Abstract

Recent interest in small-scale flow devices has created the need for miniature instruments capable of measuring scalar flow properties with high spatial resolution. We present a miniature rainbow schlieren deflectometry system to nonintrusively obtain quantitative species concentration and temperature data across the whole field. The optical layout of the miniature system is similar to that of a macroscale system, although the field of view is smaller by an order of magnitude. Employing achromatic lenses and a CCD array together with a camera lens and extension tubes, we achieved spatial resolution down to 4  μm. Quantitative measurements required a careful evaluation of the optical components. The capability of the system is demonstrated by obtaining concentration measurements in a helium microjet (diameter, d=650  μm) and temperature and concentration measurements in a hydrogen jet diffusion flame from a microinjector (d=50  μm). Further, the flow field of underexpanded nitrogen jets is visualized to reveal details of the shock structures existing downstream of the jet exit.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Gad-el-Hak, "The fluid mechanics of microdevices: the Freeman scholar lecture," J. Fluids Eng. 121, 5-33 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Gravesen, J. Branebjerg, and O. S. Jensen, "Microfluidics: a review," J. Micromech. Microeng. 3, 168-182 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. G. Santiago, S. T. Wereley, C. D. Meinhart, D. J. Beebe, and R. J. Adrian, "A microparticle image velocimetry system," Exp. Fluids 25, 316-319 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. D. Meinhart and H. Zhang, "The flow structure inside a microfabricated inkjet printhead," J. Microelectromech. Sys. 9, 67-75 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Synnergren, L. Larsson, and T. S. Lundstrom, "Digital speckle photography: visualization of mesoflow through clustered fiber networks," Appl. Opt. 41, 1368-1373 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Buttner, J. Czarske, and H. Knuppertz, "Laser-Doppler velocity profile sensor with submicrometer spatial resolution that employs fiber optics and a diffractive lens," Appl. Opt. 44, 2274-2280 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Onofri, "Three interfering beams in laser Doppler velocimetry for particle position and microflow velocity profile measurements," Appl. Opt. 45, 3317-3324 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. D. Kihm, "Development and applications of advanced flow visualization techniques for microscale heat and mass transport," presented at the 4th Pacific Symposium on Flow Visualization and Image Processing, Chamonix, France, 3-5 June 2003.
  9. S. D. Scroggs and G. S. Settles, "An experimental study of supersonic microjets," Exp. Fluids 21, 401-409 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. A. Phalnikar, F. S. Alvi, and C. Shih, "Behavior of free and impinging supersonic microjets," presented at the 31st AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit, Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 June 2001, paper 2001-3047.
  11. P. S. Greenberg, R. B. Klimek, and D. R. Buchele, "Quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry," Appl. Opt. 34, 3810-3822 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Al-Ammar, A. K. Agrawal, S. R. Gollahalli, and D. Griffin, "Application of rainbow schlieren deflectometry for concentration measurements in an axisymmetric helium jet," Exp. Fluids 25, 89-98 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. S. Pasumarthi and A. K. Agrawal, "Schlieren measurements and analysis of concentration field in self-excited helium jets," Phy. Fluids 15, 3683-3692 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. K. Agrawal, N. Butuk, S. R. Gollahalli, and D. Griffin, "Three-dimensional rainbow schlieren tomography of temperature field in gas flows," Appl. Opt. 37, 479-485 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. W. Albers and A. K. Agrawal, "Schlieren analysis of flicker in an oscillating gas-jet diffusion flame," Combust. Flame 119, 84-94 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. A. Feikema, "Quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry as a temperature diagnostic for nonsooting spherical flames," Appl. Opt. 45, 4826-4832 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Wong and A. K. Agrawal, "Quantitative measurements in an unsteady flame using high-speed rainbow schlieren deflectometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1503-1510 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Xiao, I. K. Puri, and A. K. Agrawal, "Temperature measurements in steady axisymmetric partially premixed flames using rainbow schlieren deflectometry," Appl. Opt. 41, 1922-1928 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. F. Ibarreta and C. J. Sung, "Flame temperature and location measurements of sooting premixed Bunsen flames by rainbow schlieren deflectometry," Appl. Opt. 44, 3565-3575 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

2003 (1)

K. S. Pasumarthi and A. K. Agrawal, "Schlieren measurements and analysis of concentration field in self-excited helium jets," Phy. Fluids 15, 3683-3692 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

C. D. Meinhart and H. Zhang, "The flow structure inside a microfabricated inkjet printhead," J. Microelectromech. Sys. 9, 67-75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Gad-el-Hak, "The fluid mechanics of microdevices: the Freeman scholar lecture," J. Fluids Eng. 121, 5-33 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Albers and A. K. Agrawal, "Schlieren analysis of flicker in an oscillating gas-jet diffusion flame," Combust. Flame 119, 84-94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

J. G. Santiago, S. T. Wereley, C. D. Meinhart, D. J. Beebe, and R. J. Adrian, "A microparticle image velocimetry system," Exp. Fluids 25, 316-319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Al-Ammar, A. K. Agrawal, S. R. Gollahalli, and D. Griffin, "Application of rainbow schlieren deflectometry for concentration measurements in an axisymmetric helium jet," Exp. Fluids 25, 89-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Agrawal, N. Butuk, S. R. Gollahalli, and D. Griffin, "Three-dimensional rainbow schlieren tomography of temperature field in gas flows," Appl. Opt. 37, 479-485 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. D. Scroggs and G. S. Settles, "An experimental study of supersonic microjets," Exp. Fluids 21, 401-409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Gravesen, J. Branebjerg, and O. S. Jensen, "Microfluidics: a review," J. Micromech. Microeng. 3, 168-182 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adrian, R. J.

J. G. Santiago, S. T. Wereley, C. D. Meinhart, D. J. Beebe, and R. J. Adrian, "A microparticle image velocimetry system," Exp. Fluids 25, 316-319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A. K.

T. Wong and A. K. Agrawal, "Quantitative measurements in an unsteady flame using high-speed rainbow schlieren deflectometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1503-1510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Pasumarthi and A. K. Agrawal, "Schlieren measurements and analysis of concentration field in self-excited helium jets," Phy. Fluids 15, 3683-3692 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiao, I. K. Puri, and A. K. Agrawal, "Temperature measurements in steady axisymmetric partially premixed flames using rainbow schlieren deflectometry," Appl. Opt. 41, 1922-1928 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Albers and A. K. Agrawal, "Schlieren analysis of flicker in an oscillating gas-jet diffusion flame," Combust. Flame 119, 84-94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Agrawal, N. Butuk, S. R. Gollahalli, and D. Griffin, "Three-dimensional rainbow schlieren tomography of temperature field in gas flows," Appl. Opt. 37, 479-485 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Al-Ammar, A. K. Agrawal, S. R. Gollahalli, and D. Griffin, "Application of rainbow schlieren deflectometry for concentration measurements in an axisymmetric helium jet," Exp. Fluids 25, 89-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Al-Ammar, K.

K. Al-Ammar, A. K. Agrawal, S. R. Gollahalli, and D. Griffin, "Application of rainbow schlieren deflectometry for concentration measurements in an axisymmetric helium jet," Exp. Fluids 25, 89-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Albers, B. W.

B. W. Albers and A. K. Agrawal, "Schlieren analysis of flicker in an oscillating gas-jet diffusion flame," Combust. Flame 119, 84-94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alvi, F. S.

K. A. Phalnikar, F. S. Alvi, and C. Shih, "Behavior of free and impinging supersonic microjets," presented at the 31st AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit, Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 June 2001, paper 2001-3047.

Beebe, D. J.

J. G. Santiago, S. T. Wereley, C. D. Meinhart, D. J. Beebe, and R. J. Adrian, "A microparticle image velocimetry system," Exp. Fluids 25, 316-319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Branebjerg, J.

P. Gravesen, J. Branebjerg, and O. S. Jensen, "Microfluidics: a review," J. Micromech. Microeng. 3, 168-182 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buchele, D. R.

Buttner, L.

Butuk, N.

Czarske, J.

Feikema, D. A.

Gad-el-Hak, M.

M. Gad-el-Hak, "The fluid mechanics of microdevices: the Freeman scholar lecture," J. Fluids Eng. 121, 5-33 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gollahalli, S. R.

A. K. Agrawal, N. Butuk, S. R. Gollahalli, and D. Griffin, "Three-dimensional rainbow schlieren tomography of temperature field in gas flows," Appl. Opt. 37, 479-485 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Al-Ammar, A. K. Agrawal, S. R. Gollahalli, and D. Griffin, "Application of rainbow schlieren deflectometry for concentration measurements in an axisymmetric helium jet," Exp. Fluids 25, 89-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gravesen, P.

P. Gravesen, J. Branebjerg, and O. S. Jensen, "Microfluidics: a review," J. Micromech. Microeng. 3, 168-182 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, P. S.

Griffin, D.

A. K. Agrawal, N. Butuk, S. R. Gollahalli, and D. Griffin, "Three-dimensional rainbow schlieren tomography of temperature field in gas flows," Appl. Opt. 37, 479-485 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Al-Ammar, A. K. Agrawal, S. R. Gollahalli, and D. Griffin, "Application of rainbow schlieren deflectometry for concentration measurements in an axisymmetric helium jet," Exp. Fluids 25, 89-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ibarreta, A. F.

Jensen, O. S.

P. Gravesen, J. Branebjerg, and O. S. Jensen, "Microfluidics: a review," J. Micromech. Microeng. 3, 168-182 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, K. D.

K. D. Kihm, "Development and applications of advanced flow visualization techniques for microscale heat and mass transport," presented at the 4th Pacific Symposium on Flow Visualization and Image Processing, Chamonix, France, 3-5 June 2003.

Klimek, R. B.

Knuppertz, H.

Larsson, L.

Lundstrom, T. S.

Meinhart, C. D.

C. D. Meinhart and H. Zhang, "The flow structure inside a microfabricated inkjet printhead," J. Microelectromech. Sys. 9, 67-75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Santiago, S. T. Wereley, C. D. Meinhart, D. J. Beebe, and R. J. Adrian, "A microparticle image velocimetry system," Exp. Fluids 25, 316-319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Onofri, F.

Pasumarthi, K. S.

K. S. Pasumarthi and A. K. Agrawal, "Schlieren measurements and analysis of concentration field in self-excited helium jets," Phy. Fluids 15, 3683-3692 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phalnikar, K. A.

K. A. Phalnikar, F. S. Alvi, and C. Shih, "Behavior of free and impinging supersonic microjets," presented at the 31st AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit, Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 June 2001, paper 2001-3047.

Puri, I. K.

Santiago, J. G.

J. G. Santiago, S. T. Wereley, C. D. Meinhart, D. J. Beebe, and R. J. Adrian, "A microparticle image velocimetry system," Exp. Fluids 25, 316-319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scroggs, S. D.

S. D. Scroggs and G. S. Settles, "An experimental study of supersonic microjets," Exp. Fluids 21, 401-409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Settles, G. S.

S. D. Scroggs and G. S. Settles, "An experimental study of supersonic microjets," Exp. Fluids 21, 401-409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shih, C.

K. A. Phalnikar, F. S. Alvi, and C. Shih, "Behavior of free and impinging supersonic microjets," presented at the 31st AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit, Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 June 2001, paper 2001-3047.

Sung, C. J.

Synnergren, P.

Wereley, S. T.

J. G. Santiago, S. T. Wereley, C. D. Meinhart, D. J. Beebe, and R. J. Adrian, "A microparticle image velocimetry system," Exp. Fluids 25, 316-319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wong, T.

T. Wong and A. K. Agrawal, "Quantitative measurements in an unsteady flame using high-speed rainbow schlieren deflectometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1503-1510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

Zhang, H.

C. D. Meinhart and H. Zhang, "The flow structure inside a microfabricated inkjet printhead," J. Microelectromech. Sys. 9, 67-75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

P. S. Greenberg, R. B. Klimek, and D. R. Buchele, "Quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry," Appl. Opt. 34, 3810-3822 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Agrawal, N. Butuk, S. R. Gollahalli, and D. Griffin, "Three-dimensional rainbow schlieren tomography of temperature field in gas flows," Appl. Opt. 37, 479-485 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Synnergren, L. Larsson, and T. S. Lundstrom, "Digital speckle photography: visualization of mesoflow through clustered fiber networks," Appl. Opt. 41, 1368-1373 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, I. K. Puri, and A. K. Agrawal, "Temperature measurements in steady axisymmetric partially premixed flames using rainbow schlieren deflectometry," Appl. Opt. 41, 1922-1928 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Buttner, J. Czarske, and H. Knuppertz, "Laser-Doppler velocity profile sensor with submicrometer spatial resolution that employs fiber optics and a diffractive lens," Appl. Opt. 44, 2274-2280 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Ibarreta and C. J. Sung, "Flame temperature and location measurements of sooting premixed Bunsen flames by rainbow schlieren deflectometry," Appl. Opt. 44, 3565-3575 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Onofri, "Three interfering beams in laser Doppler velocimetry for particle position and microflow velocity profile measurements," Appl. Opt. 45, 3317-3324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Feikema, "Quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry as a temperature diagnostic for nonsooting spherical flames," Appl. Opt. 45, 4826-4832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Combust. Flame (1)

B. W. Albers and A. K. Agrawal, "Schlieren analysis of flicker in an oscillating gas-jet diffusion flame," Combust. Flame 119, 84-94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (3)

J. G. Santiago, S. T. Wereley, C. D. Meinhart, D. J. Beebe, and R. J. Adrian, "A microparticle image velocimetry system," Exp. Fluids 25, 316-319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Scroggs and G. S. Settles, "An experimental study of supersonic microjets," Exp. Fluids 21, 401-409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Al-Ammar, A. K. Agrawal, S. R. Gollahalli, and D. Griffin, "Application of rainbow schlieren deflectometry for concentration measurements in an axisymmetric helium jet," Exp. Fluids 25, 89-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluids Eng. (1)

M. Gad-el-Hak, "The fluid mechanics of microdevices: the Freeman scholar lecture," J. Fluids Eng. 121, 5-33 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Sys. (1)

C. D. Meinhart and H. Zhang, "The flow structure inside a microfabricated inkjet printhead," J. Microelectromech. Sys. 9, 67-75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

P. Gravesen, J. Branebjerg, and O. S. Jensen, "Microfluidics: a review," J. Micromech. Microeng. 3, 168-182 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. Wong and A. K. Agrawal, "Quantitative measurements in an unsteady flame using high-speed rainbow schlieren deflectometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1503-1510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phy. Fluids (1)

K. S. Pasumarthi and A. K. Agrawal, "Schlieren measurements and analysis of concentration field in self-excited helium jets," Phy. Fluids 15, 3683-3692 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. A. Phalnikar, F. S. Alvi, and C. Shih, "Behavior of free and impinging supersonic microjets," presented at the 31st AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit, Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 June 2001, paper 2001-3047.

K. D. Kihm, "Development and applications of advanced flow visualization techniques for microscale heat and mass transport," presented at the 4th Pacific Symposium on Flow Visualization and Image Processing, Chamonix, France, 3-5 June 2003.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the miniature schlieren apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Filter calibration curves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Optical components and injectors used for experiments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) Rainbow schlieren image and (b) hue contours for the helium jet, d = 650   μm , Re = 375 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Radial profiles of helium mole percentage, d = 650   μm , Re = 375 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contours of helium mole percentage, d = 650   μm , Re = 375 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) (a) Rainbow schlieren image and (b) hue contours for the hydrogen diffusion flame, d = 50   μm , Re = 410 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Radial profiles of (a) temperature distribution and (b) oxygen mole percentage, d = 50   μm , Re = 410 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Contours of (a) temperature distribution and (b) oxygen mole percentage, d = 50   μm , Re = 410 .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Schlieren images showing (a) formation of shock diamonds, d = 650   μm at 60 psi, (b) effect of supply pressure on shock cell structure, d = 650   μm , and (c) effect of supply pressure on shock cell structure, d = 300   μm .

Equations (4)

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d ( y ) = f 2 tan [ ε ( y ) ] f 2 ε ( y ) ,
δ ( r ) = 1 r r ε ( y ) ( y 2 r 2 )  d y ,
δ ( r i ) = δ ( i Δ r ) = j = i N D i j ε ( y i ) ,
δ = ρ i κ i Y i ,

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