Abstract

We report a low-loss, low-cost high-sensitivity all-fiber strain and temperature sensor based on mode interference in graded-index multimode fibers. Blueshifts with strain and temperature sensitivities of 18.6 pm∕microstrain and 58.5pm/°C have been observed. Experimental results show that smaller core diameter graded-index fibers display greater strain-induced peak wavelength shifts than larger core diameter fibers.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Yuan and M. A. El-Sherif, "Fiber-optic chemical sensor using polyaniline as modified cladding material," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 5-12 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. C. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chuang, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratins with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Exp. 11, 476-481 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Kumar, N. K. Goel, and R. K. Varshney, "Studies on a few-mode fiber-optic strain sensor based on LP01-LP02 mode interference," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 358-362 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Wang and G. Farrell, "All-fiber multimode-interference-based refractometer sensor: proposal and design," Opt. Lett. 31, 317-319 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Mehta, W. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, "Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1129-1131 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. J. Chen, "Use of liquid-crystal-clad fiber as a modal filter for a two-mode fiber-optic interferometer," Opt. Lett. 29, 2852-2854 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Li, C. H. Lin, P. Y. Tseng, and H. P. Lee, "Demonstration of high extinction ratio modal interference in a two-mode fiber and its applications for all-fiber comb filter and high-temperature sensor," Opt. Commun. 250, 280-285 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Savovic and A. Djordjevich, "Mode coupling in strained and unstrained step-index plastic optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 45, 6775-6780 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

Q. Li, C. H. Lin, P. Y. Tseng, and H. P. Lee, "Demonstration of high extinction ratio modal interference in a two-mode fiber and its applications for all-fiber comb filter and high-temperature sensor," Opt. Commun. 250, 280-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

J. Yuan and M. A. El-Sherif, "Fiber-optic chemical sensor using polyaniline as modified cladding material," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 5-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chuang, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratins with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Exp. 11, 476-481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Mehta, W. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, "Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1129-1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. J.

Chuang, Y.

Y. C. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chuang, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratins with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Exp. 11, 476-481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Djordjevich, A.

El-Sherif, M. A.

J. Yuan and M. A. El-Sherif, "Fiber-optic chemical sensor using polyaniline as modified cladding material," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 5-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, G.

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goel, N. K.

Han, Y. C.

Y. C. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chuang, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratins with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Exp. 11, 476-481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, E. G.

A. Mehta, W. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, "Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1129-1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

Y. C. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chuang, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratins with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Exp. 11, 476-481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

Y. C. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chuang, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratins with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Exp. 11, 476-481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. P.

Q. Li, C. H. Lin, P. Y. Tseng, and H. P. Lee, "Demonstration of high extinction ratio modal interference in a two-mode fiber and its applications for all-fiber comb filter and high-temperature sensor," Opt. Commun. 250, 280-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

Y. C. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chuang, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratins with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Exp. 11, 476-481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, C. H. Lin, P. Y. Tseng, and H. P. Lee, "Demonstration of high extinction ratio modal interference in a two-mode fiber and its applications for all-fiber comb filter and high-temperature sensor," Opt. Commun. 250, 280-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

Q. Li, C. H. Lin, P. Y. Tseng, and H. P. Lee, "Demonstration of high extinction ratio modal interference in a two-mode fiber and its applications for all-fiber comb filter and high-temperature sensor," Opt. Commun. 250, 280-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, A.

A. Mehta, W. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, "Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1129-1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, W.

A. Mehta, W. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, "Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1129-1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

Y. C. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chuang, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratins with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Exp. 11, 476-481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Savovic, S.

Tseng, P. Y.

Q. Li, C. H. Lin, P. Y. Tseng, and H. P. Lee, "Demonstration of high extinction ratio modal interference in a two-mode fiber and its applications for all-fiber comb filter and high-temperature sensor," Opt. Commun. 250, 280-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varshney, R. K.

Wang, Q.

Yuan, J.

J. Yuan and M. A. El-Sherif, "Fiber-optic chemical sensor using polyaniline as modified cladding material," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 5-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Mehta, W. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, "Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1129-1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

J. Yuan and M. A. El-Sherif, "Fiber-optic chemical sensor using polyaniline as modified cladding material," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 5-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, N. K. Goel, and R. K. Varshney, "Studies on a few-mode fiber-optic strain sensor based on LP01-LP02 mode interference," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 358-362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Q. Li, C. H. Lin, P. Y. Tseng, and H. P. Lee, "Demonstration of high extinction ratio modal interference in a two-mode fiber and its applications for all-fiber comb filter and high-temperature sensor," Opt. Commun. 250, 280-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y. C. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chuang, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratins with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Exp. 11, 476-481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of all-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer. SMF, single mode fiber; GI MMF, graded-index multimode fiber; LED, broadband light source; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extinction ratio with respect to the relative power distribution of the two interfering modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission spectrum of GI MMF, showing 0–0.5 dB loss at peak wavelength and 5 dB extinction ratio. Core∕cladding diameters: 100 / 140   μm , L = 1.8 m, NA of 0.29.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peak spacing with respect to the GI MMF fiber length, showing as inversely proportional to the fiber length. Core∕cladding diameters: 62 .5 / 125   μm (dots); 100 / 140   μm (triangles).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured peak wavelength shift with respect to the applied strain, showing 18.6 and 9.8 pm∕microstrain sensitivities for the core∕cladding diameters: 62 .5 / 125   μm (dots); 100 / 140   μm (triangles).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Peak wavelength shift with respect to the changes of ambient temperature, showing a 58.5 pm / ° C sensitivity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Polarization dependence of GI multimode fiber-based MZI, showing 55% of wavelength spacing ( 0.53   nm ) polarization shifts.

Equations (4)

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I = I 1 + I 2 + 2 I 1 I 2 cos [ 2 π Δ n L λ ] ,
Δ λ λ 2 Δ n L .
λ = Δ n L / N .
Δ λ λ [ 1 Δ n ( Δ n ) T + 1 L L T ] Δ T + [ 1 + 1 Δ n ( Δ n ) ε ] ε ,

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