Abstract

Water-leaving radiance, measured just above the ocean surface, contains important information about near-surface or subsurface processes that occur on or below the deep ocean and coastal water. As such, retrieving seawater inherent optical properties (IOPs) is an important step to determining water type, subsurface light field, turbidity, pigment concentration, and sediment loading. However, the retrieval (or inversion) of seawater IOPs from just above water radiance measurements is a multiparameter nonlinear problem that is difficult to solve by conventional optimization methods. The applicability of the simulated annealing algorithm (SA) is explored as a nonlinear global optimizer to solve this multiparameter retrieval problem. The SA algorithm is combined with widely known semianalytical relations for seawater's IOPs to parameter invert these properties from simulated and measured water-leaving reflectance spectra. Furthermore, given the versatility of the SA algorithm, the scheme is extended to retrieve water depth from input reflectance data. Extensive tests and comparisons with in situ and simulated data sets compiled by the International Ocean-Color Coordinating Group are presented. Field data include reflectance spectra acquired with a handheld GER 1500 spectroradiometer and absorption measurements, performed with the AC-9 instrument on waters around Singapore's nearby islands.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2005 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Zaneveld, J. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflection-tube absorption meters," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

S. Sathyendranath, "Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches," Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters--A reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 163-167 (2001).

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, "Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631-16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. Carder, T. Peacock, C. Davis, and J. Mueller, "Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance," Appl. Opt. 35, 453-462 (1996).

1995 (3)

C. Roesler and M. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller and R. W. Austin, "Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation, revision 1, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series," (NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds., National Technical Information Service, 1995).

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parametrization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. Zaneveld, J. Kitchen, A. Bricaud, and C. Moore, "Analysis of in situ spectral absorption meter data," Proc. SPIE 1750, 187-200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, R. Smith, R. Steward, and B. Mitchell, "Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599-20611 (1991).

1989 (2)

C. Roesler, M. Perry, and K. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).

W. Philpot, "Bathymetric mapping with passive multispectral imagery," Appl. Opt. 28, 1569-1578 (1989).

1988 (2)

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749-10768 (1988).

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).

1983 (1)

S. Kirkpatrick, C. Gelatt, and M. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-680 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains," Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43-53 (1981).

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).

1975 (1)

1953 (1)

N. Metropolis, A. Rosenbluth, M. Rosenbluth, A. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equations of state calculations by fast computing machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1091 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Aarts, E.

P. van Laarhoven and E. Aarts, Simulated Annealing: Theory and Applications (Reidel, 1987).

Arnone, R.

Austin, R. W.

J. L. Mueller and R. W. Austin, "Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation, revision 1, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series," (NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds., National Technical Information Service, 1995).

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parametrization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K.

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, R. Smith, R. Steward, and B. Mitchell, "Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599-20611 (1991).

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).

Boss, E.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parametrization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaneveld, J. Kitchen, A. Bricaud, and C. Moore, "Analysis of in situ spectral absorption meter data," Proc. SPIE 1750, 187-200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains," Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43-53 (1981).

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).

Brown, O.

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).

Bukata, R.

R. Bukata, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, 1995).

Carder, K.

Z. Lee and K. Carder, "Effect of spectral band numbers on the retrieval of water column and bottom properties from ocean color data," Appl. Opt. 41, 2191-2201 (2002).

Z. Lee, K. Carder, and R. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).

K. Carder, F. Chen, Z. Lee, S. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, "Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. Carder, T. Peacock, C. Davis, and J. Mueller, "Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance," Appl. Opt. 35, 453-462 (1996).

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, R. Smith, R. Steward, and B. Mitchell, "Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599-20611 (1991).

C. Roesler, M. Perry, and K. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).

Carder, K. L.

Chen, F.

K. Carder, F. Chen, Z. Lee, S. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, "Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parametrization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C.

Doerffer, R.

R. Doerffer, K. Heymann, and H. Schiller, "Case 2 Water Algorithm for the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) on ENVISAT," European Space Agency report (ENVISAT validation workshop, 2002).

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).

Feller, W.

W. Feller, An Introduction to Probability Theory and its Applications, 3rd ed., Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics (Wiley, 1971).

Frette, Ø.

Fry, E. S.

Gelatt, C.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. Gelatt, and M. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-680 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).

H. R. Gordon and A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer Verlag, 1983).

Hankins, D.

H. Van Zee and D. Hankins, "C. deLespinasse, 2002: ac-9 Protocol Document (Revision F)," (2002).

Hawes, S.

K. Carder, F. Chen, Z. Lee, S. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, "Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, R. Smith, R. Steward, and B. Mitchell, "Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599-20611 (1991).

Heymann, K.

R. Doerffer, K. Heymann, and H. Schiller, "Case 2 Water Algorithm for the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) on ENVISAT," European Space Agency report (ENVISAT validation workshop, 2002).

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, "Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status," Appl. Opt. 38, 7431-7441 (1999).

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, "Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631-16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, M.

Kamykowski, D.

K. Carder, F. Chen, Z. Lee, S. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, "Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, S.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. Gelatt, and M. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-680 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J.

J. Zaneveld, J. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflection-tube absorption meters," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaneveld, J. Kitchen, A. Bricaud, and C. Moore, "Analysis of in situ spectral absorption meter data," Proc. SPIE 1750, 187-200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z.

Lee, Z. P.

Loisel, H.

Lyon, P. E.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, "Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status," Appl. Opt. 38, 7431-7441 (1999).

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, "Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631-16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lyzenga, D.

Maritorena, S.

S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, and A. Peterson, "Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 2705-2714 (2002).

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters--A reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 163-167 (2001).

Metropolis, N.

N. Metropolis, A. Rosenbluth, M. Rosenbluth, A. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equations of state calculations by fast computing machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1091 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B.

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, R. Smith, R. Steward, and B. Mitchell, "Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599-20611 (1991).

Mobley, C. D.

Moore, C.

J. Zaneveld, J. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflection-tube absorption meters," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaneveld, J. Kitchen, A. Bricaud, and C. Moore, "Analysis of in situ spectral absorption meter data," Proc. SPIE 1750, 187-200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters--A reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 163-167 (2001).

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parametrization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749-10768 (1988).

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains," Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43-53 (1981).

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).

A. Morel, "Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water," in Optical Aspects of Oceanography (Academic, 1974), pp. 1-24.

Morel, A. Y.

H. R. Gordon and A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer Verlag, 1983).

Mueller, J.

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller and R. W. Austin, "Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation, revision 1, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series," (NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds., National Technical Information Service, 1995).

Patch, J. S.

Peacock, T.

Perry, M.

C. Roesler and M. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Roesler, M. Perry, and K. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).

Peterson, A.

Philpot, W.

Platt, T.

Pope, R. M.

Preisendorfer, R.

R. Preisendorfer, Application of Radiative Transfer Theory to Light Measurements in the Sea (Institut Géographique National, 1961).

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics Vol. 1: Introduction (NTIS PB-259 793/8ST), (National Technical Information Service, 1973).

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains," Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43-53 (1981).

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).

Roesler, C.

P. Wang, E. Boss, and C. Roesler, "Uncertainties of inherent optical properties obtained from semianalytical inversions of ocean color," Appl. Opt. 44, 4074-4085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Roesler and M. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Roesler, M. Perry, and K. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).

Rosenbluth, A.

N. Metropolis, A. Rosenbluth, M. Rosenbluth, A. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equations of state calculations by fast computing machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1091 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluth, M.

N. Metropolis, A. Rosenbluth, M. Rosenbluth, A. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equations of state calculations by fast computing machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1091 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, "Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches," Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, "Analytic model of ocean color," Appl. Opt. 36, 2620-2629 (1997).

Schiller, H.

R. Doerffer, K. Heymann, and H. Schiller, "Case 2 Water Algorithm for the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) on ENVISAT," European Space Agency report (ENVISAT validation workshop, 2002).

Siegel, D.

Smith, R.

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, R. Smith, R. Steward, and B. Mitchell, "Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599-20611 (1991).

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).

Stamnes, J.

Stamnes, K.

Steward, R.

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, R. Smith, R. Steward, and B. Mitchell, "Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599-20611 (1991).

Steward, R. G.

Stramski, D.

Swift, R. N.

Teller, A.

N. Metropolis, A. Rosenbluth, M. Rosenbluth, A. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equations of state calculations by fast computing machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1091 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Teller, E.

N. Metropolis, A. Rosenbluth, M. Rosenbluth, A. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equations of state calculations by fast computing machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1091 (1953).
[CrossRef]

van Laarhoven, P.

P. van Laarhoven and E. Aarts, Simulated Annealing: Theory and Applications (Reidel, 1987).

Van Zee, H.

H. Van Zee and D. Hankins, "C. deLespinasse, 2002: ac-9 Protocol Document (Revision F)," (2002).

Vecchi, M.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. Gelatt, and M. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-680 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Wright, C. W.

Yungel, J. K.

Zaneveld, J.

J. Zaneveld, J. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflection-tube absorption meters," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaneveld, J. Kitchen, A. Bricaud, and C. Moore, "Analysis of in situ spectral absorption meter data," Proc. SPIE 1750, 187-200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (15)

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, "Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status," Appl. Opt. 38, 7431-7441 (1999).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, "Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 1. A semianalytical model," Appl. Opt. 37, 6329-6338 (1998).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, "Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization," Appl. Opt. 38, 3831-3843 (1999).

Z. Lee, K. Carder, and R. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).

Z. Lee and K. Carder, "Effect of spectral band numbers on the retrieval of water column and bottom properties from ocean color data," Appl. Opt. 41, 2191-2201 (2002).

Ø. Frette, J. Stamnes, and K. Stamnes, "Optical remote sensing of marine constituents in coastal waters: a feasibility study," Appl. Opt. 37, 8318-8326 (1998).

S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, and A. Peterson, "Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 2705-2714 (2002).

Z. Lee, K. Carder, T. Peacock, C. Davis, and J. Mueller, "Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance," Appl. Opt. 35, 453-462 (1996).

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8723 (1997).

P. Wang, E. Boss, and C. Roesler, "Uncertainties of inherent optical properties obtained from semianalytical inversions of ocean color," Appl. Opt. 44, 4074-4085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, "Analytic model of ocean color," Appl. Opt. 36, 2620-2629 (1997).

H. Loisel and D. Stramski, "Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from the irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering," Appl. Opt. 39, 3001-3011 (2000).

H. Gordon, O. Brown, and M. Jacobs, "Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean," Appl. Opt. 14, 417-427 (1975).

D. Lyzenga, "Passive remote sensing techniques for mapping water depth and bottom features," Appl. Opt. 17, 379-383 (1978).

W. Philpot, "Bathymetric mapping with passive multispectral imagery," Appl. Opt. 28, 1569-1578 (1989).

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

S. Sathyendranath, "Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches," Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

N. Metropolis, A. Rosenbluth, M. Rosenbluth, A. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equations of state calculations by fast computing machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1091 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (8)

C. Roesler and M. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749-10768 (1988).

K. Carder, F. Chen, Z. Lee, S. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, "Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, R. Smith, R. Steward, and B. Mitchell, "Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599-20611 (1991).

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parametrization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters--A reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 163-167 (2001).

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, "Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631-16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Zaneveld, J. Kitchen, A. Bricaud, and C. Moore, "Analysis of in situ spectral absorption meter data," Proc. SPIE 1750, 187-200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaneveld, J. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflection-tube absorption meters," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Kirkpatrick, C. Gelatt, and M. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-680 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

P. van Laarhoven and E. Aarts, Simulated Annealing: Theory and Applications (Reidel, 1987).

IOCCGb, Remote Sensing of Inherent Optical Properties: Fundamental, Tests of Algorithms and Applications, reports of the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2000).

H. Van Zee and D. Hankins, "C. deLespinasse, 2002: ac-9 Protocol Document (Revision F)," (2002).

C. D. Mobley, Hydrolight 3.0 User's Guide, Final Report (SRI International, 1995).

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H. R. Gordon and A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer Verlag, 1983).

W. Feller, An Introduction to Probability Theory and its Applications, 3rd ed., Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics (Wiley, 1971).

J. L. Mueller and R. W. Austin, "Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation, revision 1, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series," (NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds., National Technical Information Service, 1995).

Z. P. Lee, "Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and application for ocean waters," Ph.D. dissertation (Univertsity of South Florida, 1994).

A. Morel, "Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water," in Optical Aspects of Oceanography (Academic, 1974), pp. 1-24.

IOCCGa, Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour in Coastal and Other Optically Complex Waters, S. Sathyendranath, ed., reports of the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, No. 3 (IOCCG, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2000).

R. Doerffer, K. Heymann, and H. Schiller, "Case 2 Water Algorithm for the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) on ENVISAT," European Space Agency report (ENVISAT validation workshop, 2002).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Below-water reflectance from GER 1500 spectroradiometer (left) and corrected AC-9 absorption spectra (right). Data were collected during four separate field trips around Singapore.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Self-consistency retrieval test. Synthetic data are computed from forward model [Eqs. (1)–(7)] and inverted with simulated annealing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Self-consistency retrieval tests. Similar to Fig. 2 for a second input data set.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between simulated annealing derived and IOCCG synthetic data set for phytoplankton, gelbstoff, total absorption, and backscattering coefficients. Results correspond to 440 nm as the reference wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Similar to Fig. 4. Results correspond to 550   nm as the reference wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between simulated annealing derived and IOCCG in situ IOPs for phytoplankton ( 443   nm ) , gelbstoff ( 443   nm ) , and total absorption coefficients (412 and 443   nm , respectively).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectance retrievals for Singapore coastal waters at several spectral points. GER 1500 above-water measurements were converted to below-water reflectance by using r r s = R r s / ( 0.52 + 1.7 R r s ) .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison between SA derived water absorption ( a a w ) and known absorption from the field data. Field data were collected around Singapore by the AC-9 instrument. ( a a w ) was retrieved from above-water GER 1500 radiance∕reflectance measurements. Points above the dashed line were heavily underestimated.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Bottom depth retrievals. (a), (b) Comparison between known reflectance and model derived reflectance at various spectral points. (c), (d) Comparison between known bottom depth and derived bottom depth including simple error estimates.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Depth retrievals. Similar to Fig. 9 for a second data set.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 RMSE Comparison between Algorithms Reported on the IOCCG Report a and Current Algorithm for Synthetic Data Set

Tables Icon

Table 2 RMSE Comparison Between Algorithms Reported on the IOCCG Report a and Current Algorithm for the In Situ Data Set

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r r s ( λ ) = g 0 μ ( λ ) + g 1 [ μ ( λ ) ] 2 ,
μ = b b a + b b ,
a ( λ ) = a w ( λ ) + a ϕ ( λ ) + a g ( λ ) ,
b b λ = b b w ( λ ) + b b p ( λ ) ,
a ϕ ( λ ) = [ a 0 ( λ ) + a 1 ( λ ) ln ( P 1 ) ] P 1 ,
a g ( λ ) = P 2   exp [ P 3 ( λ 440 ) ] ,
b b p ( λ ) = P 4 ( 400 λ ) P 5 ,
RMSE = ( i = 1 N [ log 10 ( R i mod e l ) log 10 ( R i t r u e ) ] 2 N 2 ) 1 / 2 .
r r s ( λ ) = r r s c o l [ 1 exp ( 2 K H ) ] + r r s B exp ( 2 K H ) ,
r r s ( λ ) = r r s c o l ( 1 exp { [ 1 cos ( θ w ) + D u C cos ( θ ) ] κ H } ) + 1 π ρ   exp { [ 1 cos ( θ w ) + D u B cos ( θ ) ] κ H } ,

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