Abstract

A simple sensor element consisting of a side-polished single-mode fiber and a planar metal oxide waveguide is described. The thin ZnO planar waveguide was produced on the polished fiber surface by pulsed laser deposition at optimized processing parameters. A measurement scheme for in situ control of the film thickness during the deposition process was developed and used. X-ray diffraction measurements and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and the surface morphology of the planar waveguide, respectively. The numerical evaluation of the sensor sensitivity predicts the possibility to detect refractive index changes of less than 104. Furthermore, preliminary gas sensor tests were performed by using a mixture of 1.5% butane diluted in N2 and pure butane. A shift of the spectral position of the resonance points was observed from 3 to 5 s after gas exposure, which corresponds to refractive index changes of 3×105 and 1.2×103 for 1.5% butane and for pure butane, respectively.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  2. P. T. Moseley, J. O. W. Norris, and D. E. Williams, Techniques and Mechanisms in Gas Sensing (Hilger, 1991).
  3. T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, L. Spalluto, F. Flory, G. Socol, C. Ristoscu, E. Axente, S. Grigorescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and N. A. Vainos, "Nanostructured ZnO coatings grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical gas sensing of butane," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074312 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Alvarez-Herrero, H. Guerrero, and D. Levy, "High-sensitivity sensor of low relative humidity based on overlay on side-polished fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 4, 52-55 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. O. Dikovska, P. A. Atanasov, C. Vasilev, I. G. Dimitrov, and T. R. Stoyanchov, "Thin ZnO films produced by pulsed laser deposition," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1329-1334 (2005).
  14. A. Andreev, B. Pantchev, P. Danesh, B. Zafirova, E. Karakoleva, E. Vlaikova, and E. Alipieva, "A refractometric sensor using index-sensitive mode fiber and thin film amorphous silicon waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 106, 484-488 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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2005

T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, L. Spalluto, F. Flory, G. Socol, C. Ristoscu, E. Axente, S. Grigorescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and N. A. Vainos, "Nanostructured ZnO coatings grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical gas sensing of butane," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jelinek, T. Kocourek, V. Myslik, M. Vrnata, R. Frycek, V. Komenda, F. Vyslouzil, T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory. "Thin film gas chemical sensors based on resistive or optical detection," in 13th International School on Quantum Electronics: Laser Physics and Applications, P. A. Atanasov, S. V. Gateva, L. A. Avramov, and A. A. Serafetinides, eds., Proc. SPIE 5830, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Dikovska, P. A. Atanasov, C. Vasilev, I. G. Dimitrov, and T. R. Stoyanchov, "Thin ZnO films produced by pulsed laser deposition," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1329-1334 (2005).

A. Andreev, B. Pantchev, P. Danesh, B. Zafirova, E. Karakoleva, E. Vlaikova, and E. Alipieva, "A refractometric sensor using index-sensitive mode fiber and thin film amorphous silicon waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 106, 484-488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Alvarez-Herrero, H. Guerrero, and D. Levy, "High-sensitivity sensor of low relative humidity based on overlay on side-polished fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 4, 52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. G. Jung, S.-W. Kim, K.-T. Kim, E.-S. Kim, and S.-W. Kang, "High-sensitivity temperature sensor using a side-polished single-mode fiber covered with a polymer planar waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1209-1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Alvarez-Herrero, H. Guerrero, T. Belenguer, and D. Levy, "High-sensitivity temperature sensor based on overlay on side-polished fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1043-1045 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

1994

K. P. Panajotov, "Polarization properties of a fiber-to-asymmetric planar waveguide coupler," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 983-988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

W. Jonstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, and B. Culshaw, "Fibre optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution," Electron. Lett. 28, 1364-1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

1983

K. Böhm, K. Petermann, and D. Weidel, "Performance of Lyot depolarizers with birefringent single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 71-74 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. J.

M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides (Wiley, 1981).

Alipieva, E.

A. Andreev, B. Pantchev, P. Danesh, B. Zafirova, E. Karakoleva, E. Vlaikova, and E. Alipieva, "A refractometric sensor using index-sensitive mode fiber and thin film amorphous silicon waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 106, 484-488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez-Herrero, A.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, H. Guerrero, and D. Levy, "High-sensitivity sensor of low relative humidity based on overlay on side-polished fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 4, 52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alvarez-Herrero, H. Guerrero, T. Belenguer, and D. Levy, "High-sensitivity temperature sensor based on overlay on side-polished fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1043-1045 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, A.

A. Andreev, B. Pantchev, P. Danesh, B. Zafirova, E. Karakoleva, E. Vlaikova, and E. Alipieva, "A refractometric sensor using index-sensitive mode fiber and thin film amorphous silicon waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 106, 484-488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ashwell, G. J.

Atanasov, P. A.

A. O. Dikovska, P. A. Atanasov, C. Vasilev, I. G. Dimitrov, and T. R. Stoyanchov, "Thin ZnO films produced by pulsed laser deposition," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1329-1334 (2005).

Axente, E.

T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, L. Spalluto, F. Flory, G. Socol, C. Ristoscu, E. Axente, S. Grigorescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and N. A. Vainos, "Nanostructured ZnO coatings grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical gas sensing of butane," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Belenguer, T.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, H. Guerrero, T. Belenguer, and D. Levy, "High-sensitivity temperature sensor based on overlay on side-polished fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1043-1045 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Böhm, K.

K. Böhm, K. Petermann, and D. Weidel, "Performance of Lyot depolarizers with birefringent single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 71-74 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Brierley, M.

Culshaw, B.

W. Jonstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, and B. Culshaw, "Fibre optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution," Electron. Lett. 28, 1364-1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Danesh, P.

A. Andreev, B. Pantchev, P. Danesh, B. Zafirova, E. Karakoleva, E. Vlaikova, and E. Alipieva, "A refractometric sensor using index-sensitive mode fiber and thin film amorphous silicon waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 106, 484-488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dikovska, A. O.

A. O. Dikovska, P. A. Atanasov, C. Vasilev, I. G. Dimitrov, and T. R. Stoyanchov, "Thin ZnO films produced by pulsed laser deposition," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1329-1334 (2005).

Dimitrov, I. G.

A. O. Dikovska, P. A. Atanasov, C. Vasilev, I. G. Dimitrov, and T. R. Stoyanchov, "Thin ZnO films produced by pulsed laser deposition," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1329-1334 (2005).

Dinleyici, M. S.

Escoubas, L.

M. Jelinek, T. Kocourek, V. Myslik, M. Vrnata, R. Frycek, V. Komenda, F. Vyslouzil, T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory. "Thin film gas chemical sensors based on resistive or optical detection," in 13th International School on Quantum Electronics: Laser Physics and Applications, P. A. Atanasov, S. V. Gateva, L. A. Avramov, and A. A. Serafetinides, eds., Proc. SPIE 5830, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, L. Spalluto, F. Flory, G. Socol, C. Ristoscu, E. Axente, S. Grigorescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and N. A. Vainos, "Nanostructured ZnO coatings grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical gas sensing of butane," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, D.

Flory, F.

M. Jelinek, T. Kocourek, V. Myslik, M. Vrnata, R. Frycek, V. Komenda, F. Vyslouzil, T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory. "Thin film gas chemical sensors based on resistive or optical detection," in 13th International School on Quantum Electronics: Laser Physics and Applications, P. A. Atanasov, S. V. Gateva, L. A. Avramov, and A. A. Serafetinides, eds., Proc. SPIE 5830, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, L. Spalluto, F. Flory, G. Socol, C. Ristoscu, E. Axente, S. Grigorescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and N. A. Vainos, "Nanostructured ZnO coatings grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical gas sensing of butane," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frycek, R.

M. Jelinek, T. Kocourek, V. Myslik, M. Vrnata, R. Frycek, V. Komenda, F. Vyslouzil, T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory. "Thin film gas chemical sensors based on resistive or optical detection," in 13th International School on Quantum Electronics: Laser Physics and Applications, P. A. Atanasov, S. V. Gateva, L. A. Avramov, and A. A. Serafetinides, eds., Proc. SPIE 5830, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grigorescu, S.

T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, L. Spalluto, F. Flory, G. Socol, C. Ristoscu, E. Axente, S. Grigorescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and N. A. Vainos, "Nanostructured ZnO coatings grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical gas sensing of butane," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guerrero, H.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, H. Guerrero, and D. Levy, "High-sensitivity sensor of low relative humidity based on overlay on side-polished fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 4, 52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alvarez-Herrero, H. Guerrero, T. Belenguer, and D. Levy, "High-sensitivity temperature sensor based on overlay on side-polished fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1043-1045 (2000).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

Jelinek, M.

M. Jelinek, T. Kocourek, V. Myslik, M. Vrnata, R. Frycek, V. Komenda, F. Vyslouzil, T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory. "Thin film gas chemical sensors based on resistive or optical detection," in 13th International School on Quantum Electronics: Laser Physics and Applications, P. A. Atanasov, S. V. Gateva, L. A. Avramov, and A. A. Serafetinides, eds., Proc. SPIE 5830, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jonstone, W.

W. Jonstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, and B. Culshaw, "Fibre optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution," Electron. Lett. 28, 1364-1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W. G.

W. G. Jung, S.-W. Kim, K.-T. Kim, E.-S. Kim, and S.-W. Kang, "High-sensitivity temperature sensor using a side-polished single-mode fiber covered with a polymer planar waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1209-1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S.-W.

W. G. Jung, S.-W. Kim, K.-T. Kim, E.-S. Kim, and S.-W. Kang, "High-sensitivity temperature sensor using a side-polished single-mode fiber covered with a polymer planar waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1209-1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karakoleva, E.

A. Andreev, B. Pantchev, P. Danesh, B. Zafirova, E. Karakoleva, E. Vlaikova, and E. Alipieva, "A refractometric sensor using index-sensitive mode fiber and thin film amorphous silicon waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 106, 484-488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.-S.

W. G. Jung, S.-W. Kim, K.-T. Kim, E.-S. Kim, and S.-W. Kang, "High-sensitivity temperature sensor using a side-polished single-mode fiber covered with a polymer planar waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1209-1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-T.

W. G. Jung, S.-W. Kim, K.-T. Kim, E.-S. Kim, and S.-W. Kang, "High-sensitivity temperature sensor using a side-polished single-mode fiber covered with a polymer planar waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1209-1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-W.

W. G. Jung, S.-W. Kim, K.-T. Kim, E.-S. Kim, and S.-W. Kang, "High-sensitivity temperature sensor using a side-polished single-mode fiber covered with a polymer planar waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1209-1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kocourek, T.

M. Jelinek, T. Kocourek, V. Myslik, M. Vrnata, R. Frycek, V. Komenda, F. Vyslouzil, T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory. "Thin film gas chemical sensors based on resistive or optical detection," in 13th International School on Quantum Electronics: Laser Physics and Applications, P. A. Atanasov, S. V. Gateva, L. A. Avramov, and A. A. Serafetinides, eds., Proc. SPIE 5830, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Komenda, V.

M. Jelinek, T. Kocourek, V. Myslik, M. Vrnata, R. Frycek, V. Komenda, F. Vyslouzil, T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory. "Thin film gas chemical sensors based on resistive or optical detection," in 13th International School on Quantum Electronics: Laser Physics and Applications, P. A. Atanasov, S. V. Gateva, L. A. Avramov, and A. A. Serafetinides, eds., Proc. SPIE 5830, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levy, D.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, H. Guerrero, and D. Levy, "High-sensitivity sensor of low relative humidity based on overlay on side-polished fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 4, 52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alvarez-Herrero, H. Guerrero, T. Belenguer, and D. Levy, "High-sensitivity temperature sensor based on overlay on side-polished fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1043-1045 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mallinson, S.

Mazingue, T.

M. Jelinek, T. Kocourek, V. Myslik, M. Vrnata, R. Frycek, V. Komenda, F. Vyslouzil, T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory. "Thin film gas chemical sensors based on resistive or optical detection," in 13th International School on Quantum Electronics: Laser Physics and Applications, P. A. Atanasov, S. V. Gateva, L. A. Avramov, and A. A. Serafetinides, eds., Proc. SPIE 5830, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, L. Spalluto, F. Flory, G. Socol, C. Ristoscu, E. Axente, S. Grigorescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and N. A. Vainos, "Nanostructured ZnO coatings grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical gas sensing of butane," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mihailescu, I. N.

T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, L. Spalluto, F. Flory, G. Socol, C. Ristoscu, E. Axente, S. Grigorescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and N. A. Vainos, "Nanostructured ZnO coatings grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical gas sensing of butane," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C.

Moodie, D.

W. Jonstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, and B. Culshaw, "Fibre optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution," Electron. Lett. 28, 1364-1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moseley, P. T.

P. T. Moseley, J. O. W. Norris, and D. E. Williams, Techniques and Mechanisms in Gas Sensing (Hilger, 1991).

Myslik, V.

M. Jelinek, T. Kocourek, V. Myslik, M. Vrnata, R. Frycek, V. Komenda, F. Vyslouzil, T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory. "Thin film gas chemical sensors based on resistive or optical detection," in 13th International School on Quantum Electronics: Laser Physics and Applications, P. A. Atanasov, S. V. Gateva, L. A. Avramov, and A. A. Serafetinides, eds., Proc. SPIE 5830, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Norris, J. O. W.

P. T. Moseley, J. O. W. Norris, and D. E. Williams, Techniques and Mechanisms in Gas Sensing (Hilger, 1991).

Panajotov, K. P.

K. P. Panajotov, "Polarization properties of a fiber-to-asymmetric planar waveguide coupler," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 983-988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pantchev, B.

A. Andreev, B. Pantchev, P. Danesh, B. Zafirova, E. Karakoleva, E. Vlaikova, and E. Alipieva, "A refractometric sensor using index-sensitive mode fiber and thin film amorphous silicon waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 106, 484-488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, D. B.

Petermann, K.

K. Böhm, K. Petermann, and D. Weidel, "Performance of Lyot depolarizers with birefringent single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 71-74 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ristoscu, C.

T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, L. Spalluto, F. Flory, G. Socol, C. Ristoscu, E. Axente, S. Grigorescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and N. A. Vainos, "Nanostructured ZnO coatings grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical gas sensing of butane," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sberveglieri, G.

G. Sberveglieri, Gas Sensors, Principles, Operation and Developments (Kluwer Academic, 1992).

Socol, G.

T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, L. Spalluto, F. Flory, G. Socol, C. Ristoscu, E. Axente, S. Grigorescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and N. A. Vainos, "Nanostructured ZnO coatings grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical gas sensing of butane," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spalluto, L.

T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, L. Spalluto, F. Flory, G. Socol, C. Ristoscu, E. Axente, S. Grigorescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and N. A. Vainos, "Nanostructured ZnO coatings grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical gas sensing of butane," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stoyanchov, T. R.

A. O. Dikovska, P. A. Atanasov, C. Vasilev, I. G. Dimitrov, and T. R. Stoyanchov, "Thin ZnO films produced by pulsed laser deposition," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1329-1334 (2005).

Tatam, R. P.

Thursby, G.

W. Jonstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, and B. Culshaw, "Fibre optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution," Electron. Lett. 28, 1364-1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vainos, N. A.

T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, L. Spalluto, F. Flory, G. Socol, C. Ristoscu, E. Axente, S. Grigorescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and N. A. Vainos, "Nanostructured ZnO coatings grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical gas sensing of butane," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varshney, R.

W. Jonstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, and B. Culshaw, "Fibre optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution," Electron. Lett. 28, 1364-1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vasilev, C.

A. O. Dikovska, P. A. Atanasov, C. Vasilev, I. G. Dimitrov, and T. R. Stoyanchov, "Thin ZnO films produced by pulsed laser deposition," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 1329-1334 (2005).

Vlaikova, E.

A. Andreev, B. Pantchev, P. Danesh, B. Zafirova, E. Karakoleva, E. Vlaikova, and E. Alipieva, "A refractometric sensor using index-sensitive mode fiber and thin film amorphous silicon waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 106, 484-488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vrnata, M.

M. Jelinek, T. Kocourek, V. Myslik, M. Vrnata, R. Frycek, V. Komenda, F. Vyslouzil, T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory. "Thin film gas chemical sensors based on resistive or optical detection," in 13th International School on Quantum Electronics: Laser Physics and Applications, P. A. Atanasov, S. V. Gateva, L. A. Avramov, and A. A. Serafetinides, eds., Proc. SPIE 5830, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vyslouzil, F.

M. Jelinek, T. Kocourek, V. Myslik, M. Vrnata, R. Frycek, V. Komenda, F. Vyslouzil, T. Mazingue, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory. "Thin film gas chemical sensors based on resistive or optical detection," in 13th International School on Quantum Electronics: Laser Physics and Applications, P. A. Atanasov, S. V. Gateva, L. A. Avramov, and A. A. Serafetinides, eds., Proc. SPIE 5830, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weidel, D.

K. Böhm, K. Petermann, and D. Weidel, "Performance of Lyot depolarizers with birefringent single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 71-74 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. E.

P. T. Moseley, J. O. W. Norris, and D. E. Williams, Techniques and Mechanisms in Gas Sensing (Hilger, 1991).

Zafirova, B.

A. Andreev, B. Pantchev, P. Danesh, B. Zafirova, E. Karakoleva, E. Vlaikova, and E. Alipieva, "A refractometric sensor using index-sensitive mode fiber and thin film amorphous silicon waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 106, 484-488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

W. Jonstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, and B. Culshaw, "Fibre optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution," Electron. Lett. 28, 1364-1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, H. Guerrero, T. Belenguer, and D. Levy, "High-sensitivity temperature sensor based on overlay on side-polished fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1043-1045 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Jung, S.-W. Kim, K.-T. Kim, E.-S. Kim, and S.-W. Kang, "High-sensitivity temperature sensor using a side-polished single-mode fiber covered with a polymer planar waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1209-1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, H. Guerrero, and D. Levy, "High-sensitivity sensor of low relative humidity based on overlay on side-polished fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 4, 52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic view and (b) a cross section of the side-polished fiber sensor element.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical scheme for in situ control of the film thickness during the deposition process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time dependence of the output fiber intensity during the deposition process.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral dependence of the output signal from the sensor element with deposited ZnO film and interaction with the planar waveguide TE1 mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

XRD spectrum of the ZnO planar waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM photograph of the ZnO planar waveguide. Magnification × 50, 000 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Numerically calculated wavelength dependences of the effective refractive indices of the fiber mode and the TE1 mode of a planar waveguide at 1, n ZnO = 1.8704 ; 2, n ZnO = 1.8694 ; 3, n ZnO = 1.8684 ; 4, n ZnO = 1.8674 ; 5, n ZnO = 1.8664 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temperature dependence of the resonance minimum wavelength.

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