Abstract

Color separation gratings (CSGs) are designed within the framework of the rigorous electromagnetic theory using a gradient method. The optimality of the scalar-theory-based solutions is estimated. The results of the experimental study of a CSG to separate three wavelengths are presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006 (1)

2005 (1)

L. Doskolovich, N. Kazanskiy, V. Soifer, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for wavelength division and focusing," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 917-926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L. Doskolovich, V. Soifer, N. Kazanskiy, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for multiwavelength demultiplexing and spatial focusing," in Proc. SPIE 5485, 98-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (3)

C. David, "Fabrication of stair-case profiles with high aspect ratios for blazed diffractive optical elements," Microelectron. Eng. 53, 677-680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Doskololovich and M. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for focusing different wavelengths," Opt. Mem. Neural Netw. 9, 13-23 (2000).

L. Doskolovich and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for wavelength demultiplexing and spatial focusing," J. Opt. A 2, 488-493 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1982 (1)

M. Moharam and T. Gaylord, "Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 1385-1392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Bengtsson, J.

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl and F. Wyrowski, "Digital holography-computer-generated holograms," in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1990), Vol. 28.
[CrossRef]

Caley, A.

Dammann, H.

David, C.

C. David, "Fabrication of stair-case profiles with high aspect ratios for blazed diffractive optical elements," Microelectron. Eng. 53, 677-680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Doskololovich, L.

L. Doskololovich and M. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for focusing different wavelengths," Opt. Mem. Neural Netw. 9, 13-23 (2000).

Doskolovich, L.

L. Doskolovich, N. Kazanskiy, V. Soifer, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for wavelength division and focusing," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 917-926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Doskolovich, V. Soifer, N. Kazanskiy, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for multiwavelength demultiplexing and spatial focusing," in Proc. SPIE 5485, 98-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Doskolovich and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for wavelength demultiplexing and spatial focusing," J. Opt. A 2, 488-493 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Soifer, V. Kotlyar, and L. Doskolovich, Iterative Methods for Diffractive Optical Elements Computation (Taylor & Francis, 1997).

Farn, M.

Gaylord, T.

Golub, M.

V. Soifer and M. Golub, Laser Beam Mode Selection by Computer Generated Holograms (CRC Press, 1994).

Grann, E.

Ichioka, Y.

Jefimovs, K.

K. Jefimovs, "Fabrication of surface relief diffractive optical elements and their applications," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Joensuu, Finland, 2003).

Kazanskiy, N.

L. Doskolovich, N. Kazanskiy, V. Soifer, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for wavelength division and focusing," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 917-926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Doskolovich, V. Soifer, N. Kazanskiy, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for multiwavelength demultiplexing and spatial focusing," in Proc. SPIE 5485, 98-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kotlyar, V.

V. A. Soifer, V. Kotlyar, and L. Doskolovich, Iterative Methods for Diffractive Optical Elements Computation (Taylor & Francis, 1997).

Kuittinen, M.

J. Turunen, M. Kuittinen, and F. Wyrowski, "Diffractive optics: electromagnetic approach," in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2000), Vol. 40.
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

W. Lee, "Computer-generated holograms: techniques and applications," in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1978), Vol. 16.
[CrossRef]

Levy, U.

Li, L.

Marom, E.

Mendlovich, D.

Moharam, M.

Noponen, E.

Ogura, Y.

Perlo, P.

L. Doskolovich, N. Kazanskiy, V. Soifer, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for wavelength division and focusing," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 917-926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Doskolovich, V. Soifer, N. Kazanskiy, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for multiwavelength demultiplexing and spatial focusing," in Proc. SPIE 5485, 98-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D.

Repetto, M.

L. Doskololovich and M. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for focusing different wavelengths," Opt. Mem. Neural Netw. 9, 13-23 (2000).

Repetto, P.

L. Doskolovich, N. Kazanskiy, V. Soifer, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for wavelength division and focusing," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 917-926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Doskolovich, V. Soifer, N. Kazanskiy, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for multiwavelength demultiplexing and spatial focusing," in Proc. SPIE 5485, 98-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Doskolovich and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for wavelength demultiplexing and spatial focusing," J. Opt. A 2, 488-493 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shirai, N.

Soifer, V.

L. Doskolovich, N. Kazanskiy, V. Soifer, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for wavelength division and focusing," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 917-926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Doskolovich, V. Soifer, N. Kazanskiy, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for multiwavelength demultiplexing and spatial focusing," in Proc. SPIE 5485, 98-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Soifer and M. Golub, Laser Beam Mode Selection by Computer Generated Holograms (CRC Press, 1994).

Soifer, V. A.

V. A. Soifer, V. Kotlyar, and L. Doskolovich, Iterative Methods for Diffractive Optical Elements Computation (Taylor & Francis, 1997).

V. A. Soifer, ed., Methods for Computer Design of Diffractive Optical Elements (Wiley, 2002).

Stern, M.

Taghizadeh, M.

Tanica, J.

Turunen, J.

E. Noponen, J. Turunen, and A. Vasara, "Parametric optimization of multilevel diffractive optical elements by electromagnetic theory," Appl. Opt. 31, 5910-5912 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Turunen, M. Kuittinen, and F. Wyrowski, "Diffractive optics: electromagnetic approach," in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2000), Vol. 40.
[CrossRef]

Vasara, A.

Wyrowski, F.

J. Turunen, M. Kuittinen, and F. Wyrowski, "Diffractive optics: electromagnetic approach," in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2000), Vol. 40.
[CrossRef]

O. Bryngdahl and F. Wyrowski, "Digital holography-computer-generated holograms," in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1990), Vol. 28.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

L. Doskolovich, N. Kazanskiy, V. Soifer, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for wavelength division and focusing," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 917-926 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

L. Doskolovich and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for wavelength demultiplexing and spatial focusing," J. Opt. A 2, 488-493 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

C. David, "Fabrication of stair-case profiles with high aspect ratios for blazed diffractive optical elements," Microelectron. Eng. 53, 677-680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mem. Neural Netw. (1)

L. Doskololovich and M. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for focusing different wavelengths," Opt. Mem. Neural Netw. 9, 13-23 (2000).

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Doskolovich, V. Soifer, N. Kazanskiy, P. Perlo, and P. Repetto, "Design of DOEs for multiwavelength demultiplexing and spatial focusing," in Proc. SPIE 5485, 98-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

J. Turunen, M. Kuittinen, and F. Wyrowski, "Diffractive optics: electromagnetic approach," in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2000), Vol. 40.
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, "Computer-generated holograms: techniques and applications," in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1978), Vol. 16.
[CrossRef]

V. A. Soifer, V. Kotlyar, and L. Doskolovich, Iterative Methods for Diffractive Optical Elements Computation (Taylor & Francis, 1997).

V. A. Soifer, ed., Methods for Computer Design of Diffractive Optical Elements (Wiley, 2002).

O. Bryngdahl and F. Wyrowski, "Digital holography-computer-generated holograms," in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1990), Vol. 28.
[CrossRef]

V. Soifer and M. Golub, Laser Beam Mode Selection by Computer Generated Holograms (CRC Press, 1994).

K. Jefimovs, "Fabrication of surface relief diffractive optical elements and their applications," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Joensuu, Finland, 2003).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffraction order intensities for the gratings designed using the gradient method (solid curves) and for CSG gratings at p = 1 , N = 5 (dotted curves) against the period value for TE [left plots (a), (c), (e)] and TM polarization [right plots (b), (d), (f)].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Profile of CSG (4) at p = 1 , N = 5 (dotted line), and gradient-method-based profile calculated at d = 10 λ 0 for TM polarization (solid line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Order intensities for the gratings in Fig. 2 for the designed wavelengths (  -  λ 1 ,  -  λ 0 , ×  -  λ + 1 ) ; (a) for grating (2), (b) for the gradient-method-based grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profile of CSG (4) at p = 1 , N = 5 (dotted line), and gradient-method-based profile calculated at d = 20 λ 0 for TM polarization (solid line).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Order intensities for the gratings in Fig. 4 for the designed wavelengths (  -  λ 1 ,  -  λ 0 , ×  -  λ + 1 ) ; (a) for grating (2), (b) for the gradient-method-based grating.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Profile of the CSG to separate wavelengths λ 1 = 1.064   μm , λ 0 = 0.514   μm , λ +1 = 0.633   μm ; (b) order intensities for nonpolarized light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) SEM images of the fabricated four-level profiles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Optical setup of the experiment with the CSG. L 1 , L 2 , L 3 , lasers; M 1 , M 1 , mirrors; K, beam-splitting cube; G, CSG; S, matted screen; and TV camera.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Three combined rays on the screen in the absence of the CSG, (b) results of the CSG operation (1- IR beam, 2- green beam, and 3- red beam).

Equations (5)

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ε ( x ) = i = 1 L j = 1 L [ I n j ( x ; λ i ) δ ( j i ) ] 2
x n = x n 1 t ε ( x ) ,
λ 0 , λ ± 1 = λ 0 N / ( N ± 1 )
h i = λ 0 i / ( n 0 1 ) , i = 0 ,   . . . , N 1 ,
I 0 = 1 , I + 1 = I 1 = Sinc 2 ( π / N ) .

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