Abstract

A cloud monitor instrument, sensing 814μm infrared radiation, has been installed near McMurdo, Antarctica, in order to provide supporting cloud cover information for a high-resolution sky-viewing Fabry–Perot spectrometer experiment. Validation of the cloud monitor observations was performed by a 1 year long comparison with the available 6 h visual cloud observations, expressed in octas (obscured eighths of the sky). The agreement between visual observations and those of the cloud monitor is good—the variation being slightly over one step, or octa—except at the clear sky extreme, which the subjective visual observations tend to overestimate during dark and moonless conditions. Both visual observations and the cloud monitor measurements show an austral winter–summer difference with the winter being clearer.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. V. R. Morris, C. N. Lang, and D. Nelson, "Deployment of an infrared thermometer network at the atmospheric radiation measurement program southern Great Plains climate facility," in Sixteenth ARM Science Team Meeting Proceedings, Albuquerque, N. Mex., March 27-31, 2006 (2006).

2006 (1)

V. R. Morris, C. N. Lang, and D. Nelson, "Deployment of an infrared thermometer network at the atmospheric radiation measurement program southern Great Plains climate facility," in Sixteenth ARM Science Team Meeting Proceedings, Albuquerque, N. Mex., March 27-31, 2006 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. S. Town, V. P. Walden, and S. G. Warren, "Cloud cover climatology for the South Pole from surface-based infrared radiation measurements," presented at the 8th Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, 2005, American Meteorological Society, paper P1.26.

2004 (3)

G. Hernandez, "Winter mesospheric temperatures above South Pole (90° S) and their relationship to the springtime ozone hole size," Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L071109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. P. Ackerman and G. M. Stokes, "The atmospheric radiation measurement program," Phys. Today 56(1), 38-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. W. Clay, N. R. Wild, D. J. Bird, B. R. Dawson, M. Johnston, R. Patrick, and A. Sewell, "A cloud monitoring system for remote sites," Publ.-Astron. Soc. Aust. 15, 332-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. J. Hahn, S. G. Warren, and J. London, "The effect of moonlight on observation of cloud cover at night, and application to cloud climatology," J. Clim. 8, 1429-1446 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, and J. Conner, "Neutral wind and temperature in the upper mesosphere above South Pole, Antarctica," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 53-56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Schneider, P. Paluzzi, and J. P. Oliver, "Systematic error in the synoptic sky cover record of the South Pole," J. Clim. 2, 295-302 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

Ackerman, T. P.

T. P. Ackerman and G. M. Stokes, "The atmospheric radiation measurement program," Phys. Today 56(1), 38-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Best, F. A.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bird, D. J.

R. W. Clay, N. R. Wild, D. J. Bird, B. R. Dawson, M. Johnston, R. Patrick, and A. Sewell, "A cloud monitoring system for remote sites," Publ.-Astron. Soc. Aust. 15, 332-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ciganovich, N. C.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clay, R. W.

R. W. Clay, N. R. Wild, D. J. Bird, B. R. Dawson, M. Johnston, R. Patrick, and A. Sewell, "A cloud monitoring system for remote sites," Publ.-Astron. Soc. Aust. 15, 332-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Conner, J.

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, and J. Conner, "Neutral wind and temperature in the upper mesosphere above South Pole, Antarctica," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 53-56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, B. R.

R. W. Clay, N. R. Wild, D. J. Bird, B. R. Dawson, M. Johnston, R. Patrick, and A. Sewell, "A cloud monitoring system for remote sites," Publ.-Astron. Soc. Aust. 15, 332-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dedecker, R. G.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dirkx, T. P.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ellington, S. C.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feltz, W. F.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, R. K.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, C. J.

C. J. Hahn, S. G. Warren, and J. London, "The effect of moonlight on observation of cloud cover at night, and application to cloud climatology," J. Clim. 8, 1429-1446 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, G.

G. Hernandez, "Winter mesospheric temperatures above South Pole (90° S) and their relationship to the springtime ozone hole size," Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L071109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, and J. Conner, "Neutral wind and temperature in the upper mesosphere above South Pole, Antarctica," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 53-56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Howell, H. B.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, M.

R. W. Clay, N. R. Wild, D. J. Bird, B. R. Dawson, M. Johnston, R. Patrick, and A. Sewell, "A cloud monitoring system for remote sites," Publ.-Astron. Soc. Aust. 15, 332-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knuteson, R. O.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lang, C. N.

V. R. Morris, C. N. Lang, and D. Nelson, "Deployment of an infrared thermometer network at the atmospheric radiation measurement program southern Great Plains climate facility," in Sixteenth ARM Science Team Meeting Proceedings, Albuquerque, N. Mex., March 27-31, 2006 (2006).

London, J.

C. J. Hahn, S. G. Warren, and J. London, "The effect of moonlight on observation of cloud cover at night, and application to cloud climatology," J. Clim. 8, 1429-1446 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morris, V. R.

V. R. Morris, C. N. Lang, and D. Nelson, "Deployment of an infrared thermometer network at the atmospheric radiation measurement program southern Great Plains climate facility," in Sixteenth ARM Science Team Meeting Proceedings, Albuquerque, N. Mex., March 27-31, 2006 (2006).

Nelson, D.

V. R. Morris, C. N. Lang, and D. Nelson, "Deployment of an infrared thermometer network at the atmospheric radiation measurement program southern Great Plains climate facility," in Sixteenth ARM Science Team Meeting Proceedings, Albuquerque, N. Mex., March 27-31, 2006 (2006).

Oliver, J. P.

G. Schneider, P. Paluzzi, and J. P. Oliver, "Systematic error in the synoptic sky cover record of the South Pole," J. Clim. 2, 295-302 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Paluzzi, P.

G. Schneider, P. Paluzzi, and J. P. Oliver, "Systematic error in the synoptic sky cover record of the South Pole," J. Clim. 2, 295-302 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, R.

R. W. Clay, N. R. Wild, D. J. Bird, B. R. Dawson, M. Johnston, R. Patrick, and A. Sewell, "A cloud monitoring system for remote sites," Publ.-Astron. Soc. Aust. 15, 332-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, H. E.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

G. Schneider, P. Paluzzi, and J. P. Oliver, "Systematic error in the synoptic sky cover record of the South Pole," J. Clim. 2, 295-302 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, A.

R. W. Clay, N. R. Wild, D. J. Bird, B. R. Dawson, M. Johnston, R. Patrick, and A. Sewell, "A cloud monitoring system for remote sites," Publ.-Astron. Soc. Aust. 15, 332-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. H.

Short, J. F.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sloan, R.

Smith, R. W.

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, and J. Conner, "Neutral wind and temperature in the upper mesosphere above South Pole, Antarctica," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 53-56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, G. M.

T. P. Ackerman and G. M. Stokes, "The atmospheric radiation measurement program," Phys. Today 56(1), 38-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D. C.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Town, M. S.

M. S. Town, V. P. Walden, and S. G. Warren, "Cloud cover climatology for the South Pole from surface-based infrared radiation measurements," presented at the 8th Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, 2005, American Meteorological Society, paper P1.26.

Walden, V. P.

M. S. Town, V. P. Walden, and S. G. Warren, "Cloud cover climatology for the South Pole from surface-based infrared radiation measurements," presented at the 8th Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, 2005, American Meteorological Society, paper P1.26.

Warren, S. G.

M. S. Town, V. P. Walden, and S. G. Warren, "Cloud cover climatology for the South Pole from surface-based infrared radiation measurements," presented at the 8th Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, 2005, American Meteorological Society, paper P1.26.

C. J. Hahn, S. G. Warren, and J. London, "The effect of moonlight on observation of cloud cover at night, and application to cloud climatology," J. Clim. 8, 1429-1446 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wild, N. R.

R. W. Clay, N. R. Wild, D. J. Bird, B. R. Dawson, M. Johnston, R. Patrick, and A. Sewell, "A cloud monitoring system for remote sites," Publ.-Astron. Soc. Aust. 15, 332-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

G. Hernandez, R. W. Smith, and J. Conner, "Neutral wind and temperature in the upper mesosphere above South Pole, Antarctica," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 53-56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, "Winter mesospheric temperatures above South Pole (90° S) and their relationship to the springtime ozone hole size," Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L071109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (2)

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim. (2)

C. J. Hahn, S. G. Warren, and J. London, "The effect of moonlight on observation of cloud cover at night, and application to cloud climatology," J. Clim. 8, 1429-1446 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, P. Paluzzi, and J. P. Oliver, "Systematic error in the synoptic sky cover record of the South Pole," J. Clim. 2, 295-302 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Phys. Today (1)

T. P. Ackerman and G. M. Stokes, "The atmospheric radiation measurement program," Phys. Today 56(1), 38-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Publ.-Astron. Soc. Aust. (1)

R. W. Clay, N. R. Wild, D. J. Bird, B. R. Dawson, M. Johnston, R. Patrick, and A. Sewell, "A cloud monitoring system for remote sites," Publ.-Astron. Soc. Aust. 15, 332-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

V. R. Morris, C. N. Lang, and D. Nelson, "Deployment of an infrared thermometer network at the atmospheric radiation measurement program southern Great Plains climate facility," in Sixteenth ARM Science Team Meeting Proceedings, Albuquerque, N. Mex., March 27-31, 2006 (2006).

M. S. Town, V. P. Walden, and S. G. Warren, "Cloud cover climatology for the South Pole from surface-based infrared radiation measurements," presented at the 8th Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, 2005, American Meteorological Society, paper P1.26.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Federal Meteorological Handbook Number 2 (FMH-2), Surface Synoptic Codes (NOAA, 1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top panel shows net 8 14 μ m radiation, as measured by nine sensor units (separate traces), while sky changes from cloudy to clear. Visual octa values at top indicate cloud cover (0—clear, 8—overcast). Lower panel is air temperature on observatory roof.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distributions of the difference between the effective sky temperature and the local air temperature (°C) over the year 2004 for all nine sensor units.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of cloud-cover measurements from Arrival Heights Observatory during 2004 is shown in the left panel. Measurements were obtained from visual observations (dark gray central bar) and from the cloud monitor using two algorithms: a single-threshold method (black left bar) and a three-threshold method (light gray right bar). Vertical lines at the histogram peaks represent one standard deviation based on counting statistics. Right panel compares observer-determined cloud cover with that derived from the three-threshold algorithm. Note that most of the distribution is close to the diagonal where instrument and observer octas match.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of observed (every 6 h) and calculated (every hour) octas for 30 days in 2004.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Δ T Threshold Values

Equations (3)

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P net = P sky + P lens + P mnt P det .
W ( T sky ) = P net + [ ( 1 r ) G 1 + G 2 ] W ( T det ) ( 1 τ r ) G 1 W ( T lens ) G 2 W ( T mnt ) G 1 τ ,
T = 8.71543 × 10 2 W 2 8.38234 W 139.116 5.93938 × 10 4 W 2 + 1.28851 × 10 1 W + 1.0 .

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