd:YAG laser light in methane," J. Phys. D 19, 1421-1427 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ravnitsky, G.

A. Kazzaz, S. Ruschin, I. Shoshan, and G. Ravnitsky, "Stimulated Raman scattering in methane--experimental optimization and numerical model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 3017-3024 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Raymer, M. G.

M. G. Raymer and J. Mostowski, "Stimulated Raman scattering: unified treatment of spontaneous initiation and spatial propagation," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1980-1992 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Repasky, K.

J. G. Wessell, K. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, "Competition between spontaneous scattering and stimulated scattering in an injection-seeded Raman amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 53, 1854-1860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, T. R.

P. Maroni, D. Papageorgopoulos, A. Ruf, R. D. Beck, and T. R. Rizzo, "Efficient stimulated Raman pumping for quantum state resolved surface reactivity measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 054103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. W.

Ross, I. N.

Roy, G.

G. Roy and P. Mathieu, "Comparison of Raman and degenerated optical parameteric oscillators for a high-energy and high-repetition-rate eye-safe laser," Opt. Eng. 35, 3579-3584 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ruf, A.

P. Maroni, D. Papageorgopoulos, A. Ruf, R. D. Beck, and T. R. Rizzo, "Efficient stimulated Raman pumping for quantum state resolved surface reactivity measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 054103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ruschin, S.

A. Kazzaz, S. Ruschin, I. Shoshan, and G. Ravnitsky, "Stimulated Raman scattering in methane--experimental optimization and numerical model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 3017-3024 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen, "The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schoulepnikoff, L.

L. Schoulepnikoff and V. Mitev, "High-gain single pass stimulated Raman scattering and four-wave mixing in a focused beam geometry: a numerical study," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 277-302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sha, G.

X. Hua, J. Leng, H. Yang, G. Sha, and C. Zhang, "Highly efficient Raman conversion on O2 pumped by a seeded narrow band second-harmonic Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 525-530 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharman, R.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, M. J.

Shoshan, I.

A. Kazzaz, S. Ruschin, I. Shoshan, and G. Ravnitsky, "Stimulated Raman scattering in methane--experimental optimization and numerical model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 3017-3024 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Simeonov, V.

Spinhirne, J. D.

Spuler, S.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spuler, S. M.

S. M. Spuler and S. Mayor, "Scanning eye-safe elastic backscatter lidar at 1.54 microns," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 696-703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mayor and S. M. Spuler, "Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar," Appl. Opt. 43, 3915-3924 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, and B. M. Morley, "Scanning eye-safe depolarization lidar at 1.54 microns and potential usefulness in bioaerosol plume detection," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring IV (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, 2005).

Storwold, D.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strauss, J. A.

D. J. Brink, H. P. Burger, T. N. de Kock, J. A. Strauss, and D. R. Preussler, "Importance of focusing geometry with stimulated Raman scattering of Nd:YAG laser light in methane," J. Phys. D 19, 1421-1427 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stultz, R.

R. Stultz, D. E. Nieuwsma, and E. Gregor, "Eyesafe high pulse rate laser progress at hughes," in Eyesafe Lasers: Componets, Systems, and Applications,Proc. SPIE 1419, 64-74 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

Swanson, R. C.

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, "Stimulated Raman scattering in the visible with a multipass cell," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1741-1746 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, "Quantum fluctuations in the stimulated-Raman-scattering linewidth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 66-69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Swerdlin, S.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, "A powerful eyesafe infrared aerosol lidar: application of stimulated Raman backscattering of 1.06 micron radiation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3324-3331 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van de Bergh, H.

van den Bergh, H.

Wang, C. S.

C. S. Wang, "Theory of Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. 182, 482-494 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Warner, T.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weil, J.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wessel, J. G.

P. R. Battle, J. G. Wessel, and J. L. Carlsten, "Gain-guiding effects in an amplifier with focused gain," Phys. Rev. A 48, 707-716 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wessell, J. G.

J. G. Wessell, K. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, "Competition between spontaneous scattering and stimulated scattering in an injection-seeded Raman amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 53, 1854-1860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

X. Hua, J. Leng, H. Yang, G. Sha, and C. Zhang, "Highly efficient Raman conversion on O2 pumped by a seeded narrow band second-harmonic Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 525-530 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yates, A.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

X. Hua, J. Leng, H. Yang, G. Sha, and C. Zhang, "Highly efficient Raman conversion on O2 pumped by a seeded narrow band second-harmonic Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 525-530 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

X. Hua, J. Leng, H. Yang, G. Sha, and C. Zhang, "Highly efficient Raman conversion on O2 pumped by a seeded narrow band second-harmonic Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 525-530 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. (1)

T. Warner, P. Benda, S. Swerdlin, J. Knievel, E. Argenta, B. Aronian, B. Balsley, J. Bowers, R. Carter, P. A. Clark, K. Clawson, J. Copeland, A. Crook, R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Liu, S. Mayor, Y. Meillier, B. Morley, R. Sharman, S. Spuler, D. Storwold, J. Sun, J. Weil, M. Xu, A. Yates, and Y. Zhang, "The pentagon shield program toward critical infrastructure protection," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 88, 167-176, doi: (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

K. Sassen, "The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Kazzaz, S. Ruschin, I. Shoshan, and G. Ravnitsky, "Stimulated Raman scattering in methane--experimental optimization and numerical model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 3017-3024 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, "Stimulated Raman scattering in the visible with a multipass cell," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1741-1746 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

S. M. Spuler and S. Mayor, "Scanning eye-safe elastic backscatter lidar at 1.54 microns," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 696-703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. D (1)

D. J. Brink, H. P. Burger, T. N. de Kock, J. A. Strauss, and D. R. Preussler, "Importance of focusing geometry with stimulated Raman scattering of Nd:YAG laser light in methane," J. Phys. D 19, 1421-1427 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Roy and P. Mathieu, "Comparison of Raman and degenerated optical parameteric oscillators for a high-energy and high-repetition-rate eye-safe laser," Opt. Eng. 35, 3579-3584 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. S. Wang, "Theory of Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. 182, 482-494 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. G. Raymer and J. Mostowski, "Stimulated Raman scattering: unified treatment of spontaneous initiation and spatial propagation," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1980-1992 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Battle, J. G. Wessel, and J. L. Carlsten, "Gain-guiding effects in an amplifier with focused gain," Phys. Rev. A 48, 707-716 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Wessell, K. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, "Competition between spontaneous scattering and stimulated scattering in an injection-seeded Raman amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 53, 1854-1860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. C. MacPherson, R. C. Swanson, and J. L. Carlsten, "Quantum fluctuations in the stimulated-Raman-scattering linewidth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 66-69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Stultz, D. E. Nieuwsma, and E. Gregor, "Eyesafe high pulse rate laser progress at hughes," in Eyesafe Lasers: Componets, Systems, and Applications,Proc. SPIE 1419, 64-74 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

L. Schoulepnikoff and V. Mitev, "High-gain single pass stimulated Raman scattering and four-wave mixing in a focused beam geometry: a numerical study," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 277-302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

P. Maroni, D. Papageorgopoulos, A. Ruf, R. D. Beck, and T. R. Rizzo, "Efficient stimulated Raman pumping for quantum state resolved surface reactivity measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 054103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Carnuth and T. Trickl, "A powerful eyesafe infrared aerosol lidar: application of stimulated Raman backscattering of 1.06 micron radiation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3324-3331 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, "Standard for the safe use of lasers," Tech. Rep. ANSI Z136.1-2000 (America American National Standards Institute, 2000).

V. A. Kovalev and W. E. Eichinger, Elastic Lidar (Wiley, 2004).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, and B. M. Morley, "Scanning eye-safe depolarization lidar at 1.54 microns and potential usefulness in bioaerosol plume detection," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring IV (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, 2005).

G. G. Gimmestad, "Differential-absorption lidar for ozone and industrial emissions," in Lidar, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 187-212.
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, "Differential-absorption lidar for water vapor and temperature profiling," in Lidar, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 213-239.
[CrossRef]

E. W. Eloranta, "High spectral resolution lidar," in Lidar, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 143-163.
[CrossRef]

N. A. Kurnit, R. F. Harrison, R. R. Karl, Jr., J. P. Brucker, J. Busse, W. K. Grace, O. G. Peterson, W. Baird, and W. S. Hungate, "Generation of 1.54 micron radiation with application to an eye-safe laser lidar," in Proceedings of the International Conference on LASERS '97, S. Press, ed. (McLean, 1998), pp. 608-610.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Maximum eye-safe energy versus wavelength as calculated by American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1-2000, for the conditions shown. The solid curve is calculated for a single shot exposure. The dashed curve is calculated for multiple shots, or stationary laser beam conditions, with exposure times based on the natural aversion time of the human eye: 0.25   s and 10   s for inside and outside the visible wavelength region, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Semitransparent solid model of the Raman cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental layout.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results of conversion efficiency (solid squares) and beam quality (open circles) as a function of pulse repetition frequency.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Experimental measurement of pump seed, Stokes seed, and Stokes output wavelengths over a 30 min period. The Stokes seed was tunable in 1 pm steps and was adjusted up 1 pm at approximately the 12   min point in the plot.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Transmission of the pulsed Stokes output scanning across a 5   Torr   H 12 CN , P(13) line (circles). A Voigt fit is shown as a solid black line. A reference curve (solid gray line, online version is red) was measured by scanning over the feature with a cw DFB laser.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ ν S ( p ) = 8.7 + 0.39 p ( GHz ) ,
Δ ν S , g n ( p ) = Δ ν S ( p ) ln ( 2 ) / ln ( E f / E i ) ,

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