Abstract

Single-mode device-to-fiber alignment automation is usually achieved with a classical mathematical optimization approach. We present a different approach, which is based on the identification of particular intrinsic characteristics of the coupled optical power and on estimating residual axial, transverse, and angular misalignments in the far field. Such a model-based approach is based on the physical nature of the optical coupling phenomenon and can replace or be complementary to already known automated alignment methods. An alignment algorithm is described and validated experimentally using two single-mode fibers as Gaussian beam emitter and receiver.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. St-Amant, D. Gariépy, and D. Rancourt, "An experimental investigation of the intrinsic properties of the optical coupling between axisymmetric Gaussian beams," Appl. Opt. 44, 5996-6006 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. St-Amant, D. Gariépy, and D. Rancourt, "Intrinsic properties of the optical coupling between axisymmetric Gaussian beams," Appl. Opt. 43, 5691-5704 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. St-Amant, "Alignement automatisé de fibres optiques amorces monomodes," Ph.D. dissertation (Mechanical Engineering Department Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 2004).
  4. Y. St-Amant, "Intrinsic properties of the optical coupling phenomenon: an experimental investigation using single-mode device and fiber," in Photonic Applications in Devices and Communication Systems, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, J. C. Cartledge, and D. V. Plant, eds., Proc. SPIE 5970, 597003 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. St-Amant, D. Rancourt, and D. Gariépy, "Using fundamental properties of optical coupling for single mode fiber transverse and longitudinal alignment automation," in Applications of Photonic Technology 6, R. A. Lessard and G. A. Lampropoulos, eds., Proc. SPIE 5260, 191-202 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Zhang, J. Guo, and F. G. Shi, "Fast fiber-laser alignment: beam spot-size method," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1083-1087 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Mizukami, M. Hirano, and K. Shinjo, "Simultaneous alignment of multiple optical axes in a multistage optical system using Hamiltonian algorithm," Opt. Eng. 40, 448-454 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kartensen, "Laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling will ball lenses," J. Opt. Commun. 9, 42-49 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Marcuse, "Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703-719 (1977).
  10. L. A. Wang and C. D. Su, "Tolerance analysis of aligning an astigmatic laser diode with a single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2757-2762 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. B. Joyce and B. C. DeLoach, "Alignment of Gaussian beams," Appl. Opt. 23, 4187-4196 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Zhang, S. K. Mondal, Z. Tang, and F. G. Shi, "Fiber-optic angular alignment automation: recent progress," presented at the Technical Program for SMTA Conference on Optoelectronics and the Telecom Revolution, Dallas, Texas, 14-15 November 2001.
  13. Z. Tang, R. Zhang, and F. G. Shi, "Effects of angular misalignments on fiber-optic alignment automation," Opt. Commun. 196, 173-180 (2001).
  14. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).
  15. E.-G. Neumann, Single Mode Fibers I: Fundamentals, Vol. 57 of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
  16. S. Ragona, "PLC alignment and bonding: frequently asked questions," Wave Review 8, (2006), http://www.exfo.com/en/support/WaveReview/December2002/WRarticle5.asp.

2006 (1)

S. Ragona, "PLC alignment and bonding: frequently asked questions," Wave Review 8, (2006), http://www.exfo.com/en/support/WaveReview/December2002/WRarticle5.asp.

2005 (3)

Y. St-Amant, D. Gariépy, and D. Rancourt, "An experimental investigation of the intrinsic properties of the optical coupling between axisymmetric Gaussian beams," Appl. Opt. 44, 5996-6006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. St-Amant, "Intrinsic properties of the optical coupling phenomenon: an experimental investigation using single-mode device and fiber," in Photonic Applications in Devices and Communication Systems, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, J. C. Cartledge, and D. V. Plant, eds., Proc. SPIE 5970, 597003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhang, J. Guo, and F. G. Shi, "Fast fiber-laser alignment: beam spot-size method," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1083-1087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

Y. St-Amant, D. Rancourt, and D. Gariépy, "Using fundamental properties of optical coupling for single mode fiber transverse and longitudinal alignment automation," in Applications of Photonic Technology 6, R. A. Lessard and G. A. Lampropoulos, eds., Proc. SPIE 5260, 191-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Mizukami, M. Hirano, and K. Shinjo, "Simultaneous alignment of multiple optical axes in a multistage optical system using Hamiltonian algorithm," Opt. Eng. 40, 448-454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. A. Wang and C. D. Su, "Tolerance analysis of aligning an astigmatic laser diode with a single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2757-2762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Kartensen, "Laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling will ball lenses," J. Opt. Commun. 9, 42-49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1977 (1)

D. Marcuse, "Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703-719 (1977).

DeLoach, B. C.

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Gariépy, D.

Y. St-Amant, D. Gariépy, and D. Rancourt, "An experimental investigation of the intrinsic properties of the optical coupling between axisymmetric Gaussian beams," Appl. Opt. 44, 5996-6006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. St-Amant, D. Gariépy, and D. Rancourt, "Intrinsic properties of the optical coupling between axisymmetric Gaussian beams," Appl. Opt. 43, 5691-5704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. St-Amant, D. Rancourt, and D. Gariépy, "Using fundamental properties of optical coupling for single mode fiber transverse and longitudinal alignment automation," in Applications of Photonic Technology 6, R. A. Lessard and G. A. Lampropoulos, eds., Proc. SPIE 5260, 191-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

Hirano, M.

M. Mizukami, M. Hirano, and K. Shinjo, "Simultaneous alignment of multiple optical axes in a multistage optical system using Hamiltonian algorithm," Opt. Eng. 40, 448-454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joyce, W. B.

Kartensen, H.

H. Kartensen, "Laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling will ball lenses," J. Opt. Commun. 9, 42-49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, "Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703-719 (1977).

Mizukami, M.

M. Mizukami, M. Hirano, and K. Shinjo, "Simultaneous alignment of multiple optical axes in a multistage optical system using Hamiltonian algorithm," Opt. Eng. 40, 448-454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mondal, S. K.

R. Zhang, S. K. Mondal, Z. Tang, and F. G. Shi, "Fiber-optic angular alignment automation: recent progress," presented at the Technical Program for SMTA Conference on Optoelectronics and the Telecom Revolution, Dallas, Texas, 14-15 November 2001.

Neumann, E.-G.

E.-G. Neumann, Single Mode Fibers I: Fundamentals, Vol. 57 of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Ragona, S.

S. Ragona, "PLC alignment and bonding: frequently asked questions," Wave Review 8, (2006), http://www.exfo.com/en/support/WaveReview/December2002/WRarticle5.asp.

Rancourt, D.

Y. St-Amant, D. Gariépy, and D. Rancourt, "An experimental investigation of the intrinsic properties of the optical coupling between axisymmetric Gaussian beams," Appl. Opt. 44, 5996-6006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. St-Amant, D. Gariépy, and D. Rancourt, "Intrinsic properties of the optical coupling between axisymmetric Gaussian beams," Appl. Opt. 43, 5691-5704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. St-Amant, D. Rancourt, and D. Gariépy, "Using fundamental properties of optical coupling for single mode fiber transverse and longitudinal alignment automation," in Applications of Photonic Technology 6, R. A. Lessard and G. A. Lampropoulos, eds., Proc. SPIE 5260, 191-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F. G.

R. Zhang, J. Guo, and F. G. Shi, "Fast fiber-laser alignment: beam spot-size method," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1083-1087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, R. Zhang, and F. G. Shi, "Effects of angular misalignments on fiber-optic alignment automation," Opt. Commun. 196, 173-180 (2001).

R. Zhang, S. K. Mondal, Z. Tang, and F. G. Shi, "Fiber-optic angular alignment automation: recent progress," presented at the Technical Program for SMTA Conference on Optoelectronics and the Telecom Revolution, Dallas, Texas, 14-15 November 2001.

Shinjo, K.

M. Mizukami, M. Hirano, and K. Shinjo, "Simultaneous alignment of multiple optical axes in a multistage optical system using Hamiltonian algorithm," Opt. Eng. 40, 448-454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

St-Amant, Y.

Y. St-Amant, D. Gariépy, and D. Rancourt, "An experimental investigation of the intrinsic properties of the optical coupling between axisymmetric Gaussian beams," Appl. Opt. 44, 5996-6006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. St-Amant, "Intrinsic properties of the optical coupling phenomenon: an experimental investigation using single-mode device and fiber," in Photonic Applications in Devices and Communication Systems, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, J. C. Cartledge, and D. V. Plant, eds., Proc. SPIE 5970, 597003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. St-Amant, D. Gariépy, and D. Rancourt, "Intrinsic properties of the optical coupling between axisymmetric Gaussian beams," Appl. Opt. 43, 5691-5704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. St-Amant, D. Rancourt, and D. Gariépy, "Using fundamental properties of optical coupling for single mode fiber transverse and longitudinal alignment automation," in Applications of Photonic Technology 6, R. A. Lessard and G. A. Lampropoulos, eds., Proc. SPIE 5260, 191-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. St-Amant, "Alignement automatisé de fibres optiques amorces monomodes," Ph.D. dissertation (Mechanical Engineering Department Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 2004).

Su, C. D.

L. A. Wang and C. D. Su, "Tolerance analysis of aligning an astigmatic laser diode with a single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2757-2762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z.

Z. Tang, R. Zhang, and F. G. Shi, "Effects of angular misalignments on fiber-optic alignment automation," Opt. Commun. 196, 173-180 (2001).

R. Zhang, S. K. Mondal, Z. Tang, and F. G. Shi, "Fiber-optic angular alignment automation: recent progress," presented at the Technical Program for SMTA Conference on Optoelectronics and the Telecom Revolution, Dallas, Texas, 14-15 November 2001.

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Wang, L. A.

L. A. Wang and C. D. Su, "Tolerance analysis of aligning an astigmatic laser diode with a single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2757-2762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, J. Guo, and F. G. Shi, "Fast fiber-laser alignment: beam spot-size method," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1083-1087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, R. Zhang, and F. G. Shi, "Effects of angular misalignments on fiber-optic alignment automation," Opt. Commun. 196, 173-180 (2001).

R. Zhang, S. K. Mondal, Z. Tang, and F. G. Shi, "Fiber-optic angular alignment automation: recent progress," presented at the Technical Program for SMTA Conference on Optoelectronics and the Telecom Revolution, Dallas, Texas, 14-15 November 2001.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, "Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703-719 (1977).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

L. A. Wang and C. D. Su, "Tolerance analysis of aligning an astigmatic laser diode with a single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2757-2762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhang, J. Guo, and F. G. Shi, "Fast fiber-laser alignment: beam spot-size method," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1083-1087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Kartensen, "Laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling will ball lenses," J. Opt. Commun. 9, 42-49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Mizukami, M. Hirano, and K. Shinjo, "Simultaneous alignment of multiple optical axes in a multistage optical system using Hamiltonian algorithm," Opt. Eng. 40, 448-454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

Y. St-Amant, "Intrinsic properties of the optical coupling phenomenon: an experimental investigation using single-mode device and fiber," in Photonic Applications in Devices and Communication Systems, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, J. C. Cartledge, and D. V. Plant, eds., Proc. SPIE 5970, 597003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. St-Amant, D. Rancourt, and D. Gariépy, "Using fundamental properties of optical coupling for single mode fiber transverse and longitudinal alignment automation," in Applications of Photonic Technology 6, R. A. Lessard and G. A. Lampropoulos, eds., Proc. SPIE 5260, 191-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wave Review (1)

S. Ragona, "PLC alignment and bonding: frequently asked questions," Wave Review 8, (2006), http://www.exfo.com/en/support/WaveReview/December2002/WRarticle5.asp.

Other (5)

Y. St-Amant, "Alignement automatisé de fibres optiques amorces monomodes," Ph.D. dissertation (Mechanical Engineering Department Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 2004).

R. Zhang, S. K. Mondal, Z. Tang, and F. G. Shi, "Fiber-optic angular alignment automation: recent progress," presented at the Technical Program for SMTA Conference on Optoelectronics and the Telecom Revolution, Dallas, Texas, 14-15 November 2001.

Z. Tang, R. Zhang, and F. G. Shi, "Effects of angular misalignments on fiber-optic alignment automation," Opt. Commun. 196, 173-180 (2001).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipies in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

E.-G. Neumann, Single Mode Fibers I: Fundamentals, Vol. 57 of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Single-mode device-to-fiber system and (b) definition of a transverse misalignment line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optimal transverse misalignment line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optimal angular misalignment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular and transverse alignments using two robots.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular and transverse alignments using a single robot.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Hill-climbing method enhanced with an inverse parabolic interpolation routine: (a) with enhancement and (b) without enhancement.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Axial alignment using the hyperbolic behavior of the paraboloid width.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Axial alignment using a threshold value with the rate of variation of the optical power.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Model-based algorithm flowchart.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental setup.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Typical alignment trial: (a) the optical power trace, (b) the final axial alignment based on the rate of variation of the optical power, (c) the transverse scan performed at the end of process and (d) the picture taken at the end of process.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fabry–Perot interference phenomenon and optical power variation.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Seven Intrinsic Properties of the Optical Coupling between Gaussian Beams

Tables Icon

Table 2 Alignment Results: Repeatability

Tables Icon

Table 3 Alignment Results: Convergence

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α 1 d = σ [ ( θ x R ) 1 ( θ x R ) 0 ] .
x = b 1 2 ( b a ) 2 [ f ( b ) f ( c ) ] ( b c ) 2 [ f ( b ) f ( a ) ] ( b a ) [ f ( b ) f ( c ) ] ( b c ) [ f ( b ) f ( a ) ] .
ϕ 1 d = σ σ + 1 α 0 d .
α 1 d = ϕ 1 d .
α 1 d = σ σ + 1 α 0 d .
α 1 d = σ ( α 1 d α 0 d ) .
α 1 d = σ [ ( θ x R ) 1 ( θ x R ) 0 ] .

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