G. J. Baker, "Gaussian beam weak scintillation: low-order turbulence effects and applicability of the Rytov method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 395-417 (2006).

[CrossRef]

F. Strömqvist Vetelino, B. Clare, K. Corbett, C. Young, K. Grant, and L. Andrews, "Characterizing the propagation path in moderate to strong optical turbulence," Appl. Opt. 45, 3534-3543 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Recolons and F. Dios, "Accurate calculation of phase screens for the modeling of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence," in Proc. SPIE 5891, 51-62 (2005).

A. D. Wheelon, "Skewed distribution of irradiance predicted by second-order Rytov approximation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2789-2798 (2001).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical model for the irradiance PDF of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media," Opt. Eng. 40, 1554-1562 (2001).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, M. A. Al-Habash, C. Y. Hopen, and R. L. Phillips, "Theory of optical scintillation: Gaussian-beam wave model," Waves Random Media 11, 271-291 (2001).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, "Aperture averaging of optical scintillations: power fluctuations and temporal spectrum," Waves Random Media 10, 53-70 (2000).

[CrossRef]

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, "Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen," Waves Random Media 2, 209-224 (1992).

[CrossRef]

Z. Azar, H. M. Loebenstein, G. Appelbaum, E. Azoulay, U. Halavee, M. Tamir, and M. Tur, "Aperture averaging of the two-wavelength intensity covariance function in atmospheric turbulence," Appl. Opt. 24, 2401-2407 (1985).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, "*I*-*K*-distribution as a universal propagation model of laser beams in atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 160-163 (1985).

[CrossRef]

D. J. Lewinski, "Nonstationary probabilistic target and clutter scattering models," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-31, 490-498 (1983).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, "On the statistics of *K*-distributed noise," J. Phys. A 13, 31-48 (1980).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, "The significance of *K*-distributions in scattering experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 546-550 (1978).

[CrossRef]

J. W. Strohbehn, T.-I. Wang, and J. P. Speck, "On the probability density distribution of line-of-sight fluctuations of optical signals," Radio Sci. 10, 59-70 (1975).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical model for the irradiance PDF of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media," Opt. Eng. 40, 1554-1562 (2001).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, M. A. Al-Habash, C. Y. Hopen, and R. L. Phillips, "Theory of optical scintillation: Gaussian-beam wave model," Waves Random Media 11, 271-291 (2001).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. Al-Habash, "Theory of optical scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1417-1429 (1999).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, M. A. Al-Habash, C. Y. Hopen, and R. L. Phillips, "Theory of optical scintillation: Gaussian-beam wave model," Waves Random Media 11, 271-291 (2001).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical model for the irradiance PDF of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media," Opt. Eng. 40, 1554-1562 (2001).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, "Aperture averaging of optical scintillations: power fluctuations and temporal spectrum," Waves Random Media 10, 53-70 (2000).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. Al-Habash, "Theory of optical scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1417-1429 (1999).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical genesis of the *I*-*K*-distribution for random optical fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1912-1919 (1986).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, "*I*-*K*-distribution as a universal propagation model of laser beams in atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 160-163 (1985).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, *Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications* (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 2001).

J. H. Churnside, "Aperture averaging of optical scintillation in the turbulent atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 30, 1982-1994 (1991).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. H. Churnside and R. G. Frehlich, "Experimental evaluation of log-normally modulated Rician and *IK* models of optical scintillation in the atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1760-1766 (1989).

[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and S. F. Clifford, "Log-normal Rician probability-density function of optical scintillations in the turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1923-1930 (1987).

[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and R. J. Hill, "Probability density of irradiance scintillations for strong path-integrated refractive turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 727-733 (1987).

[CrossRef]

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, "Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen," Waves Random Media 2, 209-224 (1992).

[CrossRef]

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, "Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen," Waves Random Media 2, 209-224 (1992).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, M. A. Al-Habash, C. Y. Hopen, and R. L. Phillips, "Theory of optical scintillation: Gaussian-beam wave model," Waves Random Media 11, 271-291 (2001).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, "Aperture averaging of optical scintillations: power fluctuations and temporal spectrum," Waves Random Media 10, 53-70 (2000).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. Al-Habash, "Theory of optical scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1417-1429 (1999).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, *Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications* (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 2001).

E. Jakeman, "On the statistics of *K*-distributed noise," J. Phys. A 13, 31-48 (1980).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, "The significance of *K*-distributions in scattering experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 546-550 (1978).

[CrossRef]

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, "Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen," Waves Random Media 2, 209-224 (1992).

[CrossRef]

D. J. Lewinski, "Nonstationary probabilistic target and clutter scattering models," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-31, 490-498 (1983).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical model for the irradiance PDF of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media," Opt. Eng. 40, 1554-1562 (2001).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, M. A. Al-Habash, C. Y. Hopen, and R. L. Phillips, "Theory of optical scintillation: Gaussian-beam wave model," Waves Random Media 11, 271-291 (2001).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, "Aperture averaging of optical scintillations: power fluctuations and temporal spectrum," Waves Random Media 10, 53-70 (2000).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. Al-Habash, "Theory of optical scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1417-1429 (1999).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical genesis of the *I*-*K*-distribution for random optical fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1912-1919 (1986).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, "*I*-*K*-distribution as a universal propagation model of laser beams in atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 160-163 (1985).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, *Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications* (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 2001).

J. Recolons and F. Dios, "Accurate calculation of phase screens for the modeling of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence," in Proc. SPIE 5891, 51-62 (2005).

J. W. Strohbehn, T.-I. Wang, and J. P. Speck, "On the probability density distribution of line-of-sight fluctuations of optical signals," Radio Sci. 10, 59-70 (1975).

[CrossRef]

J. W. Strohbehn, T.-I. Wang, and J. P. Speck, "On the probability density distribution of line-of-sight fluctuations of optical signals," Radio Sci. 10, 59-70 (1975).

[CrossRef]

J. W. Strohbehn, "Modern theories in the propagation of optical waves in a turbulent medium," in *Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere*, J. W. Strohbehn, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1978), pp. 97-104.

V. I. Tatarskii, *The Effects of Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation* (National Technical Information Office, 1971), p. 292.

J. W. Strohbehn, T.-I. Wang, and J. P. Speck, "On the probability density distribution of line-of-sight fluctuations of optical signals," Radio Sci. 10, 59-70 (1975).

[CrossRef]

Z. Azar, H. M. Loebenstein, G. Appelbaum, E. Azoulay, U. Halavee, M. Tamir, and M. Tur, "Aperture averaging of the two-wavelength intensity covariance function in atmospheric turbulence," Appl. Opt. 24, 2401-2407 (1985).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. H. Churnside, "Aperture averaging of optical scintillation in the turbulent atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 30, 1982-1994 (1991).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

F. Dios, J. A. Rubio, A. Rodríguez, and A. Comerón, "Scintillation and beam-wander analysis in an optical ground station-satellite uplink," Appl. Opt. 43, 3866-3873 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

F. Strömqvist Vetelino, B. Clare, K. Corbett, C. Young, K. Grant, and L. Andrews, "Characterizing the propagation path in moderate to strong optical turbulence," Appl. Opt. 45, 3534-3543 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. J. Lewinski, "Nonstationary probabilistic target and clutter scattering models," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-31, 490-498 (1983).

[CrossRef]

G. J. Baker, "Gaussian beam weak scintillation: low-order turbulence effects and applicability of the Rytov method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 395-417 (2006).

[CrossRef]

A. D. Wheelon, "Skewed distribution of irradiance predicted by second-order Rytov approximation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2789-2798 (2001).

[CrossRef]

S. M. Flatté, C. Bracher, and G.-Yu Wang, "Probability-density functions of irradiance for waves in atmospheric turbulence calculated by numerical simulations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2080-2092 (1994).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. Al-Habash, "Theory of optical scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1417-1429 (1999).

[CrossRef]

R. J. Hill and R. G. Frehlich, "Probability distribution of irradiance for the onset of strong scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1530-1540 (1997).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, "*I*-*K*-distribution as a universal propagation model of laser beams in atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 160-163 (1985).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical genesis of the *I*-*K*-distribution for random optical fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1912-1919 (1986).

[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and R. J. Hill, "Probability density of irradiance scintillations for strong path-integrated refractive turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 727-733 (1987).

[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and S. F. Clifford, "Log-normal Rician probability-density function of optical scintillations in the turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1923-1930 (1987).

[CrossRef]

M. C. Teich and P. Diament, "Multiply stochastic representations for *K* distributions and their Poisson transforms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 80-91 (1989).

[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and R. G. Frehlich, "Experimental evaluation of log-normally modulated Rician and *IK* models of optical scintillation in the atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1760-1766 (1989).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, "On the statistics of *K*-distributed noise," J. Phys. A 13, 31-48 (1980).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical model for the irradiance PDF of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media," Opt. Eng. 40, 1554-1562 (2001).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, "The significance of *K*-distributions in scattering experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 546-550 (1978).

[CrossRef]

J. W. Strohbehn, T.-I. Wang, and J. P. Speck, "On the probability density distribution of line-of-sight fluctuations of optical signals," Radio Sci. 10, 59-70 (1975).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, "Aperture averaging of optical scintillations: power fluctuations and temporal spectrum," Waves Random Media 10, 53-70 (2000).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, M. A. Al-Habash, C. Y. Hopen, and R. L. Phillips, "Theory of optical scintillation: Gaussian-beam wave model," Waves Random Media 11, 271-291 (2001).

[CrossRef]

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, "Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen," Waves Random Media 2, 209-224 (1992).

[CrossRef]

J. Recolons and F. Dios, "Accurate calculation of phase screens for the modeling of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence," in Proc. SPIE 5891, 51-62 (2005).

"Downhill simplex method in multidimensions," Chap. 10.4 in *Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing* (1988-1992), http://www.library.cornell.edu/nr/bookcpdf/c10-4.pdf.

V. I. Tatarskii, *The Effects of Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation* (National Technical Information Office, 1971), p. 292.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, *Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications* (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 2001).

J. W. Strohbehn, "Modern theories in the propagation of optical waves in a turbulent medium," in *Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere*, J. W. Strohbehn, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1978), pp. 97-104.