Abstract

Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) combines the advantages of OCT with image contrast enhancement, which is based on its ability to detect phase retardation and the fast-axis angle. Both PS-OCT images and histopathology have demonstrated similar features that allowed differentiation of atherosclerotic structures (i.e., plaques) from normal tissue. Moreover, the picrosirius polarization method was used to confirm PS-OCT assessment of collagen in the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaques, and high-frequency (40 MHz) ultrasound images were used to identify calcium in the vessel wall. Our preliminary ex vivo investigation of human aortic specimens indicated that PS-OCT might help to identify atherosclerotic lesions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

G. J. Tearney, I.-K. Jang, and B. E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography for imaging the vulnerable plaque," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 021002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, E. K. Tien, H. J. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Correlation of collagen synthesis with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of in vitro human atherosclerosis," Proc. SPIE 5690, 563-571 (2005).

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components," Opt. Lett. 29, 2512-2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Guo, J. Zhang, L. Wang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Depth-resolved birefringence and differential optical axis orientation measurements with fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2025-2027 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121-125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94-102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Janf, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, "Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart 89, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Shah, "Mechanisms of plaque vulnerability and rupture," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 41, 15S-22S (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, "Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 106, 1640-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, "Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography," Circulation 105, 1843-1849 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Gotzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Shao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin," Opt. Lett. 25, 1355-1357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Pasterkamp, E. Falk, J. Woutman, and C. Borst, "Techniques characterizing the coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Influence on clinical decision making," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 36, 13-21 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

L. H. Arroyo and R. T. Lee, "Mechanisms of plaque rupture: mechanical and biologic interactions," Cardiovasc. Res. 41, 369-375 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rekhter, "Collagen synthesis in atherosclerosis: too much and not enough," Cardiovas. Res. 41, 376-384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 934-936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound," Heart 77, 397-403 (1997).

1996 (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (2)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 1, 970-972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, "Coronary plaque disruption," Circulation 110, 657-671 (1995).

1994 (1)

R. J. G. Peters, W. E. M. Kok, M. G. Havenith, H. Rijsterborgh, and A. C. vanderWal, "Histopathologic validation of intracoronary ultrasound imaging," J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 7, 230-241 (1994).
[PubMed]

1986 (1)

L. C. U. Junqueira, M. T. S. Figueiredo, H. Torloni, and G. S. Montes, "Defferential histlogic diagnosis of osteoid. A study on human osteosarcoma collagen by the histochemical picrosirius-polarization method," J. Pathol. 148, 186-196 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

L. C. U. Junqueira, G. Bignolas, and R. R. Brentani, "Picrosirius staining plus polarization microscopy, a specific method for collagen detection in tissue sections," Histochem. J. 11, 447-455 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

H. Puchtler, F. S. Waldrop, and L. S. Valentine, "Polarization microscopic studies of connective tissue stained with picro-sirius red FBA," Beitr Pathol. 150, 174-187 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aretz, H. T.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Janf, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, "Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart 89, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, "Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 106, 1640-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arroyo, L. H.

L. H. Arroyo and R. T. Lee, "Mechanisms of plaque rupture: mechanical and biologic interactions," Cardiovasc. Res. 41, 369-375 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, A.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bignolas, G.

L. C. U. Junqueira, G. Bignolas, and R. R. Brentani, "Picrosirius staining plus polarization microscopy, a specific method for collagen detection in tissue sections," Histochem. J. 11, 447-455 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound," Heart 77, 397-403 (1997).

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 1, 970-972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borst, C.

G. Pasterkamp, E. Falk, J. Woutman, and C. Borst, "Techniques characterizing the coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Influence on clinical decision making," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 36, 13-21 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, I.-K. Jang, and B. E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography for imaging the vulnerable plaque," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 021002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Janf, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, "Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart 89, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, "Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 106, 1640-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound," Heart 77, 397-403 (1997).

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 1, 970-972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brentani, R. R.

L. C. U. Junqueira, G. Bignolas, and R. R. Brentani, "Picrosirius staining plus polarization microscopy, a specific method for collagen detection in tissue sections," Histochem. J. 11, 447-455 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bresinski, M. E.

M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound," Heart 77, 397-403 (1997).

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 1, 970-972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Cense, B.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121-125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components," Opt. Lett. 29, 2512-2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121-125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z

Chen, Z.

Choi, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, C.

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, E. K. Tien, H. J. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Correlation of collagen synthesis with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of in vitro human atherosclerosis," Proc. SPIE 5690, 563-571 (2005).

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, H. C. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Imaging of human aortic atherosclerotic plaques by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1111-1114.

Chou, N. K.

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, E. K. Tien, H. J. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Correlation of collagen synthesis with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of in vitro human atherosclerosis," Proc. SPIE 5690, 563-571 (2005).

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, H. C. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Imaging of human aortic atherosclerotic plaques by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1111-1114.

de Boer, J. F.

DeJoseph Gauthier, D.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, "Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart 89, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dichtl, S.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Falk, E.

G. Pasterkamp, E. Falk, J. Woutman, and C. Borst, "Techniques characterizing the coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Influence on clinical decision making," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 36, 13-21 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, "Coronary plaque disruption," Circulation 110, 657-671 (1995).

Feldman, M. D.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, "Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography," Circulation 105, 1843-1849 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94-102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Gotzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Figueiredo, M. T. S.

L. C. U. Junqueira, M. T. S. Figueiredo, H. Torloni, and G. S. Montes, "Defferential histlogic diagnosis of osteoid. A study on human osteosarcoma collagen by the histochemical picrosirius-polarization method," J. Pathol. 148, 186-196 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, G. L.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, "Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography," Circulation 105, 1843-1849 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound," Heart 77, 397-403 (1997).

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 1, 970-972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuster, V.

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, "Coronary plaque disruption," Circulation 110, 657-671 (1995).

Gotzinger, E.

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94-102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Gotzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

Halpern, E. F.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, "Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart 89, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Janf, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, "Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 106, 1640-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Havenith, M. G.

R. J. G. Peters, W. E. M. Kok, M. G. Havenith, H. Rijsterborgh, and A. C. vanderWal, "Histopathologic validation of intracoronary ultrasound imaging," J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 7, 230-241 (1994).
[PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound," Heart 77, 397-403 (1997).

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 1, 970-972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94-102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Gotzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Houser, S. L.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, "Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart 89, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Janf, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, "Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 106, 1640-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H. C.

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, H. C. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Imaging of human aortic atherosclerotic plaques by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1111-1114.

Huang, H. J.

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, E. K. Tien, H. J. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Correlation of collagen synthesis with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of in vitro human atherosclerosis," Proc. SPIE 5690, 563-571 (2005).

Izatt, J. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Jan, G. J.

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, E. K. Tien, H. J. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Correlation of collagen synthesis with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of in vitro human atherosclerosis," Proc. SPIE 5690, 563-571 (2005).

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, H. C. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Imaging of human aortic atherosclerotic plaques by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1111-1114.

Janf, I. K.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Janf, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, I. K.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, "Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart 89, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, "Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 106, 1640-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, I.-K.

G. J. Tearney, I.-K. Jang, and B. E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography for imaging the vulnerable plaque," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 021002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Junqueira, L. C. U.

L. C. U. Junqueira, M. T. S. Figueiredo, H. Torloni, and G. S. Montes, "Defferential histlogic diagnosis of osteoid. A study on human osteosarcoma collagen by the histochemical picrosirius-polarization method," J. Pathol. 148, 186-196 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. C. U. Junqueira, G. Bignolas, and R. R. Brentani, "Picrosirius staining plus polarization microscopy, a specific method for collagen detection in tissue sections," Histochem. J. 11, 447-455 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, D. H.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, "Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 106, 1640-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauffman, C. R.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, "Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart 89, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Janf, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, "Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 106, 1640-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, "Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography," Circulation 105, 1843-1849 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kok, W. E. M.

R. J. G. Peters, W. E. M. Kok, M. G. Havenith, H. Rijsterborgh, and A. C. vanderWal, "Histopathologic validation of intracoronary ultrasound imaging," J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 7, 230-241 (1994).
[PubMed]

Kuo, W. C.

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, E. K. Tien, H. J. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Correlation of collagen synthesis with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of in vitro human atherosclerosis," Proc. SPIE 5690, 563-571 (2005).

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, H. C. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Imaging of human aortic atherosclerotic plaques by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1111-1114.

Lai, C. M.

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, E. K. Tien, H. J. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Correlation of collagen synthesis with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of in vitro human atherosclerosis," Proc. SPIE 5690, 563-571 (2005).

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, H. C. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Imaging of human aortic atherosclerotic plaques by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1111-1114.

Lee, R. T.

L. H. Arroyo and R. T. Lee, "Mechanisms of plaque rupture: mechanical and biologic interactions," Cardiovasc. Res. 41, 369-375 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacNeill, B. D.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, "Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart 89, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Milner, T. E.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, "Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography," Circulation 105, 1843-1849 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 934-936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montes, G. S.

L. C. U. Junqueira, M. T. S. Figueiredo, H. Torloni, and G. S. Montes, "Defferential histlogic diagnosis of osteoid. A study on human osteosarcoma collagen by the histochemical picrosirius-polarization method," J. Pathol. 148, 186-196 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moritz, A.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121-125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components," Opt. Lett. 29, 2512-2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Shao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin," Opt. Lett. 25, 1355-1357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. W.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasterkamp, G.

G. Pasterkamp, E. Falk, J. Woutman, and C. Borst, "Techniques characterizing the coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Influence on clinical decision making," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 36, 13-21 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, N. A.

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, R. J. G.

R. J. G. Peters, W. E. M. Kok, M. G. Havenith, H. Rijsterborgh, and A. C. vanderWal, "Histopathologic validation of intracoronary ultrasound imaging," J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 7, 230-241 (1994).
[PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121-125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components," Opt. Lett. 29, 2512-2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94-102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Gotzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pomerantsev, E.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puchtler, H.

H. Puchtler, F. S. Waldrop, and L. S. Valentine, "Polarization microscopic studies of connective tissue stained with picro-sirius red FBA," Beitr Pathol. 150, 174-187 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rekhter, M. D.

M. D. Rekhter, "Collagen synthesis in atherosclerosis: too much and not enough," Cardiovas. Res. 41, 376-384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rijsterborgh, H.

R. J. G. Peters, W. E. M. Kok, M. G. Havenith, H. Rijsterborgh, and A. C. vanderWal, "Histopathologic validation of intracoronary ultrasound imaging," J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 7, 230-241 (1994).
[PubMed]

Robl, B.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, H.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, C.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C. E.

Schlendorf, K.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlendorf, K. H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Janf, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, "Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 106, 1640-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seung, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, P. K.

P. K. Shah, "Mechanisms of plaque vulnerability and rupture," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 41, 15S-22S (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, "Coronary plaque disruption," Circulation 110, 657-671 (1995).

Shao, Y.

Shishkov, M.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Janf, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, "Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart 89, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, "Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 106, 1640-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shyu, J. J.

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, E. K. Tien, H. J. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Correlation of collagen synthesis with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of in vitro human atherosclerosis," Proc. SPIE 5690, 563-571 (2005).

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, H. C. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Imaging of human aortic atherosclerotic plaques by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1111-1114.

Southern, J. F.

M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound," Heart 77, 397-403 (1997).

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 1, 970-972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sperr, W.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Srinivas, S. M.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212-218 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamper, D. L.

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94-102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Gotzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound," Heart 77, 397-403 (1997).

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 1, 970-972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, I.-K. Jang, and B. E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography for imaging the vulnerable plaque," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 021002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, "Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart 89, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Janf, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, "Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 106, 1640-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound," Heart 77, 397-403 (1997).

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 1, 970-972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tien, E. K.

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, E. K. Tien, H. J. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Correlation of collagen synthesis with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of in vitro human atherosclerosis," Proc. SPIE 5690, 563-571 (2005).

Torloni, H.

L. C. U. Junqueira, M. T. S. Figueiredo, H. Torloni, and G. S. Montes, "Defferential histlogic diagnosis of osteoid. A study on human osteosarcoma collagen by the histochemical picrosirius-polarization method," J. Pathol. 148, 186-196 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tuchin, V.

V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of tissues with strong (multiple) scattering," in Tissue optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis, D. C. O'Shea, ed. (SPIE Press, 2000), Vol. TT38, pp. 42.

Valentine, L. S.

H. Puchtler, F. S. Waldrop, and L. S. Valentine, "Polarization microscopic studies of connective tissue stained with picro-sirius red FBA," Beitr Pathol. 150, 174-187 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

vanderWal, A. C.

R. J. G. Peters, W. E. M. Kok, M. G. Havenith, H. Rijsterborgh, and A. C. vanderWal, "Histopathologic validation of intracoronary ultrasound imaging," J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 7, 230-241 (1994).
[PubMed]

Villard, J. W.

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, "Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography," Circulation 105, 1843-1849 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldrop, F. S.

H. Puchtler, F. S. Waldrop, and L. S. Valentine, "Polarization microscopic studies of connective tissue stained with picro-sirius red FBA," Beitr Pathol. 150, 174-187 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Weissman, N. J.

M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound," Heart 77, 397-403 (1997).

Weyman, A. E.

M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound," Heart 77, 397-403 (1997).

Woutman, J.

G. Pasterkamp, E. Falk, J. Woutman, and C. Borst, "Techniques characterizing the coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Influence on clinical decision making," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 36, 13-21 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yabushita, H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Janf, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, "Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart 89, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, "Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 106, 1640-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zoeller, J.

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beitr Pathol. (1)

H. Puchtler, F. S. Waldrop, and L. S. Valentine, "Polarization microscopic studies of connective tissue stained with picro-sirius red FBA," Beitr Pathol. 150, 174-187 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardiovas. Res. (1)

M. D. Rekhter, "Collagen synthesis in atherosclerosis: too much and not enough," Cardiovas. Res. 41, 376-384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cardiovasc. Res. (1)

L. H. Arroyo and R. T. Lee, "Mechanisms of plaque rupture: mechanical and biologic interactions," Cardiovasc. Res. 41, 369-375 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caries Res. (1)

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Circulation (5)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Janf, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, "Coronary plaque disruption," Circulation 110, 657-671 (1995).

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, "Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography," Circulation 106, 1640-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Villard, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, T. E. Milner, and G. L. Freeman, "Use of a blood substitute to determine instantaneous murine right ventricular thickening with optical coherence tomography," Circulation 105, 1843-1849 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heart (2)

M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, N. J. Weissman, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, A. E. Weyman, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphology: comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency intravascular ultrasound," Heart 77, 397-403 (1997).

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, "Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart 89, 317-321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Histochem. J. (1)

L. C. U. Junqueira, G. Bignolas, and R. R. Brentani, "Picrosirius staining plus polarization microscopy, a specific method for collagen detection in tissue sections," Histochem. J. 11, 447-455 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (3)

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pasterkamp, E. Falk, J. Woutman, and C. Borst, "Techniques characterizing the coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Influence on clinical decision making," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 36, 13-21 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Shah, "Mechanisms of plaque vulnerability and rupture," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 41, 15S-22S (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. (1)

R. J. G. Peters, W. E. M. Kok, M. G. Havenith, H. Rijsterborgh, and A. C. vanderWal, "Histopathologic validation of intracoronary ultrasound imaging," J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 7, 230-241 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

G. J. Tearney, I.-K. Jang, and B. E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography for imaging the vulnerable plaque," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 021002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121-125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94-102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pathol. (1)

L. C. U. Junqueira, M. T. S. Figueiredo, H. Torloni, and G. S. Montes, "Defferential histlogic diagnosis of osteoid. A study on human osteosarcoma collagen by the histochemical picrosirius-polarization method," J. Pathol. 148, 186-196 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Bresinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 1, 970-972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (3)

V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of tissues with strong (multiple) scattering," in Tissue optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis, D. C. O'Shea, ed. (SPIE Press, 2000), Vol. TT38, pp. 42.

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, H. C. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Imaging of human aortic atherosclerotic plaques by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1111-1114.

W. C. Kuo, J. J. Shyu, N. K. Chou, C. M. Lai, E. K. Tien, H. J. Huang, C. Chou, and G. J. Jan, "Correlation of collagen synthesis with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of in vitro human atherosclerosis," Proc. SPIE 5690, 563-571 (2005).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the conventional PS-OCT system: SLD, superluminescent diode; QWP, quarter-wave plate; M, reference mirror; BS, beam splitter, PBS; polarized beam splitter; Dp and Ds, photodetectors; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Cuvette. A small 1   cm × 2   mm open rectangular window (arrow indicated) on the upper plate is used to restrict the aortic plaque for the PS-OCT illumination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Histological and PS-OCT images of a normal vessel wall: (a) histology (Masson's trichrome, magnification 100 × ); (b) backscatter-intensity image; (c) phase retardation image (linear color scale degrees); (d) fast-axis angle image (linear color scale degrees).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Histological and PS-OCT images of vessel wall with lipid-loaded lesion (left) and a small fibrous plaque in the lipid-loaded area (right). (a), (e) Histology (Masson's trichrome; 40 × ). (b), (f) Backscatter intensity image. (c), (g) Phase retardation image (linear color scale degrees). (d), (h) Fast-axis angle image (linear color scale degrees).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Lipid-loaded fibroatheroma with a thick fibrous cap. (a) Histology (Masson's trichrome, 40 × ); (b) histology (picrosirius-polarization, 40 × ); (c) backscatter-intensity image; (d) phase retardation image (linear color scale degrees); (e) fast-axis angle (linear color scale degrees).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Ultrasound, PS-OCT, and histological images of a calcified plaque. (a) Ultrasound image (40 MHz); (b) backscatter-intensity image; (c) phase retardation image (linear color scale degrees); (d) fast-axis angle (linear color scale degrees); (e) histology (H and E; 40 × ).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Histological and PS-OCT images of several other plaques. (a) Histology (H and E; magnification 40 × ); (b) backscatter-intensity image; (c) phase retardation image (linear color scale degrees); (d) fast-axis angle (linear color scale degrees).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Distributions of (a) R mean , (b) Φ mean , and (c) β mean for normal vascular intima (N) and fibrous (F), lipid-rich (L), and calcified (C) atherosclerotic plaques, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Averaged depth profiles of the phase retardation over the region marked with a white rectangle from (a) normal intima in 3(c); (b) fibroatheroma with thick fibrous cap in 5(d); (c) calcified plaque in 6(c).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ( z ) A 1 ( z ) 2 + A 2 ( z ) 2 ,
Φ ( z ) = tan 1 ( A 2 ( z ) / A 1 ( z ) ) 1 / 2 ,
β ( z ) = 1 / 2 × ( 180 ° Δ Ψ ) ,

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