Abstract

A Shack–Hartmann sensor nonintrusive measurement for the temperature profile in a heat-capacity neodymium-doped glass rod is proposed. This technique is possible because the optical path length of the rod changes with temperature linearly over a wide range. The temperature change of the solid-state laser rod is often recorded by using a thermocouple, thermal camera, or phase-shifting interferometer. Based on an analysis of temperature-induced changes in length and index of refraction, we can get the temperature profiles from the wavefront reconstructions in real time. The results suggest the Shack–Hartmann sensors could replace microbolometer-based thermal cameras and phase-shifting interferometers for dynamic temperature profiles in heat-capacity laser rods with particular advantages. A strange temperature chaos of the Nd:glass rod just after the pump cycle is discovered.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

C. T. Walters, J. L. Dulaney, B. E. Campbell, and H. M. Epstein, "Nd-glass burst laser with kW average power output," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 293-300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

W. Koechner, "Transient thermal profile in optically pumped laser rods," J. Appl. Phys. 7, 3162-3170 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1967 (1)

G. D. Baldwin and E. P. Riedel, "Measurements of dynamic optical distortion in Nd-doped glass laser rods," J. Appl. Phys. 7, 2726-2738 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, G.

G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).

Baldwin, G. D.

G. D. Baldwin and E. P. Riedel, "Measurements of dynamic optical distortion in Nd-doped glass laser rods," J. Appl. Phys. 7, 2726-2738 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Barker, C. E.

Bass, M.

Behrendt, W. C.

Bliss, E.

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bliss, E. S.

Browning, D. F.

Bruns, D.

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, B. E.

C. T. Walters, J. L. Dulaney, B. E. Campbell, and H. M. Epstein, "Nd-glass burst laser with kW average power output," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 293-300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. H.

Dailey, M. J.

Distel, J.

Dong, Jun

Dulaney, J. L.

C. T. Walters, J. L. Dulaney, B. E. Campbell, and H. M. Epstein, "Nd-glass burst laser with kW average power output," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 293-300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Epstein and J. L. Dulaney, "High average power, low temperature-gradient rod laser," in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Lasers '91 and Applications (IEEE, 1991), pp. 621-624.

Epstein, H. M.

C. T. Walters, J. L. Dulaney, B. E. Campbell, and H. M. Epstein, "Nd-glass burst laser with kW average power output," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 293-300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Epstein and J. L. Dulaney, "High average power, low temperature-gradient rod laser," in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Lasers '91 and Applications (IEEE, 1991), pp. 621-624.

Epstein, R. I.

Feldman, M.

J. A. Koch, R. W. Presta, R. A. Sacks, R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. J. Dailey, M. Feldman, A. A. Grey, F. R. Holdener, J. T. Salmon, L. G. Seppala, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, B. M. Van Wonterghem, W. T. Whistler, S. E. Winters, and B. W. Woods, "Experimental comparison of a Shack-Hartmann sensor and a phase-shifting interferometer for large-optics metrology applications," Appl. Opt. 39, 4540-4546 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

George, E. V.

G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).

Greenfield, S.

Grey, A.

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grey, A. A.

Hasselbeck, M. P.

Henesian, M.

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holdener, F. R.

Hoyt, C. W.

Kamenetsky, E. E.

Khazanov, E. A.

Koch, J.

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J. A.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, "Transient thermal profile in optically pumped laser rods," J. Appl. Phys. 7, 3162-3170 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner, "Pump-light distribution in the laser rod," in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999), pp. 388-389.

W. Koechner, "Thermo-optic effects and heat removal," in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999), pp. 406-468.

Kozhevatov, I. E.

Krupke, W. F.

G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).

LaFiandra, C.

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, J.

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morrow, H.

Murray, J. R.

Palashov, O. V.

Presta, R. W.

Rancourt, J. D.

Riedel, E. P.

G. D. Baldwin and E. P. Riedel, "Measurements of dynamic optical distortion in Nd-doped glass laser rods," J. Appl. Phys. 7, 2726-2738 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Rudenchik, E. A.

Sacks, R.

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sacks, R. A.

Salmon, J. T.

Salmon, T.

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seppala, L. G.

Shack, R. V.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Silin, D. E.

Smith, I. C.

Solovyov, A. A.

Sooy, W.

G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).

Speck, D. R.

Sutton, S. B.

G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).

Thiede, J.

Toeppen, J.

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toeppen, J. S.

Valencia, J.

Van Atta, L.

J. A. Koch, R. W. Presta, R. A. Sacks, R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. J. Dailey, M. Feldman, A. A. Grey, F. R. Holdener, J. T. Salmon, L. G. Seppala, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, B. M. Van Wonterghem, W. T. Whistler, S. E. Winters, and B. W. Woods, "Experimental comparison of a Shack-Hartmann sensor and a phase-shifting interferometer for large-optics metrology applications," Appl. Opt. 39, 4540-4546 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van Wonterghem, B. M.

Walters, C. T.

C. T. Walters, J. L. Dulaney, B. E. Campbell, and H. M. Epstein, "Nd-glass burst laser with kW average power output," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 293-300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Whistler, W. T.

Winters, S.

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Winters, S. E.

Woods, B.

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woods, B. W.

Zacharias, R.

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, R. A.

Zelenogorsky, V. V.

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. T. Walters, J. L. Dulaney, B. E. Campbell, and H. M. Epstein, "Nd-glass burst laser with kW average power output," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 293-300 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. D. Baldwin and E. P. Riedel, "Measurements of dynamic optical distortion in Nd-doped glass laser rods," J. Appl. Phys. 7, 2726-2738 (1967).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner, "Transient thermal profile in optically pumped laser rods," J. Appl. Phys. 7, 3162-3170 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Zacharias, E. Bliss, M. Feldman, A. Grey, M. Henesian, J. Koch, J. Lawson, R. Sacks, T. Salmon, J. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, S. Winters, B. Woods, C. LaFiandra, and D. Bruns, "The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 678-692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Lasers and laser-related equipment--Test methods for determination of the shape of a laser beam wavefront--Part 2: Shack-Hartmann sensors (International Organization for Standardization, 15367-2).

G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).

W. Koechner, "Thermo-optic effects and heat removal," in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999), pp. 406-468.

Nd doped phosphate glass, may be retrieved at http://www.laserglass.com.cn/english-page/index/product/Nd%20doped%20phosphate%20glass.htm.

H. M. Epstein and J. L. Dulaney, "High average power, low temperature-gradient rod laser," in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Lasers '91 and Applications (IEEE, 1991), pp. 621-624.

W. Koechner, "Pump-light distribution in the laser rod," in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999), pp. 388-389.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental diagram of the measurement of the dynamic temperature profile of the laser rod.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparing experimental results and calculations. The first row is the experimental results, and the second row is the theoretical calculations. The plots in the first, second, and third columns are the temperature profiles at 1 s, 30 s, and 10 min, respectively, after the pump cycle on the scale at the bottom of the column.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d L o p t i c a l = L ( d n d T + α ( n n 0 ) ) d T ,
T ( r , t ) Δ T = 2 n = 1 exp ( β n 2 τ ) J 0 ( β n r / r 0 ) ( A 2 + β n 2 ) J 0 2 ( β n ) × [ ( 1 + g ) β n J 1 ( β n ) 2 g J 2 ( β n ) ] ,
β n J 1 ( β n ) = A J 0 ( β n ) ,
Δ T = Q V c γ ( 1 + g / 2 ) ,

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