Abstract

Photorefractive spatial solitons are attractive elements because they can be used as controllable optical interconnectors for all-optical devices. To our knowledge, until now their properties were investigated in terms of energy transportation. We suggest considering photorefractive spatial solitons as optically induced information channels. The experimental technique to measure the information throughput of photorefractive spatial solitons in accordance with Shannon's definition was developed and demonstrated by us. We experimentally demonstrated that in the wavelength range of 15201630nm it can be estimated as large as 90Tbits/s. We also experimentally demonstrate a measurement of the group-velocity dispersion and show the limitation of the pulse transfer rate of the induced waveguides to 6.2THz.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  7. J. Petter, C. Weilnau, C. Denz, A. Stepken, and F. Kaiser, "Self-bending of photorefractive solitons," Opt. Commun. 170, 291-297 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Traeger, N. Sagemerten, and C. Denz, "Guiding of dynamically modulated signals in arrays of photorefractive spatial solitons," IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 383-387 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (1)

D. Traeger, N. Sagemerten, and C. Denz, "Guiding of dynamically modulated signals in arrays of photorefractive spatial solitons," IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 383-387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Ku, M. Shih, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Coherence controlled soliton interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063904-1-063904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. Petter, J. Schroeder, D. Traeger, and C. Denz, "Optical control of arrays of photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 28, 438-440 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Traeger, A. Striníc, J. Schroeder, C. Denz, M. Belíc, M. Petrovíc, S. Matern, and H. G. Purwins, "Interactions in large arrays of solitons in photorefractive crystals," J. Opt. A 5, 5518-5523 (2003).

2001 (1)

J. Petter and C. Denz, "Guiding and dividing waves with photorefractive solitons," Opt. Commun. 188, 55-61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

1996 (3)

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, "Steady-state photorefractive soliton-induced Y-junction waveguides and high-order dark spatial solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 716-718 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Królikowski, N. Akhmediev, B. Luther-Davis, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Self-bending photorefractive solitons," Phys. Rev. E. 54, 5761-5765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. García Quirino, M. D. Iturbe Castillo, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, "Interferometric measurements of the photoinduced refractive index profiles in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal," Opt. Commun. 123, 597-602 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening soliton in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

Agranat, A. J.

Akhmediev, N.

W. Królikowski, N. Akhmediev, B. Luther-Davis, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Self-bending photorefractive solitons," Phys. Rev. E. 54, 5761-5765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anastassiou, C.

Beck, M.

Belíc, M.

D. Traeger, A. Striníc, J. Schroeder, C. Denz, M. Belíc, M. Petrovíc, S. Matern, and H. G. Purwins, "Interactions in large arrays of solitons in photorefractive crystals," J. Opt. A 5, 5518-5523 (2003).

Bor, Zs.

Castillo, M. D. Iturbe

G. S. García Quirino, M. D. Iturbe Castillo, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, "Interferometric measurements of the photoinduced refractive index profiles in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal," Opt. Commun. 123, 597-602 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

W. Królikowski, N. Akhmediev, B. Luther-Davis, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Self-bending photorefractive solitons," Phys. Rev. E. 54, 5761-5765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening soliton in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DelRe, E.

Denz, C.

D. Traeger, N. Sagemerten, and C. Denz, "Guiding of dynamically modulated signals in arrays of photorefractive spatial solitons," IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 383-387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Petter, J. Schroeder, D. Traeger, and C. Denz, "Optical control of arrays of photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 28, 438-440 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Traeger, A. Striníc, J. Schroeder, C. Denz, M. Belíc, M. Petrovíc, S. Matern, and H. G. Purwins, "Interactions in large arrays of solitons in photorefractive crystals," J. Opt. A 5, 5518-5523 (2003).

J. Petter and C. Denz, "Guiding and dividing waves with photorefractive solitons," Opt. Commun. 188, 55-61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Petter, C. Weilnau, C. Denz, A. Stepken, and F. Kaiser, "Self-bending of photorefractive solitons," Opt. Commun. 170, 291-297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Di Porto, P.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiPorto, P.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening soliton in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

Duree, G. C.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feigelson, R. S.

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giordmaine, J. A.

Haist, W.

W. Haist, Optische Telekommunikationssysteme (Damm-Verlag, 1989).

Kaiser, F.

J. Petter, C. Weilnau, C. Denz, A. Stepken, and F. Kaiser, "Self-bending of photorefractive solitons," Opt. Commun. 170, 291-297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

T. Ku, M. Shih, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Coherence controlled soliton interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063904-1-063904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kovacs, A. P.

Królikowski, W.

W. Królikowski, N. Akhmediev, B. Luther-Davis, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Self-bending photorefractive solitons," Phys. Rev. E. 54, 5761-5765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ku, T.

T. Ku, M. Shih, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Coherence controlled soliton interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063904-1-063904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

Lee, H.

Luther-Davis, B.

W. Królikowski, N. Akhmediev, B. Luther-Davis, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Self-bending photorefractive solitons," Phys. Rev. E. 54, 5761-5765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mamaev, A. V.

Martin, J.

Matern, S.

D. Traeger, A. Striníc, J. Schroeder, C. Denz, M. Belíc, M. Petrovíc, S. Matern, and H. G. Purwins, "Interactions in large arrays of solitons in photorefractive crystals," J. Opt. A 5, 5518-5523 (2003).

Mitchell, M.

Mizell, G.

Morin, M.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osvay, K.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Petrovíc, M.

D. Traeger, A. Striníc, J. Schroeder, C. Denz, M. Belíc, M. Petrovíc, S. Matern, and H. G. Purwins, "Interactions in large arrays of solitons in photorefractive crystals," J. Opt. A 5, 5518-5523 (2003).

Petter, J.

J. Petter, J. Schroeder, D. Traeger, and C. Denz, "Optical control of arrays of photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 28, 438-440 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Petter and C. Denz, "Guiding and dividing waves with photorefractive solitons," Opt. Commun. 188, 55-61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Petter, C. Weilnau, C. Denz, A. Stepken, and F. Kaiser, "Self-bending of photorefractive solitons," Opt. Commun. 170, 291-297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Purwins, H. G.

D. Traeger, A. Striníc, J. Schroeder, C. Denz, M. Belíc, M. Petrovíc, S. Matern, and H. G. Purwins, "Interactions in large arrays of solitons in photorefractive crystals," J. Opt. A 5, 5518-5523 (2003).

Quirino, G. S.

G. S. García Quirino, M. D. Iturbe Castillo, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, "Interferometric measurements of the photoinduced refractive index profiles in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal," Opt. Commun. 123, 597-602 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saffman, M.

Sagemerten, N.

D. Traeger, N. Sagemerten, and C. Denz, "Guiding of dynamically modulated signals in arrays of photorefractive spatial solitons," IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 383-387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

Salamo, G. J.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez-Mondragón, J. J.

G. S. García Quirino, M. D. Iturbe Castillo, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, "Interferometric measurements of the photoinduced refractive index profiles in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal," Opt. Commun. 123, 597-602 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

D. Traeger, A. Striníc, J. Schroeder, C. Denz, M. Belíc, M. Petrovíc, S. Matern, and H. G. Purwins, "Interactions in large arrays of solitons in photorefractive crystals," J. Opt. A 5, 5518-5523 (2003).

J. Petter, J. Schroeder, D. Traeger, and C. Denz, "Optical control of arrays of photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 28, 438-440 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

S. Lan, M. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, "Second-harmonic generation in waveguides induced by photorefractive spatial solitons," Opt. Lett. 24, 1145-1147 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Directional coupler with soliton-induced waveguides," Opt. Lett. 24, 475-477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, "Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091-3101 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Lan, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Self-trapping of one-dimensional optical beams and induced waveguides in photorefractive KNbO3," Opt. Lett. 22, 1467-1469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, "Steady-state photorefractive soliton-induced Y-junction waveguides and high-order dark spatial solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 716-718 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, "Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons," Opt. Lett. 20, 2066-2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening soliton in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication (The University of Illinois Press, 1964).

Sharp, E. J.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.

Shultz, J. L.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

Stepanov, S.

G. S. García Quirino, M. D. Iturbe Castillo, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, "Interferometric measurements of the photoinduced refractive index profiles in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal," Opt. Commun. 123, 597-602 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stepken, A.

J. Petter, C. Weilnau, C. Denz, A. Stepken, and F. Kaiser, "Self-bending of photorefractive solitons," Opt. Commun. 170, 291-297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Striníc, A.

D. Traeger, A. Striníc, J. Schroeder, C. Denz, M. Belíc, M. Petrovíc, S. Matern, and H. G. Purwins, "Interactions in large arrays of solitons in photorefractive crystals," J. Opt. A 5, 5518-5523 (2003).

Sukhorukov, A. A.

T. Ku, M. Shih, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Coherence controlled soliton interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063904-1-063904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Szipcs, R.

Tamburrini, M.

Traeger, D.

D. Traeger, N. Sagemerten, and C. Denz, "Guiding of dynamically modulated signals in arrays of photorefractive spatial solitons," IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 383-387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Petter, J. Schroeder, D. Traeger, and C. Denz, "Optical control of arrays of photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 28, 438-440 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Traeger, A. Striníc, J. Schroeder, C. Denz, M. Belíc, M. Petrovíc, S. Matern, and H. G. Purwins, "Interactions in large arrays of solitons in photorefractive crystals," J. Opt. A 5, 5518-5523 (2003).

Valley, G. C.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening soliton in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vysloukh, V.

G. S. García Quirino, M. D. Iturbe Castillo, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, "Interferometric measurements of the photoinduced refractive index profiles in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal," Opt. Commun. 123, 597-602 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Weaver, W.

C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication (The University of Illinois Press, 1964).

Weilnau, C.

J. Petter, C. Weilnau, C. Denz, A. Stepken, and F. Kaiser, "Self-bending of photorefractive solitons," Opt. Commun. 170, 291-297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilde, J. P.

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening soliton in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zozulya, A. A.

IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Traeger, N. Sagemerten, and C. Denz, "Guiding of dynamically modulated signals in arrays of photorefractive spatial solitons," IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 383-387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

D. Traeger, A. Striníc, J. Schroeder, C. Denz, M. Belíc, M. Petrovíc, S. Matern, and H. G. Purwins, "Interactions in large arrays of solitons in photorefractive crystals," J. Opt. A 5, 5518-5523 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (3)

J. Petter, C. Weilnau, C. Denz, A. Stepken, and F. Kaiser, "Self-bending of photorefractive solitons," Opt. Commun. 170, 291-297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Petter and C. Denz, "Guiding and dividing waves with photorefractive solitons," Opt. Commun. 188, 55-61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (10)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Phys. Rev. E. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representation of the main parameters. A, the spectrum power density (SPD) of a transmitted signal; B, the SPD of the soliton's own noise; C, the SPD of the channel's own noise in an arbitrary case; f 0 , current frequency of the IR laser; F, frequency of AM; D, the SPD of the applied noiselike signal. The output S∕N measurements were performed at the spectral component f 0 + F .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup to measure the S∕N transmission through the soliton-induced waveguide. The CCD is used for observing the soliton with λ = 532 n m and the coupling of the IR beam. The IR laser can be amplitude modulated by a noise generator and a signal generator. The transmission is analyzed by a spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The upper pictures show the IR light distribution after propagation through the crystal (a) without induced waveguide and (b) guided in the soliton. In (c) a cut through the intensity distribution of the guided IR beam along the direction of the field (solid curve) and perpendicular (dashed curve) is shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The power density distribution of the transmitted noise signal for 1520 and 1630 n m . (b) The distribution of the noise and an added sinusoidal signal at 15 MHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mach–Zehnder interferometer for estimating the group-velocity dispersion. The piezomirror is modulated sinusoidal and at the output of the lock-in amplifier the phase signal is collected by a computer. By taking the second derivative of the phase dependent on the angular frequency the GVD is calculated.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Part of the detected phase signal at the output of the lock-in amplifier with the marked zero transitions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured phase dependency of the setup and all samples.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured values and theoretical fitted curve of the phase dependency of the glass samples.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Thickness Determination

Equations (5)

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C = B log 2 ( 1 + S N ) [ bits / s ] .
φ ( ω ) = φ 0 + d φ d ω ( ω ω 0 ) + 1 2 d 2 φ d ω 2 GVD ( ω ω 0 ) 2 + 1 6 d 3 φ d ω 3 ( ω ω 0 ) 3 + .
t f 2 = t i 2 + ( 4 ln 2 GVD t i ) 2 .
Δ OPL = OPL BK7 OPL air .
Φ ( λ ) = 2 π ( n BK7 ( λ ) 1 ) d λ .

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