Abstract

In optical see-through head-mounted displays, it has been a common challenge that the displayed image lacks brightness and contrast compared with the direct view of a real-world scene. Consequently, such displays are usually used in dimmed lighting conditions, which limits the feasibility of applying such information displays outdoors or in scenarios where well-lit environments, such as in operation rooms, are required. The lack of image brightness is aggravated in the design of a see-through head-mounted projection display (HMPD). For instance, the overall flux transfer efficiency of existing HMPD designs is less than 10%. The design of a polarized head-mounted projection display (p-HMPD) is presented. The images of a p-HMPD system can potentially be three times brighter than those in existing HMPD designs. It is further demonstrated that the p-HMPD design is able to dramatically improve image brightness, contrast, and color vividness with experimental results. Finally, the design of a compact optical system and helmet prototype is described.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, "Recent advances in augmented reality," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 21, 34-47 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Bajura, H. Fuchs, and R. Ohbuchi, "Merging virtual objects with the real world: seeing ultrasound imagery within the patient," in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH (ACM, Chicago, 1992), pp. 203-210.
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Caudell and D. Mizell, "Augmented reality: an application of heads-up display technology to manual manufacturing processes," in Proceedings of Hawaii International Conferences on Systems Sciences (Hawaii, 1992), pp. 659-669.
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Rolland and H. Fuchs, "Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 9, 287-309 (2000).
  5. F. Biocca and J. P. Rolland, "Virtual eyes can rearrange your body: adapting to visual displacement in see-through, head-mounted displays," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 7, 262-277 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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  7. J. Fergason, "Optical system for head mounted display using retro-reflector and method of displaying an image," U.S. patent 5,621,572 (15 April 1997).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  11. H. Hua and C. Gao, "A polarized head-mounted projective display," in Proceedings of IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 32-35.
  12. R. Kijima and T. Ojika, "Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head-mounted display," in Proceedings of IEEE VR 1997 (IEEE, 1997), pp. 130-137.
  13. J. Parsons and J. P. Rolland, "A non-intrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeons critical area of interest," in Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 1998 (1998), pp. 246-251.
  14. N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Object-oriented displays: a new type of display systems--from immersive display to object-oriented displays," in Proceedings of IEEE SMC 1999, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  24. M. Inami, N. Kawakami, and S. Tachi, "Optical camouflage using retro-reflective projection technology," in Proceedings of ISMAR 2003 (ISMAR, 2003), pp. 348-349.
  25. L. Davis, J. P. Rolland, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, J. Norfleet, and C. Imielinska, "Enabling a continuum of virtual environment experiences," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 23, 10-12 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  33. L. G. Farkas, Anthropometry of the Head and Face, 2nd ed. (Raven Press, 1994).

2006 (1)

L. Brown and H. Hua, "Magic lenses for augmented virtual environments," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 26, 64-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, "Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14, 528-549 (2005).

C. Curatu, H. Hua, and J. P. Rolland, "Projection-based head-mounted display with eye-tracking capabilities," Proc. SPIE 5875, 587050J (2005).

2004 (3)

R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, "Projection-based head-mounted displays for wearable computers," Proc. SPIE 5442, 104-110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "SCAPE: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "System and interface framework for SCAPE as a collaborative infrastructure," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 13, 234-250 (2004).

2003 (2)

H. Hua, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, "Design of an ultra-light and compact projection lens," Appl. Opt. 42, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Davis, J. P. Rolland, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, J. Norfleet, and C. Imielinska, "Enabling a continuum of virtual environment experiences," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 23, 10-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, "Recent advances in augmented reality," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 21, 34-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

F. Biocca and J. P. Rolland, "Virtual eyes can rearrange your body: adapting to visual displacement in see-through, head-mounted displays," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 7, 262-277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1950 (1)

R. N. Berry, L. A. Riggs, and C. P. Duncan, "The relation of vernier and depth discriminations to field brightness," J. Exp. Psychol. 40, 349-354 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azuma, R.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, "Recent advances in augmented reality," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 21, 34-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baillot, Y.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, "Recent advances in augmented reality," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 21, 34-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bajura, M.

M. Bajura, H. Fuchs, and R. Ohbuchi, "Merging virtual objects with the real world: seeing ultrasound imagery within the patient," in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH (ACM, Chicago, 1992), pp. 203-210.
[CrossRef]

Behringer, R.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, "Recent advances in augmented reality," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 21, 34-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berry, R. N.

R. N. Berry, L. A. Riggs, and C. P. Duncan, "The relation of vernier and depth discriminations to field brightness," J. Exp. Psychol. 40, 349-354 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biocca, F.

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, "Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14, 528-549 (2005).

F. Biocca and J. P. Rolland, "Virtual eyes can rearrange your body: adapting to visual displacement in see-through, head-mounted displays," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 7, 262-277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, C. Gao, F. Biocca, and J. P. Rolland, "An ultra-light and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays," in Proceedings of IEEE VR 2001, pp.175-182.

Brown, L.

L. Brown and H. Hua, "Magic lenses for augmented virtual environments," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 26, 64-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "System and interface framework for SCAPE as a collaborative infrastructure," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 13, 234-250 (2004).

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "SCAPE: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "A new collaborative infrastructure: SCAPE," in Proceedings of IEEE VR 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 171-179.

Caudell, T.

T. Caudell and D. Mizell, "Augmented reality: an application of heads-up display technology to manual manufacturing processes," in Proceedings of Hawaii International Conferences on Systems Sciences (Hawaii, 1992), pp. 659-669.
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

Curatu, C.

C. Curatu, H. Hua, and J. P. Rolland, "Projection-based head-mounted display with eye-tracking capabilities," Proc. SPIE 5875, 587050J (2005).

Davis, L.

L. Davis, J. P. Rolland, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, J. Norfleet, and C. Imielinska, "Enabling a continuum of virtual environment experiences," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 23, 10-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, C. P.

R. N. Berry, L. A. Riggs, and C. P. Duncan, "The relation of vernier and depth discriminations to field brightness," J. Exp. Psychol. 40, 349-354 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farkas, L. G.

L. G. Farkas, Anthropometry of the Head and Face, 2nd ed. (Raven Press, 1994).

Feiner, S.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, "Recent advances in augmented reality," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 21, 34-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fergason, J.

J. Fergason, "Optical system for head mounted display using retro-reflector and method of displaying an image," U.S. patent 5,621,572 (15 April 1997).

Fisher, R.

R. Fisher, "Head-mounted projection display system featuring beam splitter and method of making same," U.S. patent 5,572,229 (5 November 1996).

Fuchs, H.

J. P. Rolland and H. Fuchs, "Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 9, 287-309 (2000).

M. Bajura, H. Fuchs, and R. Ohbuchi, "Merging virtual objects with the real world: seeing ultrasound imagery within the patient," in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH (ACM, Chicago, 1992), pp. 203-210.
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "System and interface framework for SCAPE as a collaborative infrastructure," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 13, 234-250 (2004).

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "SCAPE: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland "Engineering of head-mounted projective displays," Appl. Opt. 39, 3814-3824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, "Imaging properties of retroreflective materials used in head-mounted projective displays (HMPDs)," Proc. SPIE 4711, 194-201 (2002).

H. Hua and C. Gao, "A polarized head-mounted projective display," in Proceedings of IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 32-35.

H. Hua, C. Gao, F. Biocca, and J. P. Rolland, "An ultra-light and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays," in Proceedings of IEEE VR 2001, pp.175-182.

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "A new collaborative infrastructure: SCAPE," in Proceedings of IEEE VR 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 171-179.

Gardner, E.

D. P. Hansen, R. T. Perkins, and E. Gardner, "Broadband wire grid polarizing beamsplitter for use in the visible wavelength region," U.S. patent 6,243,199 (5 June 2001).

Girardot, A.

Ha, Y.

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, "Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14, 528-549 (2005).

R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, "Projection-based head-mounted displays for wearable computers," Proc. SPIE 5442, 104-110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, "Design of an ultra-light and compact projection lens," Appl. Opt. 42, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Davis, J. P. Rolland, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, J. Norfleet, and C. Imielinska, "Enabling a continuum of virtual environment experiences," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 23, 10-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ha, H. Hua, R. Martins, and J. P. Rolland, "Design of a wearable wide-angle projection color display," in Proceedings of International Optical Design Conference 2002 (IODC, 2002), pp. 67-73.

Hamza-Lup, F.

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, "Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14, 528-549 (2005).

L. Davis, J. P. Rolland, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, J. Norfleet, and C. Imielinska, "Enabling a continuum of virtual environment experiences," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 23, 10-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, D. P.

D. P. Hansen, R. T. Perkins, and E. Gardner, "Broadband wire grid polarizing beamsplitter for use in the visible wavelength region," U.S. patent 6,243,199 (5 June 2001).

Haza, K.

R. Kijima, K. Haza, Y. Tada, and T. Ojika, "Distributed display approach using PHMD with infrared camera," in Proceedings of IEEE 2002 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (IEEE, 2002), pp. 33-40.

Hua, H.

L. Brown and H. Hua, "Magic lenses for augmented virtual environments," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 26, 64-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Curatu, H. Hua, and J. P. Rolland, "Projection-based head-mounted display with eye-tracking capabilities," Proc. SPIE 5875, 587050J (2005).

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "SCAPE: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "System and interface framework for SCAPE as a collaborative infrastructure," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 13, 234-250 (2004).

H. Hua, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, "Design of an ultra-light and compact projection lens," Appl. Opt. 42, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland "Engineering of head-mounted projective displays," Appl. Opt. 39, 3814-3824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua and C. Gao, "A polarized head-mounted projective display," in Proceedings of IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 32-35.

H. Hua, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, "Imaging properties of retroreflective materials used in head-mounted projective displays (HMPDs)," Proc. SPIE 4711, 194-201 (2002).

H. Hua, C. Gao, F. Biocca, and J. P. Rolland, "An ultra-light and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays," in Proceedings of IEEE VR 2001, pp.175-182.

Y. Ha, H. Hua, R. Martins, and J. P. Rolland, "Design of a wearable wide-angle projection color display," in Proceedings of International Optical Design Conference 2002 (IODC, 2002), pp. 67-73.

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "A new collaborative infrastructure: SCAPE," in Proceedings of IEEE VR 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 171-179.

Imielinska, C.

L. Davis, J. P. Rolland, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, J. Norfleet, and C. Imielinska, "Enabling a continuum of virtual environment experiences," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 23, 10-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inami, M.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, and S. Tachi, "Optical camouflage using retro-reflective projection technology," in Proceedings of ISMAR 2003 (ISMAR, 2003), pp. 348-349.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector," in Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000, pp. 233-240.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Object-oriented displays: a new type of display systems--from immersive display to object-oriented displays," in Proceedings of IEEE SMC 1999, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[PubMed]

Julier, S.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, "Recent advances in augmented reality," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 21, 34-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, N.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector," in Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000, pp. 233-240.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Object-oriented displays: a new type of display systems--from immersive display to object-oriented displays," in Proceedings of IEEE SMC 1999, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[PubMed]

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, and S. Tachi, "Optical camouflage using retro-reflective projection technology," in Proceedings of ISMAR 2003 (ISMAR, 2003), pp. 348-349.

Kijima, R.

R. Kijima, K. Haza, Y. Tada, and T. Ojika, "Distributed display approach using PHMD with infrared camera," in Proceedings of IEEE 2002 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (IEEE, 2002), pp. 33-40.

R. Kijima and T. Ojika, "Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head-mounted display," in Proceedings of IEEE VR 1997 (IEEE, 1997), pp. 130-137.

MacIntyre, B.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, "Recent advances in augmented reality," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 21, 34-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, T.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Object-oriented displays: a new type of display systems--from immersive display to object-oriented displays," in Proceedings of IEEE SMC 1999, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[PubMed]

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector," in Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000, pp. 233-240.

Martins, R.

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, "Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14, 528-549 (2005).

R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, "Projection-based head-mounted displays for wearable computers," Proc. SPIE 5442, 104-110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ha, H. Hua, R. Martins, and J. P. Rolland, "Design of a wearable wide-angle projection color display," in Proceedings of International Optical Design Conference 2002 (IODC, 2002), pp. 67-73.

Mizell, D.

T. Caudell and D. Mizell, "Augmented reality: an application of heads-up display technology to manual manufacturing processes," in Proceedings of Hawaii International Conferences on Systems Sciences (Hawaii, 1992), pp. 659-669.
[CrossRef]

Norfleet, J.

L. Davis, J. P. Rolland, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, J. Norfleet, and C. Imielinska, "Enabling a continuum of virtual environment experiences," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 23, 10-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohbuchi, R.

M. Bajura, H. Fuchs, and R. Ohbuchi, "Merging virtual objects with the real world: seeing ultrasound imagery within the patient," in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH (ACM, Chicago, 1992), pp. 203-210.
[CrossRef]

Ojika, T.

R. Kijima and T. Ojika, "Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head-mounted display," in Proceedings of IEEE VR 1997 (IEEE, 1997), pp. 130-137.

R. Kijima, K. Haza, Y. Tada, and T. Ojika, "Distributed display approach using PHMD with infrared camera," in Proceedings of IEEE 2002 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (IEEE, 2002), pp. 33-40.

Parsons, J.

J. Parsons and J. P. Rolland, "A non-intrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeons critical area of interest," in Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 1998 (1998), pp. 246-251.

Perkins, R. T.

D. P. Hansen, R. T. Perkins, and E. Gardner, "Broadband wire grid polarizing beamsplitter for use in the visible wavelength region," U.S. patent 6,243,199 (5 June 2001).

Pezzaniti, J. L.

Poizat, D.

D. Poizat and J. P. Rolland, Use of Retro-reflective Sheets in Optical System Design, Technical report TR98-006 (University of Central Florida, 1998).

Riggs, L. A.

R. N. Berry, L. A. Riggs, and C. P. Duncan, "The relation of vernier and depth discriminations to field brightness," J. Exp. Psychol. 40, 349-354 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolland, J. P.

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, "Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14, 528-549 (2005).

C. Curatu, H. Hua, and J. P. Rolland, "Projection-based head-mounted display with eye-tracking capabilities," Proc. SPIE 5875, 587050J (2005).

R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, "Projection-based head-mounted displays for wearable computers," Proc. SPIE 5442, 104-110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, "Design of an ultra-light and compact projection lens," Appl. Opt. 42, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Davis, J. P. Rolland, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, J. Norfleet, and C. Imielinska, "Enabling a continuum of virtual environment experiences," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 23, 10-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland "Engineering of head-mounted projective displays," Appl. Opt. 39, 3814-3824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Biocca and J. P. Rolland, "Virtual eyes can rearrange your body: adapting to visual displacement in see-through, head-mounted displays," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 7, 262-277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland and H. Fuchs, "Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 9, 287-309 (2000).

H. Hua, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, "Imaging properties of retroreflective materials used in head-mounted projective displays (HMPDs)," Proc. SPIE 4711, 194-201 (2002).

J. Parsons and J. P. Rolland, "A non-intrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeons critical area of interest," in Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 1998 (1998), pp. 246-251.

H. Hua, C. Gao, F. Biocca, and J. P. Rolland, "An ultra-light and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays," in Proceedings of IEEE VR 2001, pp.175-182.

D. Poizat and J. P. Rolland, Use of Retro-reflective Sheets in Optical System Design, Technical report TR98-006 (University of Central Florida, 1998).

Y. Ha, H. Hua, R. Martins, and J. P. Rolland, "Design of a wearable wide-angle projection color display," in Proceedings of International Optical Design Conference 2002 (IODC, 2002), pp. 67-73.

Sekiguchi, D.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector," in Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000, pp. 233-240.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Object-oriented displays: a new type of display systems--from immersive display to object-oriented displays," in Proceedings of IEEE SMC 1999, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[PubMed]

Shaoulov, V.

R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, "Projection-based head-mounted displays for wearable computers," Proc. SPIE 5442, 104-110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tachi, S.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector," in Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000, pp. 233-240.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Object-oriented displays: a new type of display systems--from immersive display to object-oriented displays," in Proceedings of IEEE SMC 1999, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[PubMed]

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, and S. Tachi, "Optical camouflage using retro-reflective projection technology," in Proceedings of ISMAR 2003 (ISMAR, 2003), pp. 348-349.

Tada, Y.

R. Kijima, K. Haza, Y. Tada, and T. Ojika, "Distributed display approach using PHMD with infrared camera," in Proceedings of IEEE 2002 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (IEEE, 2002), pp. 33-40.

Yanagida, Y.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector," in Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000, pp. 233-240.

Yangagida, Y.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Object-oriented displays: a new type of display systems--from immersive display to object-oriented displays," in Proceedings of IEEE SMC 1999, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. (4)

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "SCAPE: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Brown and H. Hua, "Magic lenses for augmented virtual environments," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 26, 64-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Davis, J. P. Rolland, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, J. Norfleet, and C. Imielinska, "Enabling a continuum of virtual environment experiences," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 23, 10-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, "Recent advances in augmented reality," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 21, 34-47 (2001).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (1)

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[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, "Projection-based head-mounted displays for wearable computers," Proc. SPIE 5442, 104-110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Curatu, H. Hua, and J. P. Rolland, "Projection-based head-mounted display with eye-tracking capabilities," Proc. SPIE 5875, 587050J (2005).

Other (22)

R. Kijima, K. Haza, Y. Tada, and T. Ojika, "Distributed display approach using PHMD with infrared camera," in Proceedings of IEEE 2002 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (IEEE, 2002), pp. 33-40.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, and S. Tachi, "Optical camouflage using retro-reflective projection technology," in Proceedings of ISMAR 2003 (ISMAR, 2003), pp. 348-349.

R. Fisher, "Head-mounted projection display system featuring beam splitter and method of making same," U.S. patent 5,572,229 (5 November 1996).

J. Fergason, "Optical system for head mounted display using retro-reflector and method of displaying an image," U.S. patent 5,621,572 (15 April 1997).

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "A new collaborative infrastructure: SCAPE," in Proceedings of IEEE VR 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 171-179.

Optical Research Associates, http://www.opticalres.com.

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "System and interface framework for SCAPE as a collaborative infrastructure," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 13, 234-250 (2004).

D. P. Hansen, R. T. Perkins, and E. Gardner, "Broadband wire grid polarizing beamsplitter for use in the visible wavelength region," U.S. patent 6,243,199 (5 June 2001).

L. G. Farkas, Anthropometry of the Head and Face, 2nd ed. (Raven Press, 1994).

H. Hua, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, "Imaging properties of retroreflective materials used in head-mounted projective displays (HMPDs)," Proc. SPIE 4711, 194-201 (2002).

H. Hua and C. Gao, "A polarized head-mounted projective display," in Proceedings of IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 32-35.

R. Kijima and T. Ojika, "Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head-mounted display," in Proceedings of IEEE VR 1997 (IEEE, 1997), pp. 130-137.

J. Parsons and J. P. Rolland, "A non-intrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeons critical area of interest," in Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 1998 (1998), pp. 246-251.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Object-oriented displays: a new type of display systems--from immersive display to object-oriented displays," in Proceedings of IEEE SMC 1999, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[PubMed]

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Visuo-haptic display using head-mounted projector," in Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000, pp. 233-240.

D. Poizat and J. P. Rolland, Use of Retro-reflective Sheets in Optical System Design, Technical report TR98-006 (University of Central Florida, 1998).

M. Bajura, H. Fuchs, and R. Ohbuchi, "Merging virtual objects with the real world: seeing ultrasound imagery within the patient," in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH (ACM, Chicago, 1992), pp. 203-210.
[CrossRef]

T. Caudell and D. Mizell, "Augmented reality: an application of heads-up display technology to manual manufacturing processes," in Proceedings of Hawaii International Conferences on Systems Sciences (Hawaii, 1992), pp. 659-669.
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland and H. Fuchs, "Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualization," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 9, 287-309 (2000).

H. Hua, C. Gao, F. Biocca, and J. P. Rolland, "An ultra-light and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays," in Proceedings of IEEE VR 2001, pp.175-182.

Y. Ha, H. Hua, R. Martins, and J. P. Rolland, "Design of a wearable wide-angle projection color display," in Proceedings of International Optical Design Conference 2002 (IODC, 2002), pp. 67-73.

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, "Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14, 528-549 (2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of a monocular head-mounted projection display.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Schematic of a monocular polarized head-mounted projection display.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Design layout of the projection optics for p-HMPD prototype. (a) Five-element starting point optimized from a U.S. patent lens. (b) Four-element starting point obtained by simplification from (a) and global synthesis. (c) Final four-element design optimized from (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Performance analysis of the design in Fig. 3(c) for a 10 mm unvignetted pupil. (a) Spot diagram across five field angles; (b) rayfan plots; (c) plots for spherical aberration, astigmatism, and distortion; (d) polychromatic MTF as a function of the spatial frequency in line pairs per millimeter (cyles∕mm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Design of a compact p-HMHD prototype. (a) Overall optical layout in prototype packaging, (b) complete CAD assembly of the helmet, (c) front and (d) side views of the p-HMPD prototype.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Sample images from bench prototypes. (a) Polarized HMPD, well-lit environment, (b) nonpolarized HMPD, well-lit environment, (c) histogram of the display view region for photograph (a), (d) histogram of the display view region for photograph (b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specification of the p-HMPD Optical System

Equations (2)

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Φ v ( θ ) = r B - t r a n s ( θ ) r r e t r o ( θ ) r B - r e f l ( θ ) α e f f ( θ ) Φ l ( θ ) ,
Φ v ( θ ) = α w p 2 ( θ ) r P - t r a n s ( θ ) r C - r e t r o ( θ ) r S - r e f l ( θ ) α e f f ( θ ) Φ l ( θ ) ,

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