Abstract

Optical feedback effects are studied in a birefringence-Zeeman dual frequency laser at high optical feedback levels. The intensity modulation features of the two orthogonally polarized lights are investigated in both isotropic optical feedback (IOF) and polarized optical feedback (POF). In IOF, the intensities of both beams are modulated simultaneously, and four zones, i.e., the e-light zone, the o-light and e-light zone, the o-light zone, and the no-light zone, are formed in a period corresponding to a half laser wavelength displacement of the feedback mirror. In POF, the two orthogonally polarized lights will oscillate alternately. Strong mode competition can be observed, and it affects the phase difference between the two beams greatly. The theoretical analysis is presented, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The potential use of the experimental results is also discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, "Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor laser based on the optical feedback self-mixing effect," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 990-992 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Fei, Y. Li, and X. Zong, "Measurement of small intracavity phase anisotropy in a laser based on optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 249, 255-260 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Hast, L. Krehut, and R. Myllyla, "Displacement sensor based on optical feedback interferometry in a GaN laser diode," Opt. Eng. 44 080504 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Lu, J. Wang, and K. Deng, "Imaging and profiling surface microstructures with noninterferometric confocal laser feedback," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2022-2024 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Lenstra, V. M. Van, and B. Jaskorzynska, "On the theory of a single-mode laser with weak optical feedback," Physica C. 125, 255-264 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Liu, S. Zhang, L. Li, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "A 450 MHz frequency difference dual-frequency laser with optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 231, 349-356 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y Li, "Optical feedback laser with a quartz crystal plate in the external cavity," Appl. Opt. 42, 6636-6639 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. W. Mao and S. Zhang, "Analysis for the effects of feedback asymmetry in external cavity He-Ne lasers," Appl. Opt. 45, 7723-7728 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. L. Fei, S. Zhang, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "Polarization control in a He-Ne laser using birefringence feedback," Opt. Express 13, 3117-3122 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. Mao, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, "Optical feedback characteristics in He-Ne dual frequency lasers," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 1188-1191 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. C. Addy, A. W. Palmer, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Effects of external reflector alignment in sensing applications of optical feedback in laser diodes," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2672-2676 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Guo, M. Wang, and S. Tan, "Self-mixing interferometer based on sinusoidal phase modulating technique," Opt. Express 13, 1537-1543 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

W. Mao and S. Zhang, "Analysis for the effects of feedback asymmetry in external cavity He-Ne lasers," Appl. Opt. 45, 7723-7728 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Mao, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, "Optical feedback characteristics in He-Ne dual frequency lasers," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 1188-1191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. Guo, M. Wang, and S. Tan, "Self-mixing interferometer based on sinusoidal phase modulating technique," Opt. Express 13, 1537-1543 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fei, S. Zhang, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "Polarization control in a He-Ne laser using birefringence feedback," Opt. Express 13, 3117-3122 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fei, Y. Li, and X. Zong, "Measurement of small intracavity phase anisotropy in a laser based on optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 249, 255-260 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Hast, L. Krehut, and R. Myllyla, "Displacement sensor based on optical feedback interferometry in a GaN laser diode," Opt. Eng. 44 080504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, "Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor laser based on the optical feedback self-mixing effect," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 990-992 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Fei, S. Zhang, and X. Wan, "Influence of optical feedback from birefringence external cavity on intensity tuning and polarization of laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1944-1947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, S. Zhang, L. Li, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "A 450 MHz frequency difference dual-frequency laser with optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 231, 349-356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y Li, "Optical feedback laser with a quartz crystal plate in the external cavity," Appl. Opt. 42, 6636-6639 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Giuliani, S. Bozzi-Pietra, and S. Donati, "Self-mixing laser diode vibrometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. Giulian, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S283-S294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Bosch, N. Servagent, and S. Donati, "Optical feedback interferometry for sensing applications," Opt. Eng. 4020-27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. de Groot, "Unusual techniques for absolute distance measurement," Opt. Eng. 40, 28-32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. C. Addy, A. W. Palmer, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Effects of external reflector alignment in sensing applications of optical feedback in laser diodes," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2672-2676 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. Lu, J. Wang, and K. Deng, "Imaging and profiling surface microstructures with noninterferometric confocal laser feedback," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2022-2024 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, "Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577-1587 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1988

1986

1984

D. Lenstra, V. M. Van, and B. Jaskorzynska, "On the theory of a single-mode laser with weak optical feedback," Physica C. 125, 255-264 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

A. Olsson and C. L. Tang, "Coherent optical interference effects in external-cavity semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1320-1323 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347-355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

S. Donati, "Laser interferometry by induced modulation of the cavity field," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 495-497 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1963

P. G. R. King and G. J. Steward, "Metrology with an optical maser," New Sci. 17, 180-182 (1963).

Addy, R. C.

R. C. Addy, A. W. Palmer, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Effects of external reflector alignment in sensing applications of optical feedback in laser diodes," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2672-2676 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, T.

G. Giulian, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S283-S294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Bosch, N. Servagent, and S. Donati, "Optical feedback interferometry for sensing applications," Opt. Eng. 4020-27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, W. J. O.

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, "Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577-1587 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, and A. W. Palmer, "Self-mixing interference in a diode laser: experimental observations and theoretical analysis," Appl. Opt. 32, 1551-1558 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozzi-Pietra, S.

G. Giuliani, S. Bozzi-Pietra, and S. Donati, "Self-mixing laser diode vibrometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, P.

P. de Groot, "Unusual techniques for absolute distance measurement," Opt. Eng. 40, 28-32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deng, K.

C. Lu, J. Wang, and K. Deng, "Imaging and profiling surface microstructures with noninterferometric confocal laser feedback," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2022-2024 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Donati, S.

Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, "Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor laser based on the optical feedback self-mixing effect," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 990-992 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Giuliani, S. Bozzi-Pietra, and S. Donati, "Self-mixing laser diode vibrometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Giulian, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S283-S294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Bosch, N. Servagent, and S. Donati, "Optical feedback interferometry for sensing applications," Opt. Eng. 4020-27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Donati, "Laser interferometry by induced modulation of the cavity field," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 495-497 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fei, L.

L. Fei, Y. Li, and X. Zong, "Measurement of small intracavity phase anisotropy in a laser based on optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 249, 255-260 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Fei, S. Zhang, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "Polarization control in a He-Ne laser using birefringence feedback," Opt. Express 13, 3117-3122 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fei, S. Zhang, and X. Wan, "Influence of optical feedback from birefringence external cavity on intensity tuning and polarization of laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1944-1947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gallatin, G. M.

Giulian, G.

G. Giulian, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S283-S294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, "Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor laser based on the optical feedback self-mixing effect," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 990-992 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Giuliani, S. Bozzi-Pietra, and S. Donati, "Self-mixing laser diode vibrometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

R. C. Addy, A. W. Palmer, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Effects of external reflector alignment in sensing applications of optical feedback in laser diodes," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2672-2676 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, "Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577-1587 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, and A. W. Palmer, "Self-mixing interference in a diode laser: experimental observations and theoretical analysis," Appl. Opt. 32, 1551-1558 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groot, P. J. D.

Guo, D.

Hast, J.

J. Hast, L. Krehut, and R. Myllyla, "Displacement sensor based on optical feedback interferometry in a GaN laser diode," Opt. Eng. 44 080504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaskorzynska, B.

D. Lenstra, V. M. Van, and B. Jaskorzynska, "On the theory of a single-mode laser with weak optical feedback," Physica C. 125, 255-264 (1984).
[CrossRef]

King, P. G. R.

P. G. R. King and G. J. Steward, "Metrology with an optical maser," New Sci. 17, 180-182 (1963).

Kobayashi, K.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347-355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Krehut, L.

J. Hast, L. Krehut, and R. Myllyla, "Displacement sensor based on optical feedback interferometry in a GaN laser diode," Opt. Eng. 44 080504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347-355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

D. Lenstra, V. M. Van, and B. Jaskorzynska, "On the theory of a single-mode laser with weak optical feedback," Physica C. 125, 255-264 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

G. Liu, S. Zhang, L. Li, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "A 450 MHz frequency difference dual-frequency laser with optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 231, 349-356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y

Li, Y.

W. Mao, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, "Optical feedback characteristics in He-Ne dual frequency lasers," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 1188-1191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Fei, S. Zhang, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "Polarization control in a He-Ne laser using birefringence feedback," Opt. Express 13, 3117-3122 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fei, Y. Li, and X. Zong, "Measurement of small intracavity phase anisotropy in a laser based on optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 249, 255-260 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, S. Zhang, L. Li, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "A 450 MHz frequency difference dual-frequency laser with optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 231, 349-356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, S. Zhang, L. Li, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "A 450 MHz frequency difference dual-frequency laser with optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 231, 349-356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y Li, "Optical feedback laser with a quartz crystal plate in the external cavity," Appl. Opt. 42, 6636-6639 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C.

C. Lu, J. Wang, and K. Deng, "Imaging and profiling surface microstructures with noninterferometric confocal laser feedback," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2022-2024 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Macomber, S. H.

Mao, W.

W. Mao and S. Zhang, "Analysis for the effects of feedback asymmetry in external cavity He-Ne lasers," Appl. Opt. 45, 7723-7728 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Mao, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, "Optical feedback characteristics in He-Ne dual frequency lasers," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 1188-1191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, A.

Myllyla, R.

J. Hast, L. Krehut, and R. Myllyla, "Displacement sensor based on optical feedback interferometry in a GaN laser diode," Opt. Eng. 44 080504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Norgia, M.

G. Giulian, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S283-S294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, A.

A. Olsson and C. L. Tang, "Coherent optical interference effects in external-cavity semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1320-1323 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, A. W.

R. C. Addy, A. W. Palmer, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Effects of external reflector alignment in sensing applications of optical feedback in laser diodes," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2672-2676 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, "Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577-1587 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, and A. W. Palmer, "Self-mixing interference in a diode laser: experimental observations and theoretical analysis," Appl. Opt. 32, 1551-1558 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Servagent, N.

T. Bosch, N. Servagent, and S. Donati, "Optical feedback interferometry for sensing applications," Opt. Eng. 4020-27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shinohara, S.

Steward, G. J.

P. G. R. King and G. J. Steward, "Metrology with an optical maser," New Sci. 17, 180-182 (1963).

Sumi, M.

Tan, S.

Tang, C. L.

A. Olsson and C. L. Tang, "Coherent optical interference effects in external-cavity semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1320-1323 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Van, V. M.

D. Lenstra, V. M. Van, and B. Jaskorzynska, "On the theory of a single-mode laser with weak optical feedback," Physica C. 125, 255-264 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wan, X.

L. Fei, S. Zhang, and X. Wan, "Influence of optical feedback from birefringence external cavity on intensity tuning and polarization of laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1944-1947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

C. Lu, J. Wang, and K. Deng, "Imaging and profiling surface microstructures with noninterferometric confocal laser feedback," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2022-2024 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wang, W. M.

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, "Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577-1587 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, and A. W. Palmer, "Self-mixing interference in a diode laser: experimental observations and theoretical analysis," Appl. Opt. 32, 1551-1558 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, H.

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, "Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor laser based on the optical feedback self-mixing effect," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 990-992 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

W. Mao, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, "Optical feedback characteristics in He-Ne dual frequency lasers," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 1188-1191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

W. Mao, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, "Optical feedback characteristics in He-Ne dual frequency lasers," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 1188-1191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Mao and S. Zhang, "Analysis for the effects of feedback asymmetry in external cavity He-Ne lasers," Appl. Opt. 45, 7723-7728 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fei, S. Zhang, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "Polarization control in a He-Ne laser using birefringence feedback," Opt. Express 13, 3117-3122 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fei, S. Zhang, and X. Wan, "Influence of optical feedback from birefringence external cavity on intensity tuning and polarization of laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1944-1947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, S. Zhang, L. Li, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "A 450 MHz frequency difference dual-frequency laser with optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 231, 349-356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y Li, "Optical feedback laser with a quartz crystal plate in the external cavity," Appl. Opt. 42, 6636-6639 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

W. Mao, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, "Optical feedback characteristics in He-Ne dual frequency lasers," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 1188-1191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Fei, S. Zhang, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "Polarization control in a He-Ne laser using birefringence feedback," Opt. Express 13, 3117-3122 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu, S. Zhang, L. Li, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "A 450 MHz frequency difference dual-frequency laser with optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 231, 349-356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y Li, "Optical feedback laser with a quartz crystal plate in the external cavity," Appl. Opt. 42, 6636-6639 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zong, X.

L. Fei, Y. Li, and X. Zong, "Measurement of small intracavity phase anisotropy in a laser based on optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 249, 255-260 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Lu, J. Wang, and K. Deng, "Imaging and profiling surface microstructures with noninterferometric confocal laser feedback," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2022-2024 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

L. Fei, S. Zhang, and X. Wan, "Influence of optical feedback from birefringence external cavity on intensity tuning and polarization of laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1944-1947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Mao, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, "Optical feedback characteristics in He-Ne dual frequency lasers," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 1188-1191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347-355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, "Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor laser based on the optical feedback self-mixing effect," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 990-992 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Donati, "Laser interferometry by induced modulation of the cavity field," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 495-497 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, "Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577-1587 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Addy, A. W. Palmer, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Effects of external reflector alignment in sensing applications of optical feedback in laser diodes," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2672-2676 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

G. Giulian, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S283-S294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron.

A. Olsson and C. L. Tang, "Coherent optical interference effects in external-cavity semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1320-1323 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

G. Giuliani, S. Bozzi-Pietra, and S. Donati, "Self-mixing laser diode vibrometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

New Sci.

P. G. R. King and G. J. Steward, "Metrology with an optical maser," New Sci. 17, 180-182 (1963).

Opt. Commun.

L. Fei, Y. Li, and X. Zong, "Measurement of small intracavity phase anisotropy in a laser based on optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 249, 255-260 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, S. Zhang, L. Li, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "A 450 MHz frequency difference dual-frequency laser with optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 231, 349-356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

T. Bosch, N. Servagent, and S. Donati, "Optical feedback interferometry for sensing applications," Opt. Eng. 4020-27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hast, L. Krehut, and R. Myllyla, "Displacement sensor based on optical feedback interferometry in a GaN laser diode," Opt. Eng. 44 080504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. de Groot, "Unusual techniques for absolute distance measurement," Opt. Eng. 40, 28-32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Physica C.

D. Lenstra, V. M. Van, and B. Jaskorzynska, "On the theory of a single-mode laser with weak optical feedback," Physica C. 125, 255-264 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental arrangement. M 1 , M 2 , mirrors; MS 1 , MS 2 , magnet strips; QC, quartz crystal; M 3 , external feedback mirror; W 1 , W 2 , Wollaston prisms; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; D 1 , D 2 , photoelectric detectors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Intensity modulation curves of the o-light and the e-light in IOF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Intensity modulation curves of the o-light and the e-light when only the o-light is fed back.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Intensity modulation curves of the o-light and the e-light when only the e-light is fed back.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Simulation results of the intensity modulation characteristics of the two lights in IOF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Simulation results of the intensity modulation characteristics of the two lights when only the o-light is fed back.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Simulation results of the intensity modulation characteristics of the two lights when only the e-light is fed back.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Intensity modulation curves in IOF with four zones.

Equations (6)

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I = I 0 [ 1 + K 2 L t 1 2 r 3 r 1 f   cos ( φ ) ] ,
I o o r e = I 0 o o r e [ 1 + K 2 L t 1 2 r 3 r 1 f   cos ( φ o o r e + δ o o r e ) ] ,
Δ ϕ = | ( φ o φ o ) + ( δ o δ e ) | = | 4 π l c Δ ν + Δ δ | ,
1 + M   cos ( φ o or   e + δ o o r e ) 0.
{ I o = I 0 o [ 1 + M cos ( φ o + δ o ) ] I e = 0 , .
{ I o = 0 , I e = I 0 e , .

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