Abstract

By measuring the adult human head during carotid endarterectomy, we investigate the depth sensitivity of two methods for deriving the absorption coefficient changes (Δμa) from time-resolved reflectance data to absorption changes in inhomogeneous media: (1) the curve-fitting method based on the diffusion equation (DE-fit method) and (2) the time-independent calculation based on the modified Lambert–Beer law (MLB method). Remarkable differences in the determined values of Δμa caused by clamping the external carotid artery and subsequently clamping the common carotid artery were observed between the methods. The DE-fit method was more sensitive to μa changes in cerebral tissues, whereas the MLB method was rather sensitive to μa changes in the extracerebral tissues. Our results indicated that the DE-fit was useful for monitoring the cerebral blood circulation and oxygenation during neurosurgical operations. In addition, the combined evaluation of μa changes with the DE-fit and MLB methods will provide us with more available information about the hemodynamic changes in the depth direction.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Zaccanti, D. Contini, M. Guriori, A. Ismaelli, H. Liszka, and A. Sassaroli, "Detectability of inhomogeneities within highly diffusing media," Proc. SPIE 2389, 755-762 (1995).
  2. M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Furutsu and Y. Yamada, "Diffusion approximation for a dissipative random medium and the applications," Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634-3640 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Zhang, M. Miwa, T. Urakami, Y. Yamashita, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Simple subtraction method for determining the mean path length traveled by photons in turbid media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37, 700-704 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Firbank, E. Okada, and D. T. Delpy, "A theoretical study of the signal contribution of regions of the adult head to near-infrared spectroscopy studies of visual evoked responses," Neuroimage 8, 69-78 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, C. Sato, and Y. Iguchi, "Re-evaluation of near-infrared light propagation in the adult human head: implications for functional near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064032 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Sato, Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, T. Yamaguchi, M. Seida, Y. Ohta, and Y. Yu, "Intraoperative monitoring of depth dependent hemoglobin concentration changes during CEA by time-resolved reflectance," in Biomedical Optics, 2006 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThG1.
    [PubMed]
  15. F. Fabbri, A. Sassaroli, M. E. Henry, and S. Fantini, "Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1183-1201 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and M. Essenpreis, "Influence of layered tissue architecture on estimates of tissue optical properties obtained from spatially resolved diffuse reflectometry," Appl. Opt. 37, 1958-1972 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, N. Dögnitz, R. Bays, G. Wagnières, and H. van den Bergh, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of two-layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 37, 779-791 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, "Improved solution of the steady-state and time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 246-254 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, "Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy," Med. Phys. 28, 1115-1124 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, "Evaluation of a near-infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head," Stroke 32, 2492-2500 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Kuroda, K. Houkin, H. Abe, Y. Hoshi, and M. Tamura, "Near-infrared monitoring of cerebral oxygenation state during carotid endarterectomy," Surg. Neurol. 45, 450-458 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, C. Sato, and Y. Iguchi, "Re-evaluation of near-infrared light propagation in the adult human head: implications for functional near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064032 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2002 (2)

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Hunter, M. S. Patterson, T. J. Farrell, and J. E. Hayward, "Haemoglobin oxygenation of a two-layer tissue-simulating phantom from time-resolved reflectance: effect of top layer thickness," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 193-208 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, "Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy," Med. Phys. 28, 1115-1124 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, "Evaluation of a near-infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head," Stroke 32, 2492-2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Oda, Y. Yamashita, T. Nakano, A. Suzuki, K. Shimizu, I. Hirano, F. Shimomura, E. Ohmae, T. Suzuki, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy system for tissue oxygenation monitor," Proc. SPIE 3579, 611-617 (1999).

1998 (4)

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, N. Dögnitz, R. Bays, G. Wagnières, and H. van den Bergh, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of two-layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 37, 779-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and M. Essenpreis, "Influence of layered tissue architecture on estimates of tissue optical properties obtained from spatially resolved diffuse reflectometry," Appl. Opt. 37, 1958-1972 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, M. Miwa, T. Urakami, Y. Yamashita, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Simple subtraction method for determining the mean path length traveled by photons in turbid media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37, 700-704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, E. Okada, and D. T. Delpy, "A theoretical study of the signal contribution of regions of the adult head to near-infrared spectroscopy studies of visual evoked responses," Neuroimage 8, 69-78 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

S. Kuroda, K. Houkin, H. Abe, Y. Hoshi, and M. Tamura, "Near-infrared monitoring of cerebral oxygenation state during carotid endarterectomy," Surg. Neurol. 45, 450-458 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, H. Liu, B. Chance, F. K. Tittel, and S. L. Jacques, "Time-resolved photon emission from layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 35, 719-728 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, "The influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zaccanti, D. Contini, M. Guriori, A. Ismaelli, H. Liszka, and A. Sassaroli, "Detectability of inhomogeneities within highly diffusing media," Proc. SPIE 2389, 755-762 (1995).

1994 (2)

1989 (1)

Abe, H.

S. Kuroda, K. Houkin, H. Abe, Y. Hoshi, and M. Tamura, "Near-infrared monitoring of cerebral oxygenation state during carotid endarterectomy," Surg. Neurol. 45, 450-458 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Rawi, P. G.

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, "Evaluation of a near-infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head," Stroke 32, 2492-2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassi, A.

Bays, R.

Chance, B.

Contini, D.

G. Zaccanti, D. Contini, M. Guriori, A. Ismaelli, H. Liszka, and A. Sassaroli, "Detectability of inhomogeneities within highly diffusing media," Proc. SPIE 2389, 755-762 (1995).

Cubeddu, R.

Del Bianco, S.

Delpy, D. T.

M. Firbank, E. Okada, and D. T. Delpy, "A theoretical study of the signal contribution of regions of the adult head to near-infrared spectroscopy studies of visual evoked responses," Neuroimage 8, 69-78 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dögnitz, N.

Essenpreis, M.

Fabbri, F.

F. Fabbri, A. Sassaroli, M. E. Henry, and S. Fantini, "Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1183-1201 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

F. Fabbri, A. Sassaroli, M. E. Henry, and S. Fantini, "Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1183-1201 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

R. J. Hunter, M. S. Patterson, T. J. Farrell, and J. E. Hayward, "Haemoglobin oxygenation of a two-layer tissue-simulating phantom from time-resolved reflectance: effect of top layer thickness," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 193-208 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and M. Essenpreis, "Influence of layered tissue architecture on estimates of tissue optical properties obtained from spatially resolved diffuse reflectometry," Appl. Opt. 37, 1958-1972 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feng, T.-C.

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, E. Okada, and D. T. Delpy, "A theoretical study of the signal contribution of regions of the adult head to near-infrared spectroscopy studies of visual evoked responses," Neuroimage 8, 69-78 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furutsu, K.

K. Furutsu and Y. Yamada, "Diffusion approximation for a dissipative random medium and the applications," Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634-3640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guriori, M.

G. Zaccanti, D. Contini, M. Guriori, A. Ismaelli, H. Liszka, and A. Sassaroli, "Detectability of inhomogeneities within highly diffusing media," Proc. SPIE 2389, 755-762 (1995).

Haskell, R. C.

Hayward, J. E.

R. J. Hunter, M. S. Patterson, T. J. Farrell, and J. E. Hayward, "Haemoglobin oxygenation of a two-layer tissue-simulating phantom from time-resolved reflectance: effect of top layer thickness," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 193-208 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, M. E.

F. Fabbri, A. Sassaroli, M. E. Henry, and S. Fantini, "Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1183-1201 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A. H.

A. H. Hielscher, H. Liu, B. Chance, F. K. Tittel, and S. L. Jacques, "Time-resolved photon emission from layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 35, 719-728 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, "The influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirano, I.

M. Oda, Y. Yamashita, T. Nakano, A. Suzuki, K. Shimizu, I. Hirano, F. Shimomura, E. Ohmae, T. Suzuki, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy system for tissue oxygenation monitor," Proc. SPIE 3579, 611-617 (1999).

Hoshi, Y.

Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, C. Sato, and Y. Iguchi, "Re-evaluation of near-infrared light propagation in the adult human head: implications for functional near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064032 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuroda, K. Houkin, H. Abe, Y. Hoshi, and M. Tamura, "Near-infrared monitoring of cerebral oxygenation state during carotid endarterectomy," Surg. Neurol. 45, 450-458 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sato, Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, T. Yamaguchi, M. Seida, Y. Ohta, and Y. Yu, "Intraoperative monitoring of depth dependent hemoglobin concentration changes during CEA by time-resolved reflectance," in Biomedical Optics, 2006 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThG1.
[PubMed]

Houkin, K.

S. Kuroda, K. Houkin, H. Abe, Y. Hoshi, and M. Tamura, "Near-infrared monitoring of cerebral oxygenation state during carotid endarterectomy," Surg. Neurol. 45, 450-458 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, R. J.

R. J. Hunter, M. S. Patterson, T. J. Farrell, and J. E. Hayward, "Haemoglobin oxygenation of a two-layer tissue-simulating phantom from time-resolved reflectance: effect of top layer thickness," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 193-208 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iguchi, Y.

Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, C. Sato, and Y. Iguchi, "Re-evaluation of near-infrared light propagation in the adult human head: implications for functional near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064032 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ismaelli, A.

G. Zaccanti, D. Contini, M. Guriori, A. Ismaelli, H. Liszka, and A. Sassaroli, "Detectability of inhomogeneities within highly diffusing media," Proc. SPIE 2389, 755-762 (1995).

Jacques, S. L.

A. H. Hielscher, H. Liu, B. Chance, F. K. Tittel, and S. L. Jacques, "Time-resolved photon emission from layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 35, 719-728 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, "The influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

Kirkpatrick, P. J.

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, "Evaluation of a near-infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head," Stroke 32, 2492-2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohl-Bareis, M.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroda, S.

S. Kuroda, K. Houkin, H. Abe, Y. Hoshi, and M. Tamura, "Near-infrared monitoring of cerebral oxygenation state during carotid endarterectomy," Surg. Neurol. 45, 450-458 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebert, A.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liszka, H.

G. Zaccanti, D. Contini, M. Guriori, A. Ismaelli, H. Liszka, and A. Sassaroli, "Detectability of inhomogeneities within highly diffusing media," Proc. SPIE 2389, 755-762 (1995).

Liu, H.

Macdonald, R.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malak, J.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

McAdams, M. S.

Miwa, M.

H. Zhang, M. Miwa, T. Urakami, Y. Yamashita, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Simple subtraction method for determining the mean path length traveled by photons in turbid media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37, 700-704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moller, M.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakano, T.

M. Oda, Y. Yamashita, T. Nakano, A. Suzuki, K. Shimizu, I. Hirano, F. Shimomura, E. Ohmae, T. Suzuki, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy system for tissue oxygenation monitor," Proc. SPIE 3579, 611-617 (1999).

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, "Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy," Med. Phys. 28, 1115-1124 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obrig, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oda, M.

M. Oda, Y. Yamashita, T. Nakano, A. Suzuki, K. Shimizu, I. Hirano, F. Shimomura, E. Ohmae, T. Suzuki, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy system for tissue oxygenation monitor," Proc. SPIE 3579, 611-617 (1999).

Ohmae, E.

M. Oda, Y. Yamashita, T. Nakano, A. Suzuki, K. Shimizu, I. Hirano, F. Shimomura, E. Ohmae, T. Suzuki, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy system for tissue oxygenation monitor," Proc. SPIE 3579, 611-617 (1999).

Ohta, Y.

C. Sato, Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, T. Yamaguchi, M. Seida, Y. Ohta, and Y. Yu, "Intraoperative monitoring of depth dependent hemoglobin concentration changes during CEA by time-resolved reflectance," in Biomedical Optics, 2006 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThG1.
[PubMed]

Okada, E.

M. Firbank, E. Okada, and D. T. Delpy, "A theoretical study of the signal contribution of regions of the adult head to near-infrared spectroscopy studies of visual evoked responses," Neuroimage 8, 69-78 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Pifferi, A.

Rinneberg, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sassaroli, A.

F. Fabbri, A. Sassaroli, M. E. Henry, and S. Fantini, "Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1183-1201 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zaccanti, D. Contini, M. Guriori, A. Ismaelli, H. Liszka, and A. Sassaroli, "Detectability of inhomogeneities within highly diffusing media," Proc. SPIE 2389, 755-762 (1995).

Sato, C.

Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, C. Sato, and Y. Iguchi, "Re-evaluation of near-infrared light propagation in the adult human head: implications for functional near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064032 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Sato, Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, T. Yamaguchi, M. Seida, Y. Ohta, and Y. Yu, "Intraoperative monitoring of depth dependent hemoglobin concentration changes during CEA by time-resolved reflectance," in Biomedical Optics, 2006 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThG1.
[PubMed]

Seida, M.

C. Sato, Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, T. Yamaguchi, M. Seida, Y. Ohta, and Y. Yu, "Intraoperative monitoring of depth dependent hemoglobin concentration changes during CEA by time-resolved reflectance," in Biomedical Optics, 2006 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThG1.
[PubMed]

Shimada, M.

Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, C. Sato, and Y. Iguchi, "Re-evaluation of near-infrared light propagation in the adult human head: implications for functional near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064032 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Sato, Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, T. Yamaguchi, M. Seida, Y. Ohta, and Y. Yu, "Intraoperative monitoring of depth dependent hemoglobin concentration changes during CEA by time-resolved reflectance," in Biomedical Optics, 2006 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThG1.
[PubMed]

Shimizu, K.

M. Oda, Y. Yamashita, T. Nakano, A. Suzuki, K. Shimizu, I. Hirano, F. Shimomura, E. Ohmae, T. Suzuki, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy system for tissue oxygenation monitor," Proc. SPIE 3579, 611-617 (1999).

Shimomura, F.

M. Oda, Y. Yamashita, T. Nakano, A. Suzuki, K. Shimizu, I. Hirano, F. Shimomura, E. Ohmae, T. Suzuki, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy system for tissue oxygenation monitor," Proc. SPIE 3579, 611-617 (1999).

Smielewski, P.

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, "Evaluation of a near-infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head," Stroke 32, 2492-2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, A.

M. Oda, Y. Yamashita, T. Nakano, A. Suzuki, K. Shimizu, I. Hirano, F. Shimomura, E. Ohmae, T. Suzuki, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy system for tissue oxygenation monitor," Proc. SPIE 3579, 611-617 (1999).

Suzuki, T.

M. Oda, Y. Yamashita, T. Nakano, A. Suzuki, K. Shimizu, I. Hirano, F. Shimomura, E. Ohmae, T. Suzuki, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy system for tissue oxygenation monitor," Proc. SPIE 3579, 611-617 (1999).

Svaasand, L. O.

Tamura, M.

S. Kuroda, K. Houkin, H. Abe, Y. Hoshi, and M. Tamura, "Near-infrared monitoring of cerebral oxygenation state during carotid endarterectomy," Surg. Neurol. 45, 450-458 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

Tittel, F. K.

A. H. Hielscher, H. Liu, B. Chance, F. K. Tittel, and S. L. Jacques, "Time-resolved photon emission from layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 35, 719-728 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, "The influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

Tromberg, B. J.

Tsay, T.-T.

Tsuchiya, Y.

M. Oda, Y. Yamashita, T. Nakano, A. Suzuki, K. Shimizu, I. Hirano, F. Shimomura, E. Ohmae, T. Suzuki, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy system for tissue oxygenation monitor," Proc. SPIE 3579, 611-617 (1999).

H. Zhang, M. Miwa, T. Urakami, Y. Yamashita, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Simple subtraction method for determining the mean path length traveled by photons in turbid media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37, 700-704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uludag, K.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urakami, T.

H. Zhang, M. Miwa, T. Urakami, Y. Yamashita, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Simple subtraction method for determining the mean path length traveled by photons in turbid media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37, 700-704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van den Bergh, H.

Villringer, A.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagnières, G.

Wang, L.

A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, "The influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Yamada, Y.

K. Furutsu and Y. Yamada, "Diffusion approximation for a dissipative random medium and the applications," Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634-3640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, T.

C. Sato, Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, T. Yamaguchi, M. Seida, Y. Ohta, and Y. Yu, "Intraoperative monitoring of depth dependent hemoglobin concentration changes during CEA by time-resolved reflectance," in Biomedical Optics, 2006 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThG1.
[PubMed]

Yamashita, Y.

M. Oda, Y. Yamashita, T. Nakano, A. Suzuki, K. Shimizu, I. Hirano, F. Shimomura, E. Ohmae, T. Suzuki, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy system for tissue oxygenation monitor," Proc. SPIE 3579, 611-617 (1999).

H. Zhang, M. Miwa, T. Urakami, Y. Yamashita, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Simple subtraction method for determining the mean path length traveled by photons in turbid media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37, 700-704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

C. Sato, Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, T. Yamaguchi, M. Seida, Y. Ohta, and Y. Yu, "Intraoperative monitoring of depth dependent hemoglobin concentration changes during CEA by time-resolved reflectance," in Biomedical Optics, 2006 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThG1.
[PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, M. Miwa, T. Urakami, Y. Yamashita, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Simple subtraction method for determining the mean path length traveled by photons in turbid media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37, 700-704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, C. Sato, and Y. Iguchi, "Re-evaluation of near-infrared light propagation in the adult human head: implications for functional near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064032 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, "Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: separation of brain from skin and skull signals," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 464-470 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

H. Zhang, M. Miwa, T. Urakami, Y. Yamashita, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Simple subtraction method for determining the mean path length traveled by photons in turbid media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37, 700-704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, "Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy," Med. Phys. 28, 1115-1124 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (2)

M. Firbank, E. Okada, and D. T. Delpy, "A theoretical study of the signal contribution of regions of the adult head to near-infrared spectroscopy studies of visual evoked responses," Neuroimage 8, 69-78 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, "The influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Hunter, M. S. Patterson, T. J. Farrell, and J. E. Hayward, "Haemoglobin oxygenation of a two-layer tissue-simulating phantom from time-resolved reflectance: effect of top layer thickness," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 193-208 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fabbri, A. Sassaroli, M. E. Henry, and S. Fantini, "Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1183-1201 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

K. Furutsu and Y. Yamada, "Diffusion approximation for a dissipative random medium and the applications," Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634-3640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stroke (1)

P. G. Al-Rawi, P. Smielewski, and P. J. Kirkpatrick, "Evaluation of a near-infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head," Stroke 32, 2492-2500 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surg. Neurol. (1)

S. Kuroda, K. Houkin, H. Abe, Y. Hoshi, and M. Tamura, "Near-infrared monitoring of cerebral oxygenation state during carotid endarterectomy," Surg. Neurol. 45, 450-458 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. Oda, Y. Yamashita, T. Nakano, A. Suzuki, K. Shimizu, I. Hirano, F. Shimomura, E. Ohmae, T. Suzuki, and Y. Tsuchiya, "Near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy system for tissue oxygenation monitor," Proc. SPIE 3579, 611-617 (1999).

G. Zaccanti, D. Contini, M. Guriori, A. Ismaelli, H. Liszka, and A. Sassaroli, "Detectability of inhomogeneities within highly diffusing media," Proc. SPIE 2389, 755-762 (1995).

C. Sato, Y. Hoshi, M. Shimada, T. Yamaguchi, M. Seida, Y. Ohta, and Y. Yu, "Intraoperative monitoring of depth dependent hemoglobin concentration changes during CEA by time-resolved reflectance," in Biomedical Optics, 2006 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThG1.
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Incident pulse and typical time-resolved reflectance measured in the adult forehead.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Representative time courses of μ a changes at 762, 795, and 835   nm by clamping the arteries determined by (a) the DE-fit and (b) the MLB methods. The longitudinal axes represent the differences in μ a from the value at time 0 s (300 s before clamping the STA). The lines in the graphs represent the time point of clamping each artery.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Δ μ a clp by clamping the ECA, CCA, and ICA at (a) 762, (b) 795, and (c) 835   nm of the patient of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Δ μ a clp of all patients by clamping of the ECA and CCA at each wavelength at (a) 762, (b) 795, and (c) 835   nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Δ [ oxyHb ] clp , Δ [ deoxyHb ] clp , and Δ [ totalHb ] clp of all patients by clamping of the (a) ECA and (b) CCA.

Equations (10)

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Δ A = ln ( I 0 / I ) = μ a L μ a 0 L 0 + Δ S ,
Δ μ a = ln ( I 0 / I ) / [ ( L 0 + L ) / 2 ] .
Δ μ a clp = μ a aft μ a b e f ,
Δ μ a clp = ( Δ A aft Δ A bef ) / [ ( L bef + L aft ) / 2 ] .
Δ μ a 762   nm = ε oxy , 762   nm Δ [ oxyHb ] + ε deoxy , 762   nm Δ [ deoxyHb ] ,
Δ μ a 795   nm = ε oxy , 795   nm Δ [ oxyHb ] + ε deoxy , 795   nm Δ [ deoxyHb ] ,
Δ μ a 835   nm = ε oxy , 835   nm Δ [ oxyHb ] + ε deoxy , 835   nm Δ [ deoxyHb ] ,
Δ [ oxyHb ] = 2.99 Δ μ a 762   nm + 2.02 Δ μ a 795   nm + 4.15 Δ μ a 835   nm ,
Δ [ deoxyHb ] = 6.30 Δ μ a 762   nm 0.345 Δ μ a 795   nm 1.76 Δ μ a 835   nm ,
Δ [ totalHb ] = Δ [ oxyHb ] + Δ [ deoxyHb ] ,

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