Abstract

A 2D photonic crystal surface with a different period in each lateral direction is demonstrated to detect biomolecules using two distinct sensing modalities. The sensing mechanisms both rely on the generation of a resonant reflection peak at one of two specific wavelengths, depending on the polarization of light that is incident on the photonic crystal. One polarization results in a resonant reflection peak in the visible spectrum to coincide with the excitation wavelength of a fluorophore, while the orthogonal polarization results in a resonant reflection peak at an infrared wavelength which is used for label-free detection of adsorbed biomolecules. The photonic crystal resonance for fluorescence excitation causes enhanced near fields at the structure surface, resulting in increased signal from fluorophores within 100 nm of the device surface. Label-free detection is performed by illuminating the photonic crystal with white light and monitoring shifts in the peak reflected wavelength of the infrared resonance with a high-resolution imaging detection instrument. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis was used to determine optimal dimensions for the photonic crystal structure, and devices were fabricated using a polymer-based nanoreplica molding approach. Fluorescence-based and label-free detection were demonstrated using arrays of spots of dye-conjugated streptavidin. Quantification of the fluorescent signal showed that the fluorescence output from protein spots on the photonic crystal was increased by up to a factor of 35, and deposited spots were also imaged in the label-free detection mode.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2006

C. Wei, S. Liu, D. Deng, J. Shen, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, "Electric field enhancement in guided-mode resonance filters," Opt. Lett. 31, 1223-1225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh and B. T. Cunningham, "Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071110-071113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, and H. Bensity, "Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: Application to bicolor microarrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, "Label-free assays on the BIND system," J. Biomol. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, "A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions," Sens. Actuators B 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, "Resonant leaky-mode spectral-band engineering and device applications," Opt. Exp. 12, 5661-5674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. Budach, D. Neuschafer, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Generation of transducers for fluorescence-based microarrays with enhanced sensitivity and their application for gene expression profiling," Anal. Chem. 75, 2571-2577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Neuschafer, W. Budach, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Evanescent resonator chips: a universal platform with superior sensitivity for fluorescence-based microarrays," Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 489-497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Jiang, X. Feng, Y. Xie, P. J. Tonellato, S. Ghosh, and M. J. Hessner, "A novel approach for high-quality microarray processing using third-dye array visualization technology," IEEE Trans. Nanobiosc. 2, 193-201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. E. Croston, "Functional cell-based uHTS in chemical genomic drug discovery," Trends Biotechnol. 20, 110-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Shearstone, N. E. Allaire, M. E. Getman, and S. Perrin, "Nondestructive quality control for microarray production," BioTechniques 32, 1051-1057 (2002).

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Netzer, A. Ebneth, U. Bischoff, and O. Pongs, "Screening lead compounds for QT interval prolongation," Drug Discovery Today 6, 78-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Q. Emili and G. Cagney, "Large-scale functional analysis using peptide or protein arrays," Nat. Biotechnol. 18, 393-397 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Gonzalez, K. Oades, Y. Leychkis, A. Harootunian, and P. A. Negulescu, "Cell-based assays and instrumentation for screening ion-channel targets," Drug Discovery Today 4, 431-439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Boroditsky, R. Vrijen, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, "Spontaneous emission extraction and Purcell enhancement from thin-film 2D photonic crystals," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2096-2112 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1995

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, "Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray," Science 270, 467-470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

W. Huber, R. Barner, C. Fattinger, J. Hubscher, H. Koller, F. Muller, D. Schlatter, and W. Lukosz, "Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity)," Sens. Actuators B 6, 122-126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, "New principle for optical filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022-1024 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. Lofas, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundstrom, "Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 5, 79-84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1983

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, and A. Nitzan, "The enhancement of Raman scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and fluorescence from molecules adsorbed on a rough silver surface," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324-5338 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Allaire, N. E.

J. R. Shearstone, N. E. Allaire, M. E. Getman, and S. Perrin, "Nondestructive quality control for microarray production," BioTechniques 32, 1051-1057 (2002).

Allenby, G.

J. Denyer, J. Worley, B. Cox, G. Allenby, and M. Banks, "HTS approaches to voltage-gated ion channel drug discovery," Drug Discovery Today 3, 323-332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anger, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bagby, J. S.

Baird, C.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, "Label-free assays on the BIND system," J. Biomol. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Banks, M.

J. Denyer, J. Worley, B. Cox, G. Allenby, and M. Banks, "HTS approaches to voltage-gated ion channel drug discovery," Drug Discovery Today 3, 323-332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barner, R.

W. Huber, R. Barner, C. Fattinger, J. Hubscher, H. Koller, F. Muller, D. Schlatter, and W. Lukosz, "Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity)," Sens. Actuators B 6, 122-126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bensity, H.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, and H. Bensity, "Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: Application to bicolor microarrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

Bischoff, U.

R. Netzer, A. Ebneth, U. Bischoff, and O. Pongs, "Screening lead compounds for QT interval prolongation," Drug Discovery Today 6, 78-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boroditsky, M.

Brown, P. O.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, "Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray," Science 270, 467-470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Budach, W.

D. Neuschafer, W. Budach, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Evanescent resonator chips: a universal platform with superior sensitivity for fluorescence-based microarrays," Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 489-497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Budach, D. Neuschafer, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Generation of transducers for fluorescence-based microarrays with enhanced sensitivity and their application for gene expression profiling," Anal. Chem. 75, 2571-2577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cagney, G.

A. Q. Emili and G. Cagney, "Large-scale functional analysis using peptide or protein arrays," Nat. Biotechnol. 18, 393-397 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cerovic, G.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, and H. Bensity, "Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: Application to bicolor microarrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chardon, A.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, and H. Bensity, "Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: Application to bicolor microarrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chibout, S.-D.

W. Budach, D. Neuschafer, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Generation of transducers for fluorescence-based microarrays with enhanced sensitivity and their application for gene expression profiling," Anal. Chem. 75, 2571-2577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Neuschafer, W. Budach, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Evanescent resonator chips: a universal platform with superior sensitivity for fluorescence-based microarrays," Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 489-497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choumane, H.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, and H. Bensity, "Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: Application to bicolor microarrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coccioli, R.

Cox, B.

J. Denyer, J. Worley, B. Cox, G. Allenby, and M. Banks, "HTS approaches to voltage-gated ion channel drug discovery," Drug Discovery Today 3, 323-332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Croston, G. E.

G. E. Croston, "Functional cell-based uHTS in chemical genomic drug discovery," Trends Biotechnol. 20, 110-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

N. Ganesh and B. T. Cunningham, "Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071110-071113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, "A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions," Sens. Actuators B 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, "Label-free assays on the BIND system," J. Biomol. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. W.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, "Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray," Science 270, 467-470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deng, D.

Denyer, J.

J. Denyer, J. Worley, B. Cox, G. Allenby, and M. Banks, "HTS approaches to voltage-gated ion channel drug discovery," Drug Discovery Today 3, 323-332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, "Resonant leaky-mode spectral-band engineering and device applications," Opt. Exp. 12, 5661-5674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ebneth, A.

R. Netzer, A. Ebneth, U. Bischoff, and O. Pongs, "Screening lead compounds for QT interval prolongation," Drug Discovery Today 6, 78-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Emili, A. Q.

A. Q. Emili and G. Cagney, "Large-scale functional analysis using peptide or protein arrays," Nat. Biotechnol. 18, 393-397 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

Fattinger, C.

W. Huber, R. Barner, C. Fattinger, J. Hubscher, H. Koller, F. Muller, D. Schlatter, and W. Lukosz, "Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity)," Sens. Actuators B 6, 122-126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

X. Wang, N. Jiang, X. Feng, Y. Xie, P. J. Tonellato, S. Ghosh, and M. J. Hessner, "A novel approach for high-quality microarray processing using third-dye array visualization technology," IEEE Trans. Nanobiosc. 2, 193-201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fine, E.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, "Label-free assays on the BIND system," J. Biomol. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ganesh, N.

N. Ganesh and B. T. Cunningham, "Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071110-071113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garoff, S.

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, and A. Nitzan, "The enhancement of Raman scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and fluorescence from molecules adsorbed on a rough silver surface," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324-5338 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Genick, C.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, "Label-free assays on the BIND system," J. Biomol. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gersten, J. I.

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, and A. Nitzan, "The enhancement of Raman scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and fluorescence from molecules adsorbed on a rough silver surface," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324-5338 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gerstenmaier, J.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, "Label-free assays on the BIND system," J. Biomol. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, "A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions," Sens. Actuators B 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Getman, M. E.

J. R. Shearstone, N. E. Allaire, M. E. Getman, and S. Perrin, "Nondestructive quality control for microarray production," BioTechniques 32, 1051-1057 (2002).

Ghosh, S.

X. Wang, N. Jiang, X. Feng, Y. Xie, P. J. Tonellato, S. Ghosh, and M. J. Hessner, "A novel approach for high-quality microarray processing using third-dye array visualization technology," IEEE Trans. Nanobiosc. 2, 193-201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, J. E.

J. E. Gonzalez, K. Oades, Y. Leychkis, A. Harootunian, and P. A. Negulescu, "Cell-based assays and instrumentation for screening ion-channel targets," Drug Discovery Today 4, 431-439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goutel, C.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, and H. Bensity, "Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: Application to bicolor microarrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ha, N.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, and H. Bensity, "Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: Application to bicolor microarrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harootunian, A.

J. E. Gonzalez, K. Oades, Y. Leychkis, A. Harootunian, and P. A. Negulescu, "Cell-based assays and instrumentation for screening ion-channel targets," Drug Discovery Today 4, 431-439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hessner, M. J.

X. Wang, N. Jiang, X. Feng, Y. Xie, P. J. Tonellato, S. Ghosh, and M. J. Hessner, "A novel approach for high-quality microarray processing using third-dye array visualization technology," IEEE Trans. Nanobiosc. 2, 193-201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huber, W.

W. Huber, R. Barner, C. Fattinger, J. Hubscher, H. Koller, F. Muller, D. Schlatter, and W. Lukosz, "Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity)," Sens. Actuators B 6, 122-126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hubscher, J.

W. Huber, R. Barner, C. Fattinger, J. Hubscher, H. Koller, F. Muller, D. Schlatter, and W. Lukosz, "Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity)," Sens. Actuators B 6, 122-126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hugh, B.

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, N.

X. Wang, N. Jiang, X. Feng, Y. Xie, P. J. Tonellato, S. Ghosh, and M. J. Hessner, "A novel approach for high-quality microarray processing using third-dye array visualization technology," IEEE Trans. Nanobiosc. 2, 193-201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koller, H.

W. Huber, R. Barner, C. Fattinger, J. Hubscher, H. Koller, F. Muller, D. Schlatter, and W. Lukosz, "Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity)," Sens. Actuators B 6, 122-126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Laing, L.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, "Label-free assays on the BIND system," J. Biomol. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leychkis, Y.

J. E. Gonzalez, K. Oades, Y. Leychkis, A. Harootunian, and P. A. Negulescu, "Cell-based assays and instrumentation for screening ion-channel targets," Drug Discovery Today 4, 431-439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, "Label-free assays on the BIND system," J. Biomol. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, P. Y.

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, "A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions," Sens. Actuators B 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

S. Lofas, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundstrom, "Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 5, 79-84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, "Label-free assays on the BIND system," J. Biomol. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, "A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions," Sens. Actuators B 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, Z. S.

Lofas, S.

S. Lofas, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundstrom, "Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 5, 79-84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

W. Huber, R. Barner, C. Fattinger, J. Hubscher, H. Koller, F. Muller, D. Schlatter, and W. Lukosz, "Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity)," Sens. Actuators B 6, 122-126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lundstrom, I.

S. Lofas, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundstrom, "Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 5, 79-84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, R.

Malmqvist, M.

S. Lofas, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundstrom, "Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 5, 79-84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Muller, F.

W. Huber, R. Barner, C. Fattinger, J. Hubscher, H. Koller, F. Muller, D. Schlatter, and W. Lukosz, "Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity)," Sens. Actuators B 6, 122-126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Negulescu, P. A.

J. E. Gonzalez, K. Oades, Y. Leychkis, A. Harootunian, and P. A. Negulescu, "Cell-based assays and instrumentation for screening ion-channel targets," Drug Discovery Today 4, 431-439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nelep, C.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, and H. Bensity, "Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: Application to bicolor microarrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Netzer, R.

R. Netzer, A. Ebneth, U. Bischoff, and O. Pongs, "Screening lead compounds for QT interval prolongation," Drug Discovery Today 6, 78-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neuschafer, D.

W. Budach, D. Neuschafer, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Generation of transducers for fluorescence-based microarrays with enhanced sensitivity and their application for gene expression profiling," Anal. Chem. 75, 2571-2577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Neuschafer, W. Budach, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Evanescent resonator chips: a universal platform with superior sensitivity for fluorescence-based microarrays," Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 489-497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nitzan, A.

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, and A. Nitzan, "The enhancement of Raman scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and fluorescence from molecules adsorbed on a rough silver surface," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324-5338 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Oades, K.

J. E. Gonzalez, K. Oades, Y. Leychkis, A. Harootunian, and P. A. Negulescu, "Cell-based assays and instrumentation for screening ion-channel targets," Drug Discovery Today 4, 431-439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, J.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, S.

J. R. Shearstone, N. E. Allaire, M. E. Getman, and S. Perrin, "Nondestructive quality control for microarray production," BioTechniques 32, 1051-1057 (2002).

Pongs, O.

R. Netzer, A. Ebneth, U. Bischoff, and O. Pongs, "Screening lead compounds for QT interval prolongation," Drug Discovery Today 6, 78-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reymond, G. O.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, and H. Bensity, "Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: Application to bicolor microarrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ronnberg, I.

S. Lofas, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundstrom, "Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 5, 79-84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schena, M.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, "Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray," Science 270, 467-470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schlatter, D.

W. Huber, R. Barner, C. Fattinger, J. Hubscher, H. Koller, F. Muller, D. Schlatter, and W. Lukosz, "Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity)," Sens. Actuators B 6, 122-126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, S.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, "Label-free assays on the BIND system," J. Biomol. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shalon, D.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, "Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray," Science 270, 467-470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J.

Shearstone, J. R.

J. R. Shearstone, N. E. Allaire, M. E. Getman, and S. Perrin, "Nondestructive quality control for microarray production," BioTechniques 32, 1051-1057 (2002).

Shen, J.

Shin, D.

Stenberg, E.

S. Lofas, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundstrom, "Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 5, 79-84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tibuleac, S.

Tonellato, P. J.

X. Wang, N. Jiang, X. Feng, Y. Xie, P. J. Tonellato, S. Ghosh, and M. J. Hessner, "A novel approach for high-quality microarray processing using third-dye array visualization technology," IEEE Trans. Nanobiosc. 2, 193-201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vallet, F.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, and H. Bensity, "Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: Application to bicolor microarrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vrijen, R.

Wang, F.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, "Label-free assays on the BIND system," J. Biomol. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. S.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, N. Jiang, X. Feng, Y. Xie, P. J. Tonellato, S. Ghosh, and M. J. Hessner, "A novel approach for high-quality microarray processing using third-dye array visualization technology," IEEE Trans. Nanobiosc. 2, 193-201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, C.

W. Budach, D. Neuschafer, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Generation of transducers for fluorescence-based microarrays with enhanced sensitivity and their application for gene expression profiling," Anal. Chem. 75, 2571-2577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Neuschafer, W. Budach, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Evanescent resonator chips: a universal platform with superior sensitivity for fluorescence-based microarrays," Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 489-497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C.

Weisbuch, C.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, and H. Bensity, "Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: Application to bicolor microarrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D. A.

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, and A. Nitzan, "The enhancement of Raman scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and fluorescence from molecules adsorbed on a rough silver surface," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324-5338 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Worley, J.

J. Denyer, J. Worley, B. Cox, G. Allenby, and M. Banks, "HTS approaches to voltage-gated ion channel drug discovery," Drug Discovery Today 3, 323-332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Y.

X. Wang, N. Jiang, X. Feng, Y. Xie, P. J. Tonellato, S. Ghosh, and M. J. Hessner, "A novel approach for high-quality microarray processing using third-dye array visualization technology," IEEE Trans. Nanobiosc. 2, 193-201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
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Young, P. P.

Anal. Chem.

W. Budach, D. Neuschafer, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Generation of transducers for fluorescence-based microarrays with enhanced sensitivity and their application for gene expression profiling," Anal. Chem. 75, 2571-2577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, "New principle for optical filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022-1024 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh and B. T. Cunningham, "Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071110-071113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, and H. Bensity, "Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: Application to bicolor microarrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

D. Neuschafer, W. Budach, C. Wanke, and S.-D. Chibout, "Evanescent resonator chips: a universal platform with superior sensitivity for fluorescence-based microarrays," Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 489-497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

BioTechniques

J. R. Shearstone, N. E. Allaire, M. E. Getman, and S. Perrin, "Nondestructive quality control for microarray production," BioTechniques 32, 1051-1057 (2002).

Drug Discovery Today

J. Denyer, J. Worley, B. Cox, G. Allenby, and M. Banks, "HTS approaches to voltage-gated ion channel drug discovery," Drug Discovery Today 3, 323-332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Gonzalez, K. Oades, Y. Leychkis, A. Harootunian, and P. A. Negulescu, "Cell-based assays and instrumentation for screening ion-channel targets," Drug Discovery Today 4, 431-439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Netzer, A. Ebneth, U. Bischoff, and O. Pongs, "Screening lead compounds for QT interval prolongation," Drug Discovery Today 6, 78-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nanobiosc.

X. Wang, N. Jiang, X. Feng, Y. Xie, P. J. Tonellato, S. Ghosh, and M. J. Hessner, "A novel approach for high-quality microarray processing using third-dye array visualization technology," IEEE Trans. Nanobiosc. 2, 193-201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomol. Screening

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, "Label-free assays on the BIND system," J. Biomol. Screening 9, 481-490 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, and A. Nitzan, "The enhancement of Raman scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and fluorescence from molecules adsorbed on a rough silver surface," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324-5338 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nat. Biotechnol.

A. Q. Emili and G. Cagney, "Large-scale functional analysis using peptide or protein arrays," Nat. Biotechnol. 18, 393-397 (2000).
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Opt. Exp.

Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, "Resonant leaky-mode spectral-band engineering and device applications," Opt. Exp. 12, 5661-5674 (2004).
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Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, "Quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns with a complementary DNA microarray," Science 270, 467-470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

S. Lofas, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, and I. Lundstrom, "Bioanalysis with surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 5, 79-84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Huber, R. Barner, C. Fattinger, J. Hubscher, H. Koller, F. Muller, D. Schlatter, and W. Lukosz, "Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity)," Sens. Actuators B 6, 122-126 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, "A new method for label-free imaging of biomolecular interactions," Sens. Actuators B 99, 6-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, "A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions," Sens. Actuators B 85, 219-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trends Biotechnol.

G. E. Croston, "Functional cell-based uHTS in chemical genomic drug discovery," Trends Biotechnol. 20, 110-115 (2002).
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