Abstract

In the near-infrared and visible bandpasses optical propagation theory conventionally assumes that humidity does not contribute to the effects of atmospheric turbulence on optical beams. While this assumption may be reasonable for dry locations, we demonstrate that there is an unequivocal effect owing to the presence of humidity upon the strength of turbulence parameter, Cn2, from data collected in the Chesapeake Bay area over 100 m length horizontal propagation paths. We describe and apply a novel technique, Hilbert phase analysis, to the relative humidity, temperature, and Cn2 data to show the contribution of the relevant climate variable to Cn2 as a function of time.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. M. P. J. L. Chang, E. A. Roura, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, "Applying the Hilbert-Huang decomposition to horizontal light propagation Cn2 data," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683E (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. O. Font, M. P. J. L. Chang, E. Oh, and C. Gilbreath, "On the relationship between Cn2 and humidity," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683D (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

C. O. Font, M. P. J. L. Chang, E. Oh, and C. Gilbreath, "Humidity contribution to the refractive index structure function Cn2," in Atmospheric Propagation III, C. Y. Young and G. C. Gilbreath, eds., Proc. SPIE 6215, 621502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. P. J. L. Chang, E. A. Roura, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, "Applying the Hilbert-Huang decomposition to horizontal light propagation Cn2 data," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683E (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Font, M. P. J. L. Chang, E. Oh, and C. Gilbreath, "On the relationship between Cn2 and humidity," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683D (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

E. Oh, J. Ricklin, F. Eaton, C. Gilbreath, S. Doss-Hammell, C. Moore, J. Murphy, Y. H. Oh, and M. Stell, "Estimating optical turbulence using the PAMELA model," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, W. Gao and D. R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 256-266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, "A comparison of optical turbulence models," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, J. C. Ricklin and D. G. Voelz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 236-246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, G. C. Gilbreath, N. J. Vallestero, and F. D. Eaton, "Optical turbulence model for laser propagation and imaging applications," in Free-Space Laser Communication and Active Laser Illumination III, D. G. Voelz and J. C. Ricklin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5160, 25-32 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. A. Frederickson, K. L. Davidson, C. R. Zeisse, and C. S. Bendall, "Estimating the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1770-1783 (1999).

1998 (1)

N. E. Huang, Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, "The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and nonstationary time series analysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 454, 903-995 (1998).

1997 (1)

H. Beaumont, C. Aime, E. Aristidi, and H. Lantéri, "Image quality and seeing measurements for long horizontal overwater propagation," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 15-30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. J. Kunz, M. M. Moerman, P. J. Fritz, and G. de Leeuw, "Validation of a bulk turbulence model with thermal images of a point source," in Image Propagation through the Atmosphere, C. Dainty and L. R. Bissonnette, eds., Proc. SPIE 2828, 108-116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1981 (2)

1979 (1)

1974 (1)

Aime, C.

H. Beaumont, C. Aime, E. Aristidi, and H. Lantéri, "Image quality and seeing measurements for long horizontal overwater propagation," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 15-30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andreas, E. L.

Aristidi, E.

H. Beaumont, C. Aime, E. Aristidi, and H. Lantéri, "Image quality and seeing measurements for long horizontal overwater propagation," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 15-30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beaumont, H.

H. Beaumont, C. Aime, E. Aristidi, and H. Lantéri, "Image quality and seeing measurements for long horizontal overwater propagation," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 15-30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beland, R. R.

R. R. Beland, Propagation through Atmospheric Optical Turbulence (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1993).

Bendall, C. S.

P. A. Frederickson, K. L. Davidson, C. R. Zeisse, and C. S. Bendall, "Estimating the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1770-1783 (1999).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Chang, M. P. J. L.

C. O. Font, M. P. J. L. Chang, E. Oh, and C. Gilbreath, "Humidity contribution to the refractive index structure function Cn2," in Atmospheric Propagation III, C. Y. Young and G. C. Gilbreath, eds., Proc. SPIE 6215, 621502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. P. J. L. Chang, E. A. Roura, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, "Applying the Hilbert-Huang decomposition to horizontal light propagation Cn2 data," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683E (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Font, M. P. J. L. Chang, E. Oh, and C. Gilbreath, "On the relationship between Cn2 and humidity," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683D (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clifford, S. F.

Cohen, L.

L. Cohen, Time Frequency Analysis (Prentice Hall, 1995).

Davidson, K. L.

P. A. Frederickson, K. L. Davidson, C. R. Zeisse, and C. S. Bendall, "Estimating the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1770-1783 (1999).

K. L. Davidson, G. E. Schacher, C. W. Fairall, and A. K. Goroch, "Verification of the bulk method for calculating overwater optical turbulence," Appl. Opt. 20, 2919-2924 (1981).

de Leeuw, G.

G. J. Kunz, M. M. Moerman, P. J. Fritz, and G. de Leeuw, "Validation of a bulk turbulence model with thermal images of a point source," in Image Propagation through the Atmosphere, C. Dainty and L. R. Bissonnette, eds., Proc. SPIE 2828, 108-116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Doss-Hammel, S.

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, "A comparison of optical turbulence models," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, J. C. Ricklin and D. G. Voelz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 236-246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doss-Hammell, S.

E. Oh, J. Ricklin, F. Eaton, C. Gilbreath, S. Doss-Hammell, C. Moore, J. Murphy, Y. H. Oh, and M. Stell, "Estimating optical turbulence using the PAMELA model," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, W. Gao and D. R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 256-266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, F.

E. Oh, J. Ricklin, F. Eaton, C. Gilbreath, S. Doss-Hammell, C. Moore, J. Murphy, Y. H. Oh, and M. Stell, "Estimating optical turbulence using the PAMELA model," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, W. Gao and D. R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 256-266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, F. D.

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, "A comparison of optical turbulence models," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, J. C. Ricklin and D. G. Voelz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 236-246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, G. C. Gilbreath, N. J. Vallestero, and F. D. Eaton, "Optical turbulence model for laser propagation and imaging applications," in Free-Space Laser Communication and Active Laser Illumination III, D. G. Voelz and J. C. Ricklin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5160, 25-32 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fairall, C. W.

Font, C. O.

C. O. Font, M. P. J. L. Chang, E. Oh, and C. Gilbreath, "On the relationship between Cn2 and humidity," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683D (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. P. J. L. Chang, E. A. Roura, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, "Applying the Hilbert-Huang decomposition to horizontal light propagation Cn2 data," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683E (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Font, M. P. J. L. Chang, E. Oh, and C. Gilbreath, "Humidity contribution to the refractive index structure function Cn2," in Atmospheric Propagation III, C. Y. Young and G. C. Gilbreath, eds., Proc. SPIE 6215, 621502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frederickson, P. A.

P. A. Frederickson, K. L. Davidson, C. R. Zeisse, and C. S. Bendall, "Estimating the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1770-1783 (1999).

Fritz, P. J.

G. J. Kunz, M. M. Moerman, P. J. Fritz, and G. de Leeuw, "Validation of a bulk turbulence model with thermal images of a point source," in Image Propagation through the Atmosphere, C. Dainty and L. R. Bissonnette, eds., Proc. SPIE 2828, 108-116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gilbreath, C.

M. P. J. L. Chang, E. A. Roura, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, "Applying the Hilbert-Huang decomposition to horizontal light propagation Cn2 data," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683E (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Font, M. P. J. L. Chang, E. Oh, and C. Gilbreath, "On the relationship between Cn2 and humidity," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683D (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Font, M. P. J. L. Chang, E. Oh, and C. Gilbreath, "Humidity contribution to the refractive index structure function Cn2," in Atmospheric Propagation III, C. Y. Young and G. C. Gilbreath, eds., Proc. SPIE 6215, 621502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Oh, J. Ricklin, F. Eaton, C. Gilbreath, S. Doss-Hammell, C. Moore, J. Murphy, Y. H. Oh, and M. Stell, "Estimating optical turbulence using the PAMELA model," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, W. Gao and D. R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 256-266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gilbreath, G. C.

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, "A comparison of optical turbulence models," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, J. C. Ricklin and D. G. Voelz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 236-246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, G. C. Gilbreath, N. J. Vallestero, and F. D. Eaton, "Optical turbulence model for laser propagation and imaging applications," in Free-Space Laser Communication and Active Laser Illumination III, D. G. Voelz and J. C. Ricklin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5160, 25-32 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goroch, A. K.

Huang, N. E.

N. E. Huang, Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, "The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and nonstationary time series analysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 454, 903-995 (1998).

Kunz, G. J.

G. J. Kunz, M. M. Moerman, P. J. Fritz, and G. de Leeuw, "Validation of a bulk turbulence model with thermal images of a point source," in Image Propagation through the Atmosphere, C. Dainty and L. R. Bissonnette, eds., Proc. SPIE 2828, 108-116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lantéri, H.

H. Beaumont, C. Aime, E. Aristidi, and H. Lantéri, "Image quality and seeing measurements for long horizontal overwater propagation," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 15-30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, R. S.

Liu, H. H.

N. E. Huang, Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, "The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and nonstationary time series analysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 454, 903-995 (1998).

Long, S. R.

N. E. Huang, Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, "The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and nonstationary time series analysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 454, 903-995 (1998).

Miller, M.

M. Miller and P. L. Zieske, Turbulence Environmental Characterization, RADC-TR-79-131, ADA072379 (Rome Air Development Center, 1976).

Moerman, M. M.

G. J. Kunz, M. M. Moerman, P. J. Fritz, and G. de Leeuw, "Validation of a bulk turbulence model with thermal images of a point source," in Image Propagation through the Atmosphere, C. Dainty and L. R. Bissonnette, eds., Proc. SPIE 2828, 108-116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C.

E. Oh, J. Ricklin, F. Eaton, C. Gilbreath, S. Doss-Hammell, C. Moore, J. Murphy, Y. H. Oh, and M. Stell, "Estimating optical turbulence using the PAMELA model," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, W. Gao and D. R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 256-266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, J.

E. Oh, J. Ricklin, F. Eaton, C. Gilbreath, S. Doss-Hammell, C. Moore, J. Murphy, Y. H. Oh, and M. Stell, "Estimating optical turbulence using the PAMELA model," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, W. Gao and D. R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 256-266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ochs, G. R.

Oh, E.

C. O. Font, M. P. J. L. Chang, E. Oh, and C. Gilbreath, "On the relationship between Cn2 and humidity," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683D (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. P. J. L. Chang, E. A. Roura, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, "Applying the Hilbert-Huang decomposition to horizontal light propagation Cn2 data," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683E (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Font, M. P. J. L. Chang, E. Oh, and C. Gilbreath, "Humidity contribution to the refractive index structure function Cn2," in Atmospheric Propagation III, C. Y. Young and G. C. Gilbreath, eds., Proc. SPIE 6215, 621502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Oh, J. Ricklin, F. Eaton, C. Gilbreath, S. Doss-Hammell, C. Moore, J. Murphy, Y. H. Oh, and M. Stell, "Estimating optical turbulence using the PAMELA model," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, W. Gao and D. R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 256-266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, G. C. Gilbreath, N. J. Vallestero, and F. D. Eaton, "Optical turbulence model for laser propagation and imaging applications," in Free-Space Laser Communication and Active Laser Illumination III, D. G. Voelz and J. C. Ricklin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5160, 25-32 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, "A comparison of optical turbulence models," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, J. C. Ricklin and D. G. Voelz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 236-246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oh, Y. H.

E. Oh, J. Ricklin, F. Eaton, C. Gilbreath, S. Doss-Hammell, C. Moore, J. Murphy, Y. H. Oh, and M. Stell, "Estimating optical turbulence using the PAMELA model," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, W. Gao and D. R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 256-266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ricklin, J.

E. Oh, J. Ricklin, F. Eaton, C. Gilbreath, S. Doss-Hammell, C. Moore, J. Murphy, Y. H. Oh, and M. Stell, "Estimating optical turbulence using the PAMELA model," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, W. Gao and D. R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 256-266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ricklin, J. C.

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, "A comparison of optical turbulence models," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, J. C. Ricklin and D. G. Voelz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 236-246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, G. C. Gilbreath, N. J. Vallestero, and F. D. Eaton, "Optical turbulence model for laser propagation and imaging applications," in Free-Space Laser Communication and Active Laser Illumination III, D. G. Voelz and J. C. Ricklin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5160, 25-32 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, "The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy," Prog. Opt. XIX, 281-377 (1981).

Roggeman, M. C.

M. C. Roggeman and B. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).

Roura, E. A.

M. P. J. L. Chang, E. A. Roura, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, "Applying the Hilbert-Huang decomposition to horizontal light propagation Cn2 data," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schacher, G. E.

Shen, Z.

N. E. Huang, Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, "The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and nonstationary time series analysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 454, 903-995 (1998).

Shih, H. H.

N. E. Huang, Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, "The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and nonstationary time series analysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 454, 903-995 (1998).

Stell, M.

E. Oh, J. Ricklin, F. Eaton, C. Gilbreath, S. Doss-Hammell, C. Moore, J. Murphy, Y. H. Oh, and M. Stell, "Estimating optical turbulence using the PAMELA model," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, W. Gao and D. R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 256-266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tatarskii, V.

V. Tatarskii, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, 1961).

V. Tatarskii, The Effects of a Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1971).

Tsintikidis, D.

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, "A comparison of optical turbulence models," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, J. C. Ricklin and D. G. Voelz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 236-246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tung, C. C.

N. E. Huang, Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, "The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and nonstationary time series analysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 454, 903-995 (1998).

Vallestero, N. J.

E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, G. C. Gilbreath, N. J. Vallestero, and F. D. Eaton, "Optical turbulence model for laser propagation and imaging applications," in Free-Space Laser Communication and Active Laser Illumination III, D. G. Voelz and J. C. Ricklin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5160, 25-32 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.-I.

Welsh, B.

M. C. Roggeman and B. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Wu, M. C.

N. E. Huang, Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, "The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and nonstationary time series analysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 454, 903-995 (1998).

Yen, N.-C.

N. E. Huang, Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, "The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and nonstationary time series analysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 454, 903-995 (1998).

Zeisse, C. R.

P. A. Frederickson, K. L. Davidson, C. R. Zeisse, and C. S. Bendall, "Estimating the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1770-1783 (1999).

Zheng, Q.

N. E. Huang, Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, "The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and nonstationary time series analysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 454, 903-995 (1998).

Zieske, P. L.

M. Miller and P. L. Zieske, Turbulence Environmental Characterization, RADC-TR-79-131, ADA072379 (Rome Air Development Center, 1976).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

P. A. Frederickson, K. L. Davidson, C. R. Zeisse, and C. S. Bendall, "Estimating the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1770-1783 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

N. E. Huang, Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, "The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and nonstationary time series analysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 454, 903-995 (1998).

Proc. SPIE (7)

M. P. J. L. Chang, E. A. Roura, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, "Applying the Hilbert-Huang decomposition to horizontal light propagation Cn2 data," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683E (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Font, M. P. J. L. Chang, E. Oh, and C. Gilbreath, "On the relationship between Cn2 and humidity," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, J. D. Monnier, M. Schoeller, and W. C. Danchi, eds., Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683D (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kunz, M. M. Moerman, P. J. Fritz, and G. de Leeuw, "Validation of a bulk turbulence model with thermal images of a point source," in Image Propagation through the Atmosphere, C. Dainty and L. R. Bissonnette, eds., Proc. SPIE 2828, 108-116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Oh, J. Ricklin, F. Eaton, C. Gilbreath, S. Doss-Hammell, C. Moore, J. Murphy, Y. H. Oh, and M. Stell, "Estimating optical turbulence using the PAMELA model," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, W. Gao and D. R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 256-266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, "A comparison of optical turbulence models," in Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability, J. C. Ricklin and D. G. Voelz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5550, 236-246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, G. C. Gilbreath, N. J. Vallestero, and F. D. Eaton, "Optical turbulence model for laser propagation and imaging applications," in Free-Space Laser Communication and Active Laser Illumination III, D. G. Voelz and J. C. Ricklin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5160, 25-32 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Font, M. P. J. L. Chang, E. Oh, and C. Gilbreath, "Humidity contribution to the refractive index structure function Cn2," in Atmospheric Propagation III, C. Y. Young and G. C. Gilbreath, eds., Proc. SPIE 6215, 621502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt. (1)

F. Roddier, "The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy," Prog. Opt. XIX, 281-377 (1981).

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

H. Beaumont, C. Aime, E. Aristidi, and H. Lantéri, "Image quality and seeing measurements for long horizontal overwater propagation," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 15-30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

T.-I. Wang, "Optical flow sensor," U.S. patent 6,369,881 (9 April 2002).

V. Tatarskii, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, 1961).

V. Tatarskii, The Effects of a Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1971).

R. R. Beland, Propagation through Atmospheric Optical Turbulence (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1993).

M. Miller and P. L. Zieske, Turbulence Environmental Characterization, RADC-TR-79-131, ADA072379 (Rome Air Development Center, 1976).

M. C. Roggeman and B. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

L. Cohen, Time Frequency Analysis (Prentice Hall, 1995).

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