A 2D photonic crystal surface with a different period in each lateral direction is demonstrated to detect biomolecules using two distinct sensing modalities. The sensing mechanisms both rely on the generation of a resonant reflection peak at one of two specific wavelengths, depending on the polarization of light that is incident on the photonic crystal. One polarization results in a resonant reflection peak in the visible spectrum to coincide with the excitation wavelength of a fluorophore, while the orthogonal polarization results in a resonant reflection peak at an infrared wavelength which is used for label-free detection of adsorbed biomolecules. The photonic crystal resonance for fluorescence excitation causes enhanced near fields at the structure surface, resulting in increased signal from fluorophores within of the device surface. Label-free detection is performed by illuminating the photonic crystal with white light and monitoring shifts in the peak reflected wavelength of the infrared resonance with a high-resolution imaging detection instrument. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis was used to determine optimal dimensions for the photonic crystal structure, and devices were fabricated using a polymer-based nanoreplica molding approach. Fluorescence-based and label-free detection were demonstrated using arrays of spots of dye-conjugated streptavidin. Quantification of the fluorescent signal showed that the fluorescence output from protein spots on the photonic crystal was increased by up to a factor of 35, and deposited spots were also imaged in the label-free detection mode.
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