Abstract

As the development of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography progresses, interest grows in the extension of traditional optical components to the EUV regime. The strong absorption of EUV by most materials and its extremely short wavelength, however, make it very difficult to implement many components that are commonplace in the longer wavelength regimes. One such component is the diffractive optical element used, for example, in illumination systems to efficiently generate modified pupil fills. The fabrication and characterization of an EUV binary phase-only computer-generated hologram is demonstrated, allowing arbitrary far-field diffraction patterns to be generated. Based on reflective architecture, the fabricated device is extremely efficient. Based on an identically fabricated null hologram, the absolute efficiency into one diffracted order of 22% has been demonstrated. In the case where axially symmetric diffraction patterns are desired (both positive and negative diffraction orders can be used), the efficiency can be twice as high.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Stulen and D. Sweeney, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694-699 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates," Opt. Commun. 229, 109-116 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, F. Salmassi, E. Anderson, and E. Gullikson, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet diffusers," Appl. Opt. 43, 5323-5329 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Kamon, T. Miyamoto, Y. Myoi, H. Nagata, M. Tanaka, and K. Horie, "Photolithography system using annular illumination," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 3021-3029 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Himel, R. Hutchins, J. Colvin, M. Poutous, A. Kathman, and A. Fedor, "Design and fabrication of customized illumination patterns for low k1 lithography: a diffractive approach," in Proc. SPIE 4346, 1436-1442 (2001).
  6. P. Naulleau, C. Cho, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Transmission phase gratings for EUV interferometry," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7, 405-410 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0 nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).
  8. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osteried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150 Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, and J. F. Seely, "MoRu-Be multilayer-coated grating with 10.4% normal-incidence efficiency near the 11.4 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 26, 125-127 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime," Opt. Commun. 200, 27-34 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Salmassi, P. P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, D. L. Olynick, and J. A. Liddle, "Extreme ultraviolet binary phase gratings: fabrication and application to diffractive optics," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1136-1140 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Gerchberg and W. Saxon, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237-246 (1972).
  13. J. Fienup, "Reconstruction of an object from the modulus of its Fourier transform," Opt. Lett. 3, 27-29 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, "Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

F. Salmassi, P. P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, D. L. Olynick, and J. A. Liddle, "Extreme ultraviolet binary phase gratings: fabrication and application to diffractive optics," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1136-1140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates," Opt. Commun. 229, 109-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

M. Himel, R. Hutchins, J. Colvin, M. Poutous, A. Kathman, and A. Fedor, "Design and fabrication of customized illumination patterns for low k1 lithography: a diffractive approach," in Proc. SPIE 4346, 1436-1442 (2001).

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, and J. F. Seely, "MoRu-Be multilayer-coated grating with 10.4% normal-incidence efficiency near the 11.4 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 26, 125-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime," Opt. Commun. 200, 27-34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Naulleau, C. Cho, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Transmission phase gratings for EUV interferometry," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7, 405-410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. Stulen and D. Sweeney, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694-699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, "Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Kamon, T. Miyamoto, Y. Myoi, H. Nagata, M. Tanaka, and K. Horie, "Photolithography system using annular illumination," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 3021-3029 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1972 (1)

R. Gerchberg and W. Saxon, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237-246 (1972).

Anderson, E.

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, F. Salmassi, E. Anderson, and E. Gullikson, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet diffusers," Appl. Opt. 43, 5323-5329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates," Opt. Commun. 229, 109-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime," Opt. Commun. 200, 27-34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bajt, S.

Batson, P. J.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, "Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime," Opt. Commun. 200, 27-34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, C. Cho, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Transmission phase gratings for EUV interferometry," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7, 405-410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.

P. Naulleau, C. Cho, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Transmission phase gratings for EUV interferometry," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7, 405-410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, J.

M. Himel, R. Hutchins, J. Colvin, M. Poutous, A. Kathman, and A. Fedor, "Design and fabrication of customized illumination patterns for low k1 lithography: a diffractive approach," in Proc. SPIE 4346, 1436-1442 (2001).

Cruddace, R. G.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osteried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150 Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0 nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

Denham, P. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, "Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fedor, A.

M. Himel, R. Hutchins, J. Colvin, M. Poutous, A. Kathman, and A. Fedor, "Design and fabrication of customized illumination patterns for low k1 lithography: a diffractive approach," in Proc. SPIE 4346, 1436-1442 (2001).

Fienup, J.

Franck, K. D.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, "Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gerchberg, R.

R. Gerchberg and W. Saxon, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237-246 (1972).

Gullikson, E.

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, F. Salmassi, E. Anderson, and E. Gullikson, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet diffusers," Appl. Opt. 43, 5323-5329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates," Opt. Commun. 229, 109-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime," Opt. Commun. 200, 27-34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, C. Cho, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Transmission phase gratings for EUV interferometry," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7, 405-410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

F. Salmassi, P. P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, D. L. Olynick, and J. A. Liddle, "Extreme ultraviolet binary phase gratings: fabrication and application to diffractive optics," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1136-1140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, "Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heidemann, K. F.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osteried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150 Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0 nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

Heinzmann, U.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osteried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150 Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0 nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

Himel, M.

M. Himel, R. Hutchins, J. Colvin, M. Poutous, A. Kathman, and A. Fedor, "Design and fabrication of customized illumination patterns for low k1 lithography: a diffractive approach," in Proc. SPIE 4346, 1436-1442 (2001).

Horie, K.

K. Kamon, T. Miyamoto, Y. Myoi, H. Nagata, M. Tanaka, and K. Horie, "Photolithography system using annular illumination," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 3021-3029 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osteried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150 Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0 nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

Hutchins, R.

M. Himel, R. Hutchins, J. Colvin, M. Poutous, A. Kathman, and A. Fedor, "Design and fabrication of customized illumination patterns for low k1 lithography: a diffractive approach," in Proc. SPIE 4346, 1436-1442 (2001).

Kamon, K.

K. Kamon, T. Miyamoto, Y. Myoi, H. Nagata, M. Tanaka, and K. Horie, "Photolithography system using annular illumination," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 3021-3029 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kathman, A.

M. Himel, R. Hutchins, J. Colvin, M. Poutous, A. Kathman, and A. Fedor, "Design and fabrication of customized illumination patterns for low k1 lithography: a diffractive approach," in Proc. SPIE 4346, 1436-1442 (2001).

Kleineberg, U.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osteried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150 Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0 nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

Koike, M.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, "Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osteried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150 Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0 nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

Liddle, J.

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, F. Salmassi, E. Anderson, and E. Gullikson, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet diffusers," Appl. Opt. 43, 5323-5329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates," Opt. Commun. 229, 109-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

F. Salmassi, P. P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, D. L. Olynick, and J. A. Liddle, "Extreme ultraviolet binary phase gratings: fabrication and application to diffractive optics," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1136-1140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Menke, D.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osteried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150 Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0 nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

Mirkarimi, P.

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates," Opt. Commun. 229, 109-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, T.

K. Kamon, T. Miyamoto, Y. Myoi, H. Nagata, M. Tanaka, and K. Horie, "Photolithography system using annular illumination," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 3021-3029 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

Myoi, Y.

K. Kamon, T. Miyamoto, Y. Myoi, H. Nagata, M. Tanaka, and K. Horie, "Photolithography system using annular illumination," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 3021-3029 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, H.

K. Kamon, T. Miyamoto, Y. Myoi, H. Nagata, M. Tanaka, and K. Horie, "Photolithography system using annular illumination," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 3021-3029 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, F. Salmassi, E. Anderson, and E. Gullikson, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet diffusers," Appl. Opt. 43, 5323-5329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates," Opt. Commun. 229, 109-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime," Opt. Commun. 200, 27-34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, C. Cho, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Transmission phase gratings for EUV interferometry," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7, 405-410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P. P.

F. Salmassi, P. P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, D. L. Olynick, and J. A. Liddle, "Extreme ultraviolet binary phase gratings: fabrication and application to diffractive optics," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1136-1140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olynick, D. L.

F. Salmassi, P. P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, D. L. Olynick, and J. A. Liddle, "Extreme ultraviolet binary phase gratings: fabrication and application to diffractive optics," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1136-1140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osteried, K.

Osterried, K.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0 nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

Poutous, M.

M. Himel, R. Hutchins, J. Colvin, M. Poutous, A. Kathman, and A. Fedor, "Design and fabrication of customized illumination patterns for low k1 lithography: a diffractive approach," in Proc. SPIE 4346, 1436-1442 (2001).

Rife, J. C.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osteried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150 Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0 nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

Salmassi, F.

F. Salmassi, P. P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, D. L. Olynick, and J. A. Liddle, "Extreme ultraviolet binary phase gratings: fabrication and application to diffractive optics," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1136-1140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, F. Salmassi, E. Anderson, and E. Gullikson, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet diffusers," Appl. Opt. 43, 5323-5329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates," Opt. Commun. 229, 109-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saxon, W.

R. Gerchberg and W. Saxon, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237-246 (1972).

Seely, J. F.

Spiller, E.

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates," Opt. Commun. 229, 109-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steele, W. F.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, "Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R.

R. Stulen and D. Sweeney, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694-699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D.

R. Stulen and D. Sweeney, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694-699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tackaberry, R. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, "Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Kamon, T. Miyamoto, Y. Myoi, H. Nagata, M. Tanaka, and K. Horie, "Photolithography system using annular illumination," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 3021-3029 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, "Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Stulen and D. Sweeney, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694-699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

P. Naulleau, C. Cho, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Transmission phase gratings for EUV interferometry," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7, 405-410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

F. Salmassi, P. P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, D. L. Olynick, and J. A. Liddle, "Extreme ultraviolet binary phase gratings: fabrication and application to diffractive optics," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1136-1140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Kamon, T. Miyamoto, Y. Myoi, H. Nagata, M. Tanaka, and K. Horie, "Photolithography system using annular illumination," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 3021-3029 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Naulleau, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated gratings for the EUV regime using e-beam patterned substrates," Opt. Commun. 229, 109-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, E. Anderson, E. Gullikson, and J. Bokor, "Fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer-coated binary blazed gratings in the EUV regime," Opt. Commun. 200, 27-34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optik (1)

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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0 nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

M. Himel, R. Hutchins, J. Colvin, M. Poutous, A. Kathman, and A. Fedor, "Design and fabrication of customized illumination patterns for low k1 lithography: a diffractive approach," in Proc. SPIE 4346, 1436-1442 (2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of HOE area comprising a 5 × 5 grid of subfields. For computational efficiency, the HOE is computed over only a 200 × 200   μm area comprised of 2048 × 2048 pixels forming a subfield. This subfield is replicated across the desired HOE area. Each computed pixel corresponds to a 98   nm × 98   nm square area in the final device. White regions in the depictions of the computed HOE subfield represent areas of π phase shift and black regions zero phase shift.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fourier transform of the computed HOE subfield from Fig. 1. The area corresponding to the first diffracted order is shown, demonstrating the fidelity of the computed binary phase-only hologram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Atomic force micrograph of a 5   μm × 5   μm area of the completed HOE including the multilayer coating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

EUV wavelength ( 13 .5   nm ) characterization results for the fabricated HOE. An imaging detector is used to record the far-field diffraction pattern of the HOE under low-divergence illumination. Owing to the dimensions of the reflectometer and imaging detector, it was not possible to record the full extent of the first-order diffraction pattern in a single exposure. The image in Fig. 4 is actually a composite of several subimages stitched together.

Equations (2)

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h ( x , y ) = binary { sin [ ( 2 π f c + Φ ( x , y ) ] } ,
binary ( x ) = 0 , x < = 0 1 , x > 0 .

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