Abstract

So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz–Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and size of droplets in the micrometer range," in Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Optical Methods in Flow and Parcticle Diagnostics ICALEO 88, R. J. Adrian, ed. (LIA, 1988), pp. 294-304.
  2. J. P. A. J. van Beeck, D. Giannoulis, L. Zimmer, and M. L. Riethmuller, "Global rainbow thermometry for droplet-temperature measurement," Opt. Lett. 24, 1696-1698 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Anders, N. Roth, and A. Frohn, "Influence of refractive index gradients within droplets on rainbow position and implications for rainbow refractometry," Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 125-129 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Massoli, "Rainbow refractometry applied to radially inhomogeneous spheres: the critical case of evaporating droplets," Appl. Opt. 37, 3227-3235 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Laurent, Y. Biscos, N. Doué, C. Maqua, F. Lemoine, G. Gréhan, and G. Lavergne, "Thermal gradient determination inside vaporizing droplets by combining rainbow and laser induced fluorescence measurements," presented at the ASME Joint U.S.-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, Miami, Florida, USA, 17-20 July 2006.
  6. M. R. Vetrano, J. P. A. J. van Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, "Assessment of refractive index gradients by standard rainbow thermometry," Appl. Opt. 44, 7275-7281 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. R. Vetrano, J. P. A. J. van Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, "Generalization of the rainbow Airy theory to nonuniform spheres," Opt. Lett. 30, 658-660 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. P. Han, L. Méès, K. F. Ren, G. Gouesbet, S. Z. Wu, and G. Gréhan, "Scattering of light by spheroids: the far field case," Opt. Commun. 210, 1-9 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. P. A. J. van Beeck and M. L. Riethmuller, "Nonintrusive measurements of temperature and size of single falling raindrops," Appl. Opt. 34, 1633-1639 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. H. M. Nussenzveig, "High-frequency scattering by a transparent sphere. II. Theory of the rainbow and the glory," J. Math. Phys. 10, 125-176 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Saengkaew, T. Charinpanitkul, H. Vanisri, W. Tanthapanichakoon, L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, "Rainbow refractometry: on the validity domain of Airy's and Nussenzweig's theories," Opt. Commun. 259, 7-13 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Saengkaew, Y. Biscos, N. Garcia, T. Charinpanitkul, V. Hatachanok, G. Lavergne, G. Gouesbet, L. Méès, and G. Gréhan, "Processing of rainbow signals from individual droplets," presented at the 20th ILASS-Europe Conference, Orléans, France, 11-16 September 2005.
  14. G. König, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, "A new light-scattering technique to measure the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets," J. Aerosol Sci. 17, 157-167 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Ragucci, A. Cavaliere, and P. Massoli, "Drop sizing by laser light scattering exploiting intensity angular oscillation in the Mie regime," Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 221-225 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Wilms, Evaporation of Multicomponent Droplets (Dr.-Hut, 2005).
  17. D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, 1998).
  18. D. L. Camin, A. F. Forziati, and F. D. Rossini, "Physical properties of n-hexadecane, n-decylcyclopentane, n-decylcyclohexane, 1-hexadecene and n-deylbenzene," J. Phys. Chem. 58, 440-442 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. L. Camin and F. D. Rossini, "Physical properties of 14 American Petroleum Institute Research hydrocarbons, C9 to C15," J. Phys. Chem. 59, 1173-1179 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. F. Forziati, "Refractive index as a function of wavelength for sixty API-NBS hydrocarbons," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 44, 373-385 (1950).
  21. C. F. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).
  22. J. Hom and N. Chigier, "Rainbow refractometry: simultaneous measurement of temperature, refractive index, and size of droplets," Appl. Opt. 41, 1899-1907 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. P. A. J. van Beeck, Rainbow Phenomena: Development of a Laser-Based, Non-intrusive Technique for Measuring Droplet Size, Temperature and Velocity (Eindhoven University of Technology, 1997).
    [PubMed]
  24. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).
  25. C. K. Law, "Recent advances in droplet vaporization and combustion," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 8, 171-201 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. C. Hill and R. E. Benner, "Morphology-dependent resonances," in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber and R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, 1988).
  27. K. Gartung, S. Arndt, and C. Seibel, "Vaporization of multicomponent fuel droplets: Numerical and experimental evaluation," presented at the 18th ILASS-Europe Conference, Zaragoza, Spain, 9-11 September 2002.

2006 (2)

C. Laurent, Y. Biscos, N. Doué, C. Maqua, F. Lemoine, G. Gréhan, and G. Lavergne, "Thermal gradient determination inside vaporizing droplets by combining rainbow and laser induced fluorescence measurements," presented at the ASME Joint U.S.-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, Miami, Florida, USA, 17-20 July 2006.

S. Saengkaew, T. Charinpanitkul, H. Vanisri, W. Tanthapanichakoon, L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, "Rainbow refractometry: on the validity domain of Airy's and Nussenzweig's theories," Opt. Commun. 259, 7-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. Saengkaew, Y. Biscos, N. Garcia, T. Charinpanitkul, V. Hatachanok, G. Lavergne, G. Gouesbet, L. Méès, and G. Gréhan, "Processing of rainbow signals from individual droplets," presented at the 20th ILASS-Europe Conference, Orléans, France, 11-16 September 2005.

M. R. Vetrano, J. P. A. J. van Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, "Generalization of the rainbow Airy theory to nonuniform spheres," Opt. Lett. 30, 658-660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Vetrano, J. P. A. J. van Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, "Assessment of refractive index gradients by standard rainbow thermometry," Appl. Opt. 44, 7275-7281 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. Hom and N. Chigier, "Rainbow refractometry: simultaneous measurement of temperature, refractive index, and size of droplets," Appl. Opt. 41, 1899-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. P. Han, L. Méès, K. F. Ren, G. Gouesbet, S. Z. Wu, and G. Gréhan, "Scattering of light by spheroids: the far field case," Opt. Commun. 210, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Gartung, S. Arndt, and C. Seibel, "Vaporization of multicomponent fuel droplets: Numerical and experimental evaluation," presented at the 18th ILASS-Europe Conference, Zaragoza, Spain, 9-11 September 2002.

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

K. Anders, N. Roth, and A. Frohn, "Influence of refractive index gradients within droplets on rainbow position and implications for rainbow refractometry," Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 125-129 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

R. Ragucci, A. Cavaliere, and P. Massoli, "Drop sizing by laser light scattering exploiting intensity angular oscillation in the Mie regime," Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 221-225 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. König, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, "A new light-scattering technique to measure the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets," J. Aerosol Sci. 17, 157-167 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. K. Law, "Recent advances in droplet vaporization and combustion," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 8, 171-201 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

H. M. Nussenzveig, "High-frequency scattering by a transparent sphere. I. Direct reflection and transmission," J. Math. Phys. 10, 82-124 (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Nussenzveig, "High-frequency scattering by a transparent sphere. II. Theory of the rainbow and the glory," J. Math. Phys. 10, 125-176 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

D. L. Camin and F. D. Rossini, "Physical properties of 14 American Petroleum Institute Research hydrocarbons, C9 to C15," J. Phys. Chem. 59, 1173-1179 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

D. L. Camin, A. F. Forziati, and F. D. Rossini, "Physical properties of n-hexadecane, n-decylcyclopentane, n-decylcyclohexane, 1-hexadecene and n-deylbenzene," J. Phys. Chem. 58, 440-442 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

A. F. Forziati, "Refractive index as a function of wavelength for sixty API-NBS hydrocarbons," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 44, 373-385 (1950).

Anders, K.

K. Anders, N. Roth, and A. Frohn, "Influence of refractive index gradients within droplets on rainbow position and implications for rainbow refractometry," Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 125-129 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. König, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, "A new light-scattering technique to measure the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets," J. Aerosol Sci. 17, 157-167 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and size of droplets in the micrometer range," in Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Optical Methods in Flow and Parcticle Diagnostics ICALEO 88, R. J. Adrian, ed. (LIA, 1988), pp. 294-304.

Arndt, S.

K. Gartung, S. Arndt, and C. Seibel, "Vaporization of multicomponent fuel droplets: Numerical and experimental evaluation," presented at the 18th ILASS-Europe Conference, Zaragoza, Spain, 9-11 September 2002.

Benner, R. E.

S. C. Hill and R. E. Benner, "Morphology-dependent resonances," in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber and R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, 1988).

Biscos, Y.

C. Laurent, Y. Biscos, N. Doué, C. Maqua, F. Lemoine, G. Gréhan, and G. Lavergne, "Thermal gradient determination inside vaporizing droplets by combining rainbow and laser induced fluorescence measurements," presented at the ASME Joint U.S.-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, Miami, Florida, USA, 17-20 July 2006.

S. Saengkaew, Y. Biscos, N. Garcia, T. Charinpanitkul, V. Hatachanok, G. Lavergne, G. Gouesbet, L. Méès, and G. Gréhan, "Processing of rainbow signals from individual droplets," presented at the 20th ILASS-Europe Conference, Orléans, France, 11-16 September 2005.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Camin, D. L.

D. L. Camin and F. D. Rossini, "Physical properties of 14 American Petroleum Institute Research hydrocarbons, C9 to C15," J. Phys. Chem. 59, 1173-1179 (1955).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Camin, A. F. Forziati, and F. D. Rossini, "Physical properties of n-hexadecane, n-decylcyclopentane, n-decylcyclohexane, 1-hexadecene and n-deylbenzene," J. Phys. Chem. 58, 440-442 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Cavaliere, A.

R. Ragucci, A. Cavaliere, and P. Massoli, "Drop sizing by laser light scattering exploiting intensity angular oscillation in the Mie regime," Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 221-225 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Charinpanitkul, T.

S. Saengkaew, T. Charinpanitkul, H. Vanisri, W. Tanthapanichakoon, L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, "Rainbow refractometry: on the validity domain of Airy's and Nussenzweig's theories," Opt. Commun. 259, 7-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Saengkaew, Y. Biscos, N. Garcia, T. Charinpanitkul, V. Hatachanok, G. Lavergne, G. Gouesbet, L. Méès, and G. Gréhan, "Processing of rainbow signals from individual droplets," presented at the 20th ILASS-Europe Conference, Orléans, France, 11-16 September 2005.

Chigier, N.

Doué, N.

C. Laurent, Y. Biscos, N. Doué, C. Maqua, F. Lemoine, G. Gréhan, and G. Lavergne, "Thermal gradient determination inside vaporizing droplets by combining rainbow and laser induced fluorescence measurements," presented at the ASME Joint U.S.-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, Miami, Florida, USA, 17-20 July 2006.

Forziati, A. F.

D. L. Camin, A. F. Forziati, and F. D. Rossini, "Physical properties of n-hexadecane, n-decylcyclopentane, n-decylcyclohexane, 1-hexadecene and n-deylbenzene," J. Phys. Chem. 58, 440-442 (1954).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Forziati, "Refractive index as a function of wavelength for sixty API-NBS hydrocarbons," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 44, 373-385 (1950).

Frohn, A.

K. Anders, N. Roth, and A. Frohn, "Influence of refractive index gradients within droplets on rainbow position and implications for rainbow refractometry," Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 125-129 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. König, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, "A new light-scattering technique to measure the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets," J. Aerosol Sci. 17, 157-167 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and size of droplets in the micrometer range," in Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Optical Methods in Flow and Parcticle Diagnostics ICALEO 88, R. J. Adrian, ed. (LIA, 1988), pp. 294-304.

Garcia, N.

S. Saengkaew, Y. Biscos, N. Garcia, T. Charinpanitkul, V. Hatachanok, G. Lavergne, G. Gouesbet, L. Méès, and G. Gréhan, "Processing of rainbow signals from individual droplets," presented at the 20th ILASS-Europe Conference, Orléans, France, 11-16 September 2005.

Gartung, K.

K. Gartung, S. Arndt, and C. Seibel, "Vaporization of multicomponent fuel droplets: Numerical and experimental evaluation," presented at the 18th ILASS-Europe Conference, Zaragoza, Spain, 9-11 September 2002.

Giannoulis, D.

Gouesbet, G.

S. Saengkaew, T. Charinpanitkul, H. Vanisri, W. Tanthapanichakoon, L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, "Rainbow refractometry: on the validity domain of Airy's and Nussenzweig's theories," Opt. Commun. 259, 7-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Saengkaew, Y. Biscos, N. Garcia, T. Charinpanitkul, V. Hatachanok, G. Lavergne, G. Gouesbet, L. Méès, and G. Gréhan, "Processing of rainbow signals from individual droplets," presented at the 20th ILASS-Europe Conference, Orléans, France, 11-16 September 2005.

Y. P. Han, L. Méès, K. F. Ren, G. Gouesbet, S. Z. Wu, and G. Gréhan, "Scattering of light by spheroids: the far field case," Opt. Commun. 210, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gréhan, G.

S. Saengkaew, T. Charinpanitkul, H. Vanisri, W. Tanthapanichakoon, L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, "Rainbow refractometry: on the validity domain of Airy's and Nussenzweig's theories," Opt. Commun. 259, 7-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Laurent, Y. Biscos, N. Doué, C. Maqua, F. Lemoine, G. Gréhan, and G. Lavergne, "Thermal gradient determination inside vaporizing droplets by combining rainbow and laser induced fluorescence measurements," presented at the ASME Joint U.S.-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, Miami, Florida, USA, 17-20 July 2006.

S. Saengkaew, Y. Biscos, N. Garcia, T. Charinpanitkul, V. Hatachanok, G. Lavergne, G. Gouesbet, L. Méès, and G. Gréhan, "Processing of rainbow signals from individual droplets," presented at the 20th ILASS-Europe Conference, Orléans, France, 11-16 September 2005.

Y. P. Han, L. Méès, K. F. Ren, G. Gouesbet, S. Z. Wu, and G. Gréhan, "Scattering of light by spheroids: the far field case," Opt. Commun. 210, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. P.

Y. P. Han, L. Méès, K. F. Ren, G. Gouesbet, S. Z. Wu, and G. Gréhan, "Scattering of light by spheroids: the far field case," Opt. Commun. 210, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hatachanok, V.

S. Saengkaew, Y. Biscos, N. Garcia, T. Charinpanitkul, V. Hatachanok, G. Lavergne, G. Gouesbet, L. Méès, and G. Gréhan, "Processing of rainbow signals from individual droplets," presented at the 20th ILASS-Europe Conference, Orléans, France, 11-16 September 2005.

Hill, S. C.

S. C. Hill and R. E. Benner, "Morphology-dependent resonances," in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber and R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, 1988).

Hom, J.

Huffman, D.

C. F. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

König, G.

G. König, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, "A new light-scattering technique to measure the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets," J. Aerosol Sci. 17, 157-167 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, C.

C. Laurent, Y. Biscos, N. Doué, C. Maqua, F. Lemoine, G. Gréhan, and G. Lavergne, "Thermal gradient determination inside vaporizing droplets by combining rainbow and laser induced fluorescence measurements," presented at the ASME Joint U.S.-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, Miami, Florida, USA, 17-20 July 2006.

Lavergne, G.

C. Laurent, Y. Biscos, N. Doué, C. Maqua, F. Lemoine, G. Gréhan, and G. Lavergne, "Thermal gradient determination inside vaporizing droplets by combining rainbow and laser induced fluorescence measurements," presented at the ASME Joint U.S.-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, Miami, Florida, USA, 17-20 July 2006.

S. Saengkaew, Y. Biscos, N. Garcia, T. Charinpanitkul, V. Hatachanok, G. Lavergne, G. Gouesbet, L. Méès, and G. Gréhan, "Processing of rainbow signals from individual droplets," presented at the 20th ILASS-Europe Conference, Orléans, France, 11-16 September 2005.

Law, C. K.

C. K. Law, "Recent advances in droplet vaporization and combustion," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 8, 171-201 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lemoine, F.

C. Laurent, Y. Biscos, N. Doué, C. Maqua, F. Lemoine, G. Gréhan, and G. Lavergne, "Thermal gradient determination inside vaporizing droplets by combining rainbow and laser induced fluorescence measurements," presented at the ASME Joint U.S.-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, Miami, Florida, USA, 17-20 July 2006.

Lide, D. R.

D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, 1998).

Maqua, C.

C. Laurent, Y. Biscos, N. Doué, C. Maqua, F. Lemoine, G. Gréhan, and G. Lavergne, "Thermal gradient determination inside vaporizing droplets by combining rainbow and laser induced fluorescence measurements," presented at the ASME Joint U.S.-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, Miami, Florida, USA, 17-20 July 2006.

Massoli, P.

P. Massoli, "Rainbow refractometry applied to radially inhomogeneous spheres: the critical case of evaporating droplets," Appl. Opt. 37, 3227-3235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragucci, A. Cavaliere, and P. Massoli, "Drop sizing by laser light scattering exploiting intensity angular oscillation in the Mie regime," Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 221-225 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mees, L.

S. Saengkaew, T. Charinpanitkul, H. Vanisri, W. Tanthapanichakoon, L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, "Rainbow refractometry: on the validity domain of Airy's and Nussenzweig's theories," Opt. Commun. 259, 7-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Méès, L.

S. Saengkaew, Y. Biscos, N. Garcia, T. Charinpanitkul, V. Hatachanok, G. Lavergne, G. Gouesbet, L. Méès, and G. Gréhan, "Processing of rainbow signals from individual droplets," presented at the 20th ILASS-Europe Conference, Orléans, France, 11-16 September 2005.

Y. P. Han, L. Méès, K. F. Ren, G. Gouesbet, S. Z. Wu, and G. Gréhan, "Scattering of light by spheroids: the far field case," Opt. Commun. 210, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nussenzveig, H. M.

H. M. Nussenzveig, "High-frequency scattering by a transparent sphere. I. Direct reflection and transmission," J. Math. Phys. 10, 82-124 (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Nussenzveig, "High-frequency scattering by a transparent sphere. II. Theory of the rainbow and the glory," J. Math. Phys. 10, 125-176 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ragucci, R.

R. Ragucci, A. Cavaliere, and P. Massoli, "Drop sizing by laser light scattering exploiting intensity angular oscillation in the Mie regime," Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 7, 221-225 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ren, K. F.

Y. P. Han, L. Méès, K. F. Ren, G. Gouesbet, S. Z. Wu, and G. Gréhan, "Scattering of light by spheroids: the far field case," Opt. Commun. 210, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Riethmuller, M. L.

Rossini, F. D.

D. L. Camin and F. D. Rossini, "Physical properties of 14 American Petroleum Institute Research hydrocarbons, C9 to C15," J. Phys. Chem. 59, 1173-1179 (1955).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Camin, A. F. Forziati, and F. D. Rossini, "Physical properties of n-hexadecane, n-decylcyclopentane, n-decylcyclohexane, 1-hexadecene and n-deylbenzene," J. Phys. Chem. 58, 440-442 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Roth, N.

K. Anders, N. Roth, and A. Frohn, "Influence of refractive index gradients within droplets on rainbow position and implications for rainbow refractometry," Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 125-129 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and size of droplets in the micrometer range," in Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Optical Methods in Flow and Parcticle Diagnostics ICALEO 88, R. J. Adrian, ed. (LIA, 1988), pp. 294-304.

Saengkaew, S.

S. Saengkaew, T. Charinpanitkul, H. Vanisri, W. Tanthapanichakoon, L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, "Rainbow refractometry: on the validity domain of Airy's and Nussenzweig's theories," Opt. Commun. 259, 7-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Saengkaew, Y. Biscos, N. Garcia, T. Charinpanitkul, V. Hatachanok, G. Lavergne, G. Gouesbet, L. Méès, and G. Gréhan, "Processing of rainbow signals from individual droplets," presented at the 20th ILASS-Europe Conference, Orléans, France, 11-16 September 2005.

Seibel, C.

K. Gartung, S. Arndt, and C. Seibel, "Vaporization of multicomponent fuel droplets: Numerical and experimental evaluation," presented at the 18th ILASS-Europe Conference, Zaragoza, Spain, 9-11 September 2002.

Tanthapanichakoon, W.

S. Saengkaew, T. Charinpanitkul, H. Vanisri, W. Tanthapanichakoon, L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, "Rainbow refractometry: on the validity domain of Airy's and Nussenzweig's theories," Opt. Commun. 259, 7-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Beeck, J. P. A. J.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).

Vanisri, H.

S. Saengkaew, T. Charinpanitkul, H. Vanisri, W. Tanthapanichakoon, L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, "Rainbow refractometry: on the validity domain of Airy's and Nussenzweig's theories," Opt. Commun. 259, 7-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vetrano, M. R.

Wilms, J.

J. Wilms, Evaporation of Multicomponent Droplets (Dr.-Hut, 2005).

Wu, S. Z.

Y. P. Han, L. Méès, K. F. Ren, G. Gouesbet, S. Z. Wu, and G. Gréhan, "Scattering of light by spheroids: the far field case," Opt. Commun. 210, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zimmer, L.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

G. König, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, "A new light-scattering technique to measure the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets," J. Aerosol Sci. 17, 157-167 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Math. Phys. (2)

H. M. Nussenzveig, "High-frequency scattering by a transparent sphere. I. Direct reflection and transmission," J. Math. Phys. 10, 82-124 (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Nussenzveig, "High-frequency scattering by a transparent sphere. II. Theory of the rainbow and the glory," J. Math. Phys. 10, 125-176 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

D. L. Camin, A. F. Forziati, and F. D. Rossini, "Physical properties of n-hexadecane, n-decylcyclopentane, n-decylcyclohexane, 1-hexadecene and n-deylbenzene," J. Phys. Chem. 58, 440-442 (1954).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Camin and F. D. Rossini, "Physical properties of 14 American Petroleum Institute Research hydrocarbons, C9 to C15," J. Phys. Chem. 59, 1173-1179 (1955).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the setup for single, optically levitated droplets.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Validation of optical Fourier transform. Position of laser beam on CCD array (pixel number) at three different positions of a turnable mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index of n-alkanes and 1-hexadecene at a wavelength of 532   nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evaluation of a scattered light intensity calculated with Lorenz–Mie theory for a droplet with D = 40   μm and n = 1.4 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of evaluations of scattered light intensity distributions for various droplet diameters and refractive indices.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Uncertainty of rainbow refractometry, determined for various refractive indices and droplet diameters. The uncertainty of the temperature ( δ T ) , resulting from δ n , is given for n-heptane.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Determination of the droplet temperature T d from measurements with rainbow refractometry (RRF) and from measurements of the evaporation rate with Mie scattering imaging (MSI) for pure-component droplets of 1-hexadecene; results from three different droplets are shown at each temperature level.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Evaporation of a binary mixture droplet of n-dodecane and 1-hexadecene ( Z i , 0 = 0.5 , T = 301.5   K , T r T , D 0 = 51.2   μm ): (a) nondimensional droplet surface, (b) volume fraction of n-dodecane.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Evaporation of three different binary mixture droplets of n-decane and n-hexadecane ( Z i , 0 = 0.5 , T = 300.8   K , T r = 300.5   K for Z n - decane = 0.25 ): (a) nondimensional droplet surface, (b) volume fraction of n-decane.

Equations (10)

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n 532 ( C , T ) = a 532 ( C ) + b 532 ( C ) ( T 273.15 K ) ,
a 532 ( C ) = 1.35858 + 0.03414 ln ( C 3.63 )
b 532 ( C ) = [ 6.073 × 10 4 + 7.833 × 10 5 × ln ( C 2.986 ) ] 1 K .
n 532 ( 1 hexadecene , T ) = 1.45261 4.269 × 10 4 × T 273.15   K K .
f ripple = D 2 λ ( 4 n 2 3 + cos θ r g 2 ) .
θ r g = 2 [ 2 arcsin ( 1 n 4 n 2 3 ) arcsin ( n 2 1 3 ) ] .
ζ = ( θ θ r g ) ( 4 D λ ) 2 / 3 ( n 2 1 3 ) 1 / 2 ( 3 4 n 2 ) 1 / 6 .
n cor ( n , D ) = n 0.0001 + ( 1.734 1.158 n ) ( D ref D ) 1.5 with   D ref = 10 6   m .
n cor = Z 1 n 1 + Z 2 n 2 .
Z 1 = n cor n 2 n 1 n 2 .

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