Abstract

We describe recent work to evaluate the potential performance of an interferometric fiber-optic microphone for battlefield acoustics. The microphone design has high sensitivity and flat response at low frequency and is readily multiplexed. The design is simple and could be manufactured at low cost, which is desirable since in operation the sensors may need to be disposable. Field trial results from an array of microphones are discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Mahajan and M. Walworth, "3-D position sensing using the difference in the time-of-flights from a wave source to various receivers," IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 17, 91-94 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Chen, K. Yaoand, and R. Hudson, "Source localization and beamforming," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 19, 30-39 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Aarabi, "The fusion of distributed microphone arrays for sound localization," EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Process. 338-347 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, "Large-scale, remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D 37, R197-R216 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. L. Gardner, T. Hofler, S. R. Baker, R. K. Yarber, and S. L. Garrett, "A fiber-optic interferometric seismometer," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 953-959 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. D. Pechstedt and D. A. Jackson, "Design of a compliant cylinder type fiber optic accelerometer: Theory and experiment" Appl. Opt. 34, 3009-3017 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, and P. G. Bhuta, "Fiber-optic detection of sound," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136-1138 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Zeng, C. Shi, D. Wang, M. Zhang, and Y. Liao, "Diaphragm-type fiber-optic interferometric acoustic sensor," Opt. Eng. 42, 2558-2562 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. A. Zumberge, J. Berger, M. A. H. Hedlin, E. Husmann, S. Nooner, R. Hilt, and R. Widmer-Schnidrig, "An optical fiber infrasound sensor: a new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2474-2479 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. N. Fields and J. H. Cole, "Fiber microbend acoustic sensor," Appl. Opt. 19, 3265-3267 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. M. Jost and J. P. Stec, "Refractive fiber optic microphones with ambient acoustic noise-cancelling capabilities," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1612-1617 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. M. Lawson and V. J. Tekippe, "Fiber-optic diaphragm-curvature pressure transducer," Opt. Lett. 8, 286-288 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. A. Bucaro and N. Lagakos, "Lightweight fiber optic microphones and accelerometers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2816-2821 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Nakamura, S. Toda, and M. Yamanouchi, "A two-dimensional optical fibre micro-phone array with matrix-style data readout," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 859-864 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, and A. Kersey, Optical Fiber Sensors (Artech House, 1997), Vol. 4.
  18. C. M. Harris, Handbook of Acoustical Measurements and Noise Control, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1998).

2004 (2)

C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D 37, R197-R216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

P. Aarabi, "The fusion of distributed microphone arrays for sound localization," EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Process. 338-347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, "Large-scale, remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Zeng, C. Shi, D. Wang, M. Zhang, and Y. Liao, "Diaphragm-type fiber-optic interferometric acoustic sensor," Opt. Eng. 42, 2558-2562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Zumberge, J. Berger, M. A. H. Hedlin, E. Husmann, S. Nooner, R. Hilt, and R. Widmer-Schnidrig, "An optical fiber infrasound sensor: a new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2474-2479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Chen, K. Yaoand, and R. Hudson, "Source localization and beamforming," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 19, 30-39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

A. Mahajan and M. Walworth, "3-D position sensing using the difference in the time-of-flights from a wave source to various receivers," IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 17, 91-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bucaro and N. Lagakos, "Lightweight fiber optic microphones and accelerometers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2816-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, S. Toda, and M. Yamanouchi, "A two-dimensional optical fibre micro-phone array with matrix-style data readout," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 859-864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

B. M. Jost and J. P. Stec, "Refractive fiber optic microphones with ambient acoustic noise-cancelling capabilities," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1612-1617 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Pechstedt and D. A. Jackson, "Design of a compliant cylinder type fiber optic accelerometer: Theory and experiment" Appl. Opt. 34, 3009-3017 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

D. L. Gardner, T. Hofler, S. R. Baker, R. K. Yarber, and S. L. Garrett, "A fiber-optic interferometric seismometer," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 953-959 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

1977 (1)

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, and P. G. Bhuta, "Fiber-optic detection of sound," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136-1138 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aarabi, P.

P. Aarabi, "The fusion of distributed microphone arrays for sound localization," EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Process. 338-347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. R.

D. L. Gardner, T. Hofler, S. R. Baker, R. K. Yarber, and S. L. Garrett, "A fiber-optic interferometric seismometer," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 953-959 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bautista, A.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, "Large-scale, remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J.

M. A. Zumberge, J. Berger, M. A. H. Hedlin, E. Husmann, S. Nooner, R. Hilt, and R. Widmer-Schnidrig, "An optical fiber infrasound sensor: a new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2474-2479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhuta, P. G.

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, and P. G. Bhuta, "Fiber-optic detection of sound," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136-1138 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bucaro, J. A.

J. A. Bucaro and N. Lagakos, "Lightweight fiber optic microphones and accelerometers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2816-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, K. Yaoand, and R. Hudson, "Source localization and beamforming," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 19, 30-39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cole, J. H.

J. N. Fields and J. H. Cole, "Fiber microbend acoustic sensor," Appl. Opt. 19, 3265-3267 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, and P. G. Bhuta, "Fiber-optic detection of sound," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136-1138 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cranch, G. A.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, "Large-scale, remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crickmore, R.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, "Large-scale, remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, and A. Kersey, Optical Fiber Sensors (Artech House, 1997), Vol. 4.

Dakin, J.

J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, and A. Kersey, Optical Fiber Sensors (Artech House, 1997), Vol. 4.

Daley, K.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, "Large-scale, remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D 37, R197-R216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fields, J. N.

Gardner, D. L.

D. L. Gardner, T. Hofler, S. R. Baker, R. K. Yarber, and S. L. Garrett, "A fiber-optic interferometric seismometer," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 953-959 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, S. L.

D. L. Gardner, T. Hofler, S. R. Baker, R. K. Yarber, and S. L. Garrett, "A fiber-optic interferometric seismometer," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 953-959 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Harris, C. M.

C. M. Harris, Handbook of Acoustical Measurements and Noise Control, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1998).

Hedlin, M. A. H.

M. A. Zumberge, J. Berger, M. A. H. Hedlin, E. Husmann, S. Nooner, R. Hilt, and R. Widmer-Schnidrig, "An optical fiber infrasound sensor: a new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2474-2479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilt, R.

M. A. Zumberge, J. Berger, M. A. H. Hedlin, E. Husmann, S. Nooner, R. Hilt, and R. Widmer-Schnidrig, "An optical fiber infrasound sensor: a new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2474-2479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofler, T.

D. L. Gardner, T. Hofler, S. R. Baker, R. K. Yarber, and S. L. Garrett, "A fiber-optic interferometric seismometer," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 953-959 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, R.

J. Chen, K. Yaoand, and R. Hudson, "Source localization and beamforming," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 19, 30-39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Husmann, E.

M. A. Zumberge, J. Berger, M. A. H. Hedlin, E. Husmann, S. Nooner, R. Hilt, and R. Widmer-Schnidrig, "An optical fiber infrasound sensor: a new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2474-2479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, D. A.

Johnson, R. L.

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, and P. G. Bhuta, "Fiber-optic detection of sound," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136-1138 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jost, B. M.

B. M. Jost and J. P. Stec, "Refractive fiber optic microphones with ambient acoustic noise-cancelling capabilities," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1612-1617 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A.

J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, and A. Kersey, Optical Fiber Sensors (Artech House, 1997), Vol. 4.

Kirkendall, C. K.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D 37, R197-R216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, "Large-scale, remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lagakos, N.

J. A. Bucaro and N. Lagakos, "Lightweight fiber optic microphones and accelerometers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2816-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Latchem, J.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, "Large-scale, remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, C. M.

Liao, Y.

N. Zeng, C. Shi, D. Wang, M. Zhang, and Y. Liao, "Diaphragm-type fiber-optic interferometric acoustic sensor," Opt. Eng. 42, 2558-2562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mahajan, A.

A. Mahajan and M. Walworth, "3-D position sensing using the difference in the time-of-flights from a wave source to various receivers," IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 17, 91-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Motley, S.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, "Large-scale, remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, S. Toda, and M. Yamanouchi, "A two-dimensional optical fibre micro-phone array with matrix-style data readout," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 859-864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nash, P. J.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, "Large-scale, remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nooner, S.

M. A. Zumberge, J. Berger, M. A. H. Hedlin, E. Husmann, S. Nooner, R. Hilt, and R. Widmer-Schnidrig, "An optical fiber infrasound sensor: a new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2474-2479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pechstedt, R. D.

Salzano, J.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, "Large-scale, remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, C.

N. Zeng, C. Shi, D. Wang, M. Zhang, and Y. Liao, "Diaphragm-type fiber-optic interferometric acoustic sensor," Opt. Eng. 42, 2558-2562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stec, J. P.

B. M. Jost and J. P. Stec, "Refractive fiber optic microphones with ambient acoustic noise-cancelling capabilities," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1612-1617 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tekippe, V. J.

Toda, S.

K. Nakamura, S. Toda, and M. Yamanouchi, "A two-dimensional optical fibre micro-phone array with matrix-style data readout," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 859-864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walworth, M.

A. Mahajan and M. Walworth, "3-D position sensing using the difference in the time-of-flights from a wave source to various receivers," IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 17, 91-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

N. Zeng, C. Shi, D. Wang, M. Zhang, and Y. Liao, "Diaphragm-type fiber-optic interferometric acoustic sensor," Opt. Eng. 42, 2558-2562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Widmer-Schnidrig, R.

M. A. Zumberge, J. Berger, M. A. H. Hedlin, E. Husmann, S. Nooner, R. Hilt, and R. Widmer-Schnidrig, "An optical fiber infrasound sensor: a new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2474-2479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanouchi, M.

K. Nakamura, S. Toda, and M. Yamanouchi, "A two-dimensional optical fibre micro-phone array with matrix-style data readout," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 859-864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yaoand, K.

J. Chen, K. Yaoand, and R. Hudson, "Source localization and beamforming," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 19, 30-39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yarber, R. K.

D. L. Gardner, T. Hofler, S. R. Baker, R. K. Yarber, and S. L. Garrett, "A fiber-optic interferometric seismometer," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 953-959 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, N.

N. Zeng, C. Shi, D. Wang, M. Zhang, and Y. Liao, "Diaphragm-type fiber-optic interferometric acoustic sensor," Opt. Eng. 42, 2558-2562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

N. Zeng, C. Shi, D. Wang, M. Zhang, and Y. Liao, "Diaphragm-type fiber-optic interferometric acoustic sensor," Opt. Eng. 42, 2558-2562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zumberge, M. A.

M. A. Zumberge, J. Berger, M. A. H. Hedlin, E. Husmann, S. Nooner, R. Hilt, and R. Widmer-Schnidrig, "An optical fiber infrasound sensor: a new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2474-2479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, and R. Crickmore, "Large-scale, remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

J. Chen, K. Yaoand, and R. Hudson, "Source localization and beamforming," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 19, 30-39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. (1)

A. Mahajan and M. Walworth, "3-D position sensing using the difference in the time-of-flights from a wave source to various receivers," IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 17, 91-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (4)

M. A. Zumberge, J. Berger, M. A. H. Hedlin, E. Husmann, S. Nooner, R. Hilt, and R. Widmer-Schnidrig, "An optical fiber infrasound sensor: a new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2474-2479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Jost and J. P. Stec, "Refractive fiber optic microphones with ambient acoustic noise-cancelling capabilities," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1612-1617 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, and P. G. Bhuta, "Fiber-optic detection of sound," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136-1138 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Signal Process. (1)

P. Aarabi, "The fusion of distributed microphone arrays for sound localization," EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Process. 338-347 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

D. L. Gardner, T. Hofler, S. R. Baker, R. K. Yarber, and S. L. Garrett, "A fiber-optic interferometric seismometer," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 953-959 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D 37, R197-R216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Nakamura, S. Toda, and M. Yamanouchi, "A two-dimensional optical fibre micro-phone array with matrix-style data readout," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 859-864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Zeng, C. Shi, D. Wang, M. Zhang, and Y. Liao, "Diaphragm-type fiber-optic interferometric acoustic sensor," Opt. Eng. 42, 2558-2562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. A. Bucaro and N. Lagakos, "Lightweight fiber optic microphones and accelerometers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2816-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, and A. Kersey, Optical Fiber Sensors (Artech House, 1997), Vol. 4.

C. M. Harris, Handbook of Acoustical Measurements and Noise Control, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1998).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Interferometric microphone construction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of interrogation system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microphone characterization scheme.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interferometric microphone response.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Microphone array.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Trigonometric source location methodology.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Acoustic source location outside.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Zoom on loci intersection (outside).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Impact of sample time error on positional loci.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Gun fire in field trial.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Source locations for heavy gun fire: (a) gun X, (b) gun Y, (c) gun Z.

Metrics